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Il 



^ 



WITH WHICH IS INCORPORATED 
EDITED BY MRS BEDFORD FENWICK 



No. 1,579. 



SATURDAY, JULY 6, 1918. 



Vol. LXI 



EDITORIAL. 



A CALL TO ARMS. 

The great Procession of Homage of 
Women War Workers received by the King 
and Queen in the quadrangle of Buckingham 
Palace on Saturday last, when an address 
of congratulation upon their Silver Wedding 
was presented, was a magnificent success. 
Princess Mary was present in her uniform 
of Commandant-in-Chief of the V.A.D., and 
V.A.D. workers took precedence of all 
other branches of women's work, including 
the Trained Nurses of the Metropolitan 
Asylums Board led by Miss Ambler-Jones. 
The King's Reply to the Address, delivered 
in a resonant voice, was distinctly heard by 
some thousands of people present, and His 
Majesty spoke most sympathetically and 
appreciatively of the part played by women 
in the great war. 

" The Queen and I," said the King, " are 
touched by the thought that the first ex- 
pression of loyalty and devotion on the 
occasion of our silver wedding should come 
from this representative body of women 
who, by their services, have assisted the 
State in the full mobilization of its man 
power. In our visits to various centres we 
have had opportunities of seeing and appre- 
ciating the great part which the women of 
our land are taking in all branches of war 
service, and everywhere we have been filled 
with admiration at their achievements, an 
admiration which I believe to be shared by 
the whole nation. 

" When the history of our country's share 
in the War is written no chapter will be 
more remarkable than that relating to the 
range and extent of women's participation. 
This service has been rendered only at the 
cost of much self-sacrifice and endurance." 

Referring to nurses and V.A.D. workers 
His Majesty said, "They have often faced 
cheerfully and courageously great risks, 



both at home and overseas, in carrying on 
their work, and the Women's Army has its 
own Roll of Honour of those who have lost 
their lives in the service of their country. 
Of all these we think to-day with reverent 
pride." 

There should not be to-day an idle woman 
In the three kingdoms. All able-bodied women 
between the ages of eighteen and forty, not 
otherwise employed, should enrol them- 
selves as full-time workers in one of the 
great organizations of those who are pre- 
pared to make every sacrifice in order to 
assist their country at this supreme crisis in 
its history. 



AN IMPORTANT DEPARTURE. 

At the request of the Council of the 
Royal British Nurses' Association we shall 
henceforth publish fortnightly a Special 
Supplement, which will take the place of its 
official organ, the Nurses' Journal. 

As one of the founders of the Association 
we are in full sympathy with the policy of 
the Hon. Officers for professional consolida- 
tion and for the protection of the interests 
of the thoroughly trained nurse, with which 
are interwoven those of the public. 

Owing largely to the glorification of the 
semi-trained war worker by the Nurses' 
Department in the Red Cross Office, com- 
petition with the certificated nurse has 
already become a serious menace to our 
professional ideals. 

By a new Army Order Queen Alexandra's 
Imperial Military Nursing Service will be 
reserved for V.A.D.s who conform to a 
term of general training, and private nurses 
must recognize the coming competition with 
semi-trained women of social influence 
which may deprive them of their livelihood 
after the war. 

The nurses' organizations which are 
affiliated to the Royal British Nurses' 



Ebe »rttl0b 3ournal of "Wurelng. 



July 6, 1918 



Association are prepared to support its 
work for the profession whole heartedly, 
but every individual nurse should do so 
individually. We invite nurses to fill in 
and send to the Secretary of the Association 
the application form which appears on the 
back cover of this issue. 



OUR PRIZE COMPETITION. 



WHAT IS A PARASITE ? WHAT EXTERNAL PARASITES 
ATTACK MAN. DESCRIBE IN DETAIL THE TREAT- 
MENT AND MANAGEMENT OP A CASE OF SCABIES, 
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO THE PREVENTION 
OF THE DISEASE. 

We have pleasure in awarding the prize thi^5 
week to Miss Catherine Wrig'ht, Dryden Road, 
Bush Hill Park, Enfield. 

PRIZE PAPER. 

A parasite is a living organism ; it may be 
of animal or vegetable origin ; it derives its 
existence from feeding on another living 
organism. Choosing for its environment pre- 
ferably "man," it breeds prolifically ; the 
power of movement is constant and sustained. 
Parasites move together in large numbers ; 
surviving best in crowded and unwholesome 
atmospheres, they create a serious condition, 
which learned bacteriologists have proved by 
unquestionable scientific research to cause 
epidemic diseases, resulting in a very high 
mortality amongst human beings. 

The parasites which most commonly attack 
man are the "louse" family, either as 
" pediculi capitas," those attacking the scalp, 
or " pediculi corporis," those attacking the 
body, and the "pediculi pubis"; the latter 
form is rare. 

The former pediculi hatch their nits, or eggs, 
which adhere to the hair, cause great irrita- 
tion ; the skin becomes abrased by scratching, 
crusts form, the glands of the neck become 
infected ; the victim thus becomes a source of 
infection, and this condition is found, in 
England, principally amongst school children. 

The procedure of the " pediculi corporis " is 
the same, the body lice causing indescribable 
discomfort, and causing the same degree of 
danger by infection. The pediculi pubis are 
found in the eyebrows, axilla, or pubis, and 
necessitate medical treatment. The larvae of 
these parasites are a source of great danger, 
and food for human consumption must receive 
special protection and scrupulous hygienic 
precautions to avoid contamination. 

There are two vegetable parasites which 
attack human beings. Children of foreign 



origin principally have the affection of 
" favus." It is found in the form of a fungus 
in the head, yellow incrustations of a cup-like 
shape form ; it is treated medically, often in 
the X-ray department of the London hospitals, 
and is highly; infectious unless isolated. 

The second vegetable parasite is the fungus 
of ringworm, attacking the scalp and the body. 
Both should receive medical attention, which 
will lessen their infectivity. 

" Scabies," or " itch," is due to a parasitic 
insect, " acarus scabies," a minute object, 
invisible to the naked eye; the female acarus 
forms a burrow in the skin. Here it lays its 
eggs, and this is a source of incessant irrita- 
tion ; the hands, between the fingers, af"e 
affected, spreading to the Inside of the wrist ; 
other j>arts of the body become infected. The 
irritation is intense, especially at night, result- 
ing in a very short time In a highly nervous 
condition through restlessness and sleepless- 
ness. School children are very open to the 
infection, which may spread through the whole 
family. 

The hands of school children should be fre- 
quently examined, because an early diagnosis 
and exclusion from school may be of practical 
use In preventing the spread of the disease. 

A daily bath of soap and water, and an 
application of sulphur ointment, repeated for 
two or three days, relieves this condition. The 
clothes worn should be steej>ed in boiling 
water, and the child should have its own toilet 
requisites and sleep by itself. Exclusion from 
school Is an Important point. 

This disease of scabies is prolific In the East 
End of London, and is intensified in crowded 
areas. The London County Council have 
arrangements for municipal baths, where a 
routine treatment of medicated baths is super- 
vised by the trained nurses on the school staff. 
The children are kept under careful supervision 
until all Infection is over and every symptom 
of the disease has disappeared. All clothing 
is specially sterilized. Mercurial ointment is a 
valuable asset in curing the condition of 
impetigo, which may follow the scabies condi- 
tion, and good food and hygienic conditions 
will act as remedial and preventive measures 
for further or future infection. 

HONOURABLR MENTION. 

The following competitors receive honourable 
mention : — Miss M. M. Bielbv, Miss A. M. 
Burns, Mrs. E. E. Farthing, Miss J. Robinson. 

OURSTION FOR NEXT WEEK. 

What points would you endeavour to Impress 
upon a mother as of primary Importance for the 
rearing of a h^lthy baby? 



July 6, 1 91 8 



^be Britisb Journal of IWursiuQ. 



THE ROYAL RED CROSS. 



On Saturday, June 29th, the following ladies 
were awarded the RR.C. by the King at Buck- 
ingham Palace. Miss Ehzabeth Humphries, who 
received the Military Medal, received also a great 
ovation from the public : — 

The Royal Red Cross. 
First Class. 

Sister Ellen Baldrey, Queen Alexandra's Imperial 
Military Nursing Service, Matron Helen Palin, Terri- 
torial Force Nursing Service, and Matron Jessie Smales, 
Territorial Force Nursing Service. 
Second Class. 

Territorial Force Nursing Service. — Sister Elsie 
Bennett. 

British Red Cross Society. — Matron Annie Peel. '. 

Voluntary Aid Detachment. — Miss Emma Coleman, 
Miss Margaret Cranage, and Miss Gertrude Miller. 

The Military Medal. 

Matron Elizabeth Humphries, Territorial Force 
Nursing Service. 

The koyal Red Cross. 

The King invested the following ladies with the 
Royal Red Cross at Buckingham Palace on 
Wednesday, June 26th : — 

First Class. 

Matron Kathleen Prendergast, Queen Alexandra's 
Imperial Military Nursing Service Reserve. 
Second Class. 

Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service. 
— Sister Sadie Tyler. 

Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service 
Reserve. — Sister Stella Burrell, and Sister Dora 
Shanklik-Smith. 

Territorial Force Nursing Service. — Sister Martha 
Morrison. 

British Red Cross Society. — Matron Kate Moore. 

Voluntary Aid Detachment. — Miss Clare Daglish. 

Queen Alexandra received at Marlborough House 
the Members of the Military and Civil Nursing 
Services who have been awarded the Royal Red 
Cross, subsequent to the Investitures at Bucking- 
ham Palace this morning. 

The Royal Red Cross. 

The King has been .pleased to award the Royal 
Red Cross, 2nd class, to the undermentioned ladies, 
in recognition of their valuable nursing services in 
connection with the war : — 

Second Class. 

Abell, Miss F. M., Matron, Henley Park, and Sister- 
in-Charge, Daneshill Mil. Hospl., Surrey; Adams, Miss 
D. P., Sister (Lady Supt.), V.A.D. Hospl., Cranbrook, 
Kent; Allhusen, Miss E., Nurse, V.A. Hospl., Rhode 
Hill, Uplyme ; All wood. Miss M. J., Nursing Sister, 
Can. Nursing Service, No. 12 Can. Gen. Hospl., Bram- 
shott, Hants; Anderson, Miss E., Sister, V.A. Hospital, 
Torquay; Anderson, Miss E. R., Charge Nurse, 
Waverlev Abbey, Farnham ; Anderson, Miss I., Sister, 
Q.A.I. M.N. S.R., Barnet War Hospl., Herts; Aspinall, 
Miss E., Sister, Liverpool Stanley Hospl., Stanley Road, 
Liverpool. 

Bagnall-Oakeley, Miss B., Lady Supt., Priory Hosp., 
Cheltenham; Baguley, Miss F., Matron, St. John Aux. 



V.A.D., Southport ; Baines, Miss M. L., Asst. Matron, 
Horton War Hosp., Epsom; Bankhead, Miss A., 
A., 'Asst. Matron, Richmond, Whitworth and Hardwicke 
Hospl., Dublin; Barber, Miss E. M., Sister, Horton 
War, Hospl., Epsom; Barrowcliff, Miss S. E., Sister, 
Q.A.i.M.N.S.R., Mil. Hospl., Bagthorpe, frmly. Hursley 
Camp Mil. Hospl., nr. Winchester; Bayfield, Mrs. A., 
Sister, Hanover Park V.A.D. Hospl., Rye Lane, Peck- 
bam, S.E. 15; Bayne, Miss A. E., Matron, Isolation 
Hospl., Southampton; Bell, Miss A. B. H., Sister, 
T.F.N. S., 2nd Northern Gen. Hospl., Leeds; Bell, Miss 
M. H., Asst. Nurse, King George's Hospl., Stamford 
Street, London, S.E. i ; Bellvii.le, Mrs. G., Matron, 
Oarell Hospl., Queen Anne Street, W. ; Bevan, Miss A. 
G., Sister, T.F.N. S., 5th Lond. Gen. Hosp., St. Thomas's, 
Lambeth, S.E. i ; Bevan, Miss S. S., Asst. Matron, 
Fulham Mily. Hospl., Hammersmith, W. ; Bewsey, 
Miss E. E., Sister, Q.A.I.M.N.S.R., Mily. Hospl., 
Fargo, Salisbury Plain ; Bingley, Miss F., Sister, War 
Hospl., Bradford; Binns, Miss L., Lady Supt., Matron, 
Royal Infirmary, Hull; Birkin, the Hon. M. D. H., 
Matron (unpaid), Arnot Hill V.A. Hospl., Daybrook, 
Notts; BiRT, Miss M. C, Matron, Red Cross Hospl., 
Huntingdon ; Blatch, Mrs. K. M., Matron, Red Cross 
Hospl., Kenilworth, Warwickshire; Blayney, Miss 
E. K., Matron, R. Infirmary, Chester; Blenkarn, Miss 
M., Lady Supt.. Cooden V.a'.D. Hospl.. Bexhill ; Blott, 
Miss M. E., Nursing Sister. Can. Nursing Service, 
Granville Can. Spec. Hospl., Buxton ; Boath, Miss 
E. M., Matron, Dundee War Hospl., Dundee; Borton, 
Miss F., Matron, Victoria Hospl., Blackpool ; Boss, Miss 
A., Matron, Masonic Hall V.A.D. Hospl., Bromley, 
Kent; Bottomley, Mrs. A. C, Matron (unpaid), St. 
John's Ambulance, 2, Bodorgan Road, Bournemouth ; 
Boughey, Miss L. M. , Matron, Lady Cooper's Hospl. 
fur Officers, Hursley Park, Winchester ; Bowring, Miss 
F., Nurse, Hart House Hospl., Burnham, Somerset; 
BowYER, Miss R., Sister, T.F.N. S., 2nd Southern Gen. 
Hospl., Bristol R. Infirmary, Bristol; Brace, Miss 
C A. M.. Sister, Q.A.I.M.N.S.R., R. Victoria Hospl. 
Netley ; Bramley, Mrs. M., Commdt., Dunraven Castle 
Red Cross Hospl., Glam. ; Brodrick, Miss K. E., 
Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing Service, Queen's Can. 
Mily. Hospl., Beechborough Park, Shorncliffe ; Brother- 
ton, Miss H., Asst. Matron, T.F.N. S., ist Northern 
Gen. Hospl., Newcastle-on-Tyne ; Brown, Miss E., 
Nurse, Aux. Mil. Hospl., q. Cedars Road. Clapham, 
S.W. ; Brown, Miss F. E., Matron, Jaw Hospl., 
78, Brook Street, London ; Bruce. Miss A. L., Nursing 
Sister, Can. Nursing Service, Granville Can. Spec. 
Hospl., Buxton; Bufford, Miss D. F., Matron, Ridley 
Hospl.. 10, Carlton House Terrace. S.W. ; Burbidge, 
Miss C, Lady Supt.. Standish Hospl., Glos. ; Butler, 
Miss G., Sister, Huddersfield War Hospl. ; Buxton, Miss 
M.. Matron. Princess Royal Hospl. for Officers, 
4, Percival Terrace, Brighton 

{To be continued.) 



UNIVERSITY COLLEGE HOSPITAL. 
TRAINING OF V.A.D.s. 

We are informed that, as a special mark of their 
valuable work duriiig the present war, the course 
of training at University College Hospital usually 
extending over four years will be reduced to three 
years in favour of V:A.D.s who have served for 
two years in a military hospital, and who are well 
recommended by their Matron. 

This appears a fair arrangement as a fpuii;h 
year is one of service and not training. 



Zbe IBritisb 3ournal of "Wurstno. 



July 6, 1918 



NURSING AND THE WAR. 



On Saturday in last week the Royal Red Cross 
awarded to Miss L. V. Haughton, late Matron of 
Guy's Hospital, was presented to her by Dame 
Ethel Becher, G.B.E., with the King's approval, 
in the little Surrey village where she is slowly 
recovering from her very serious illness. His 
Majesty also, through Dame Becher, expressed 
great regret that Miss Haughton was unable to 
attend a public Investiture owing to her continued 
ill-health. Everyone will 
unite in congratulating 
Miss Haughton on this 
distinction, and will wish 
that before long she may 
be restored to health and 
be able to fulfil her wish 
of paying a visit to her 
rnany friends in Ireland, 
as she is still interested 
in their nursing activities. 



Miss L. Jolley, R.R.C., 
until recently Matron of 
the Royal Southern 
Hospital, Liverpool, and 
who has done good 
service in France in 
Q.A.I.M.N.S.R., since the 
beginning of the war, 
has been appointed 
Matron-in-Chief of the 
Air Service. Miss Jolley 
is highly qualified, and 
her colleagues will wish 
her well in this new^and 
interesting post.^ ' 



Sister N. M'Kenzie was 
recommended for the 
R.R.C. by General 
Allenby. She has been a 
member of Queen Alex- 
andra's Imperial Nursing 
Service (Reserve) since 
October 1914. Sister 
M'Kenzie has been on 
service since August, 
1915, and was mentioned 
in General Murray's dis- 
patches in June last. We are indebted to the 
courtesy of the Editor of The Scots Pictorial, 
Glasgow, for permission to reproduce Sister 
M'Kenzie's portrait and for the loan of the block. 
We have many Scottish readers at home and 
abroad who are interested in the recognition of 
the fine national work of their compatriots. 




they often are of men of all types — should be 
more carefully supervised. 

At Marylebone Police Court recently Peggy 
Robertson, aged twenty-one, was charged with 
permitting a maisonette at Connaught Street, 
Hyde Park, to be used for improper purposes. 

The prisoner, in evidence, said that the officers 
who had called at the maisonette were friends 
whose acquaintance she had made during the 
two years she was acting as a V.A.D. nurse 
in Egypt and elsewhere. 

This young girl was 
fined ;^2o, with the alter- 
native of six weeks' 
imprisonment ; and she 
was ordered to pay five 
guineas costs. 

We have always con- 
demned the practice of 
the authorities sending 
young untrained girls to 
work in military hos- 
pitals abroad. We hope 
that both the War Office 
and the Joint War Com- 
mittee will make it 
impossible for girls of 
twenty-one and under 
to be subjected to the 
temptations to which 
Peggy Robertson evi- 
dently succumbed. 



5ISTER N. M'KENZIE. R.R.C. Q. A.i.M.N.S.R 



In the Times recently 
Dr. Wigram extolled the 
value of short-time ser- 
vice in hospital work, 
and said 200 members of 
the Marylebone V.A.D. 
were able to run a hos- 
pital for soldiers with 
only one trained nurse in 
charge ! We wonder 
when this unfortunate 
professional was sup- 
posed to be ofE duty, if 
she ever went to bed, 
and who " ran " the 
hospital in her absence. 
Let us hope there weie 
no " cot " cases admitted. 
Anyway medical practitioners do a vast amount 
of harm in depreciating the value of skilled nursing 
where our sick and wounded men are concerned. 
We could wish that Dr. Wigram was on duty 
night and day in charge of 2cxD unskilled women 
nursing in and out of a hospital — perhaps he 
might then appreciate the worry and disorganisa- 
tion of such a system. 



Aspects of the V.A.D. Question. 

We have come into intimate touch with several 

tragedies of late — afiecting young inexperienced 

V.A.D.'s — which lead us to think that their free 

and easy and uncontrolled work — ^in charge as 



A DAY OF PRAYER. 

The King desires that August 4, the fourth 
anniversary of the war, shall be observed with 
special solemnity as a national day of prayer. 



July 6, 1918 



^be British 3ournaI of IRurstng. 



CARE OF THE WOUNDED. 



" France's Day," in aid of the British Committee 
of the French Red Cross, \vill be celebrated in the 
City, West End, and Greater London on Friday, 
July I2th Ladies willing to help should write to 
the Honorary Secretary, " France's Day," 34, 
Wilton Place, S.W. i. The souvenirs will include 
models of the famous 75mm. French gun. The 
Lord Mayor is again acting as Honorary Treasurer 
of the fund, for which last year over /2oo,ooo was 
raised in the British Empire. 



In connection with " France's Day," La Musique 
du Premier Zouave, the leading Zouave band of 
the French Army will \asit London, being met 
by Lieut.-General Sir Francis Lloyd, and played 
through the streets by British bands. The eighty 
Zouaves, fresh from the battle front, Avill, on July 
1 2th, play in the Cit}^ and West-End. 



The Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England 
has sent out a touching appeal for financial 
support to re-establish the fine Brigade Hospital 
splendidly equipped and maintained by the Order 
at Etaples since 1915, and which was barbarously 
bombed and much of it smashed to atoms by the 
Germans, when the casualties were sixty-four, in- 
cluding sixteen killed — a colossal crime, for which 
these murdereis are quite impenitent. The 
circular, approved by H.R.H. the Grand Prior, the 
Dcike of Connaught, gives illustrations of this 
beautiful hut hospital before and after the bom- 
bardment — the formei showing its excellent 
formation in such perfect surroundings — where 
the best of care and comfort was at the disposal of 
our sick and wounded men ; the latter showing the 
cruel devastation wrought by outrage and fire — a 
Sony sight indeed ! 

The Military Authorities have ordered the 
evacuation of the hospital, and expressed their 
desire, that it should be re-erected on another site 
in France, and the Council of the Order have 
decided that this shall be done, and with the least 
possible delay. It will, however, entail heavy 
expenditure to re-equip the hospital and maintain 
the high standard of efficiency for which the St. 
John Ambulance Brigade Hospital when at 
Etaples was so widely known. Cheques should be 
sent to Lord Ranfurly, Director of the Ambulance 
Department, St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell, London, 
E.C. I. 

The Military Medal. 

The Military Medal has been awarded to the 
following members of the nursing stag of the St. 
John Ambulance Brigade Hospital at Etaples. — 
Miss C. E. Todd (Matron), Mies M. A. Chittock 
(Assistant Matron), Miss M. McGinnes, Miss M. H. 
Ballance, Miss J. Bemrose, and Miss C. Warner 
(Sisters). When the Hospital was deliberately 
bombed by the Germans, and a number of 
patients and members of the *^staff killed and 



irijured, we may be sure that Tthe nursing staff 
behaved with heroism, and congratulate Miss 
Todd, Miss Chittock, and the Sisters on the 
honour conferred upon them. 

War Posters Defaced. 

A number of placards issued by the Ladies' 
Emergency Committee of the Navy League, 
showing a German Red Cross Nurse wilfully spilling 
the water for which British prisoners of war, 
herded in an open truck, are waiting, were found 
one morning last week to have been defaced. An 
examination of several of the principal hoardings 
in London revealed the fact that all the posters 
were mutilated in the same way. The nurse's face 
was in each case obliterated — ^in some cases torn 
out and in others covered with stamp edging. 

The Huns in our midst evidently give short 
shrift to posters to which they object. 



The King of the Belgians has conferred the 
M6daille de la Reine Elisabeth on a long hst of 
ladies in recognition of " the kind help and valu- 
able assistance personally given to the Belgian 
refugees and the Belgian soldiers during the war." 



OUR ROLL OF HONOUR: 

Again we have to momn with our Canadian 
oolleague'5 at the determined murder on the high 
seas of fourteen Sisters who, together with 8a 
Canadian Army Medical Officers, were on board 
the Canadian hospital snip Llandove;y Castle, 
deliberately sunk by a German submarine com- 
mander about 120 miles from the Irish coast. Of 
the 258 souls on board only 24 in one b^at have 
been saved alive. The belief is strong among the 
survivors that of seven boats launched, all, saving 
their own, were deliberately wrecked by the fiendish 
way in which the submarine charged up and down 
among the wreckage, sinking everything in 
sight. 

One more most horrible crime to add to the score 
that must be paid by these dastardly murderers 
before they are classed as human beings by a 
civilised world. 

All our sympathy goes out to those who loved 
these brave Canadian nurse^. 



TRUE TALE WITH A MORAL. 

Lady Superintendent of Nurses to a friend. 
— " I think it simply disastrous to the future 
economic independence of the Nursing Profession 
to have all this begging upon their behalf. Much 
better help them to get just remuneration for 
their work. " 

Clear-sighted Friend: "My dear, I think the 
reason the Nation's Fund for Nurses was started 
by the hospital officials who control the College 
was that Nurses should not put up their fees. 
Much bettor give them a dole and control the 
charity." 



Cbe 3Briti0b 3oiirnal of IRureing. 



July 6, 1918 



FRENCH FLAG NURSING CORPS. 



Mrs. Fenwick entertained the Sisters of Ambu- 
lance 12/2 and some of their fellow- Sisters to 
dinner at the Holborn Restaurant last Thursday, 
before their return to duty, as the ambulance is 
being re-estabUshed. Miss Roberts, R.R.C. (Chief 
Matron, British Committee, French Red Cross), 
Miss Hutchinpon, F.F.N.C, Miss M. Breay, and 
Miss Isabel Macdonald, R.B.N. A., were also 
present, and it was a very cheery party. The 
unit returned to France the following day, and 
were all most eager to be at work again in the 
war zone. 



which you were able to give us for a few days. 
The few days we had them we were very busy, 
and I really don't know what we should have 
done without them. They were such a nice well- 
trained capable set of women, and simply set to 
to help as if they had been here for weeks. The 
Med. Chef, I think, is writing to you also to thank 
you." 

That is as it should be, but in these days of 
uncertain standards of nursing in military hospi- 
tals the help given is often far from efficient. In 
her reply. Miss Haswell asked Miss du Sautoy to 
thank her staff on behalf of the F.F.N.C. Sisters, 
for they all agreed that they had j never 
worked in such a happy atmosphere, where 




FRENCH FLAG NURSINQ CORPS SISTERS. AMBULANCE 12/2. 



Miss Owens, of the Registered Nurses' Society, 
has joined the F.F.N.C. and has been posted to 
Lisieux, where the hospital has been largely 
extended. 



During the recent great stress of work, the 
beautiful Hopital B6n6vaJ No. 4, located in the 
Astoria at Paris, was full to overflowing, and some 
of the F.F.N.C. Sisters had the privilege of giving 
a helping hand. Miss Haswell lias since received the 
the following letter from Miss C. C. du Sautoy, 
the Matron of the hospital : — 

" Dear Miss Haswell, — Would you convey to 
Mrs. Bedford Fen\vick my thanks, and that of the 
Sisters, for the services of the F.F.N.C. Sisters 



everyone, without exception, did everything 
in their power to make them welcome, and feel 
at home. 

British nurses working in Paris are showing 
splendid nerve, bombed as they are nearly every 
night. 



More Sisters Required. 
Several more Sisters have been requisitioned 
by the Service de Sant6 — for work in France. 
Candidates, aged from 26 to 40, must hold a 
three years' certificate of general training, must 
have good health, and know some French. Mrs. 
Fenwick will see candidates by appointment. 
Address, 431, Oxford St., London, W. i. 



July 6, 1918 



^be Brttlsb 3ournal of "Wuretno. 



THE COLOURED WOMEN OF MID- 
WEST AND THE RED CROSS. 



HELPING THE REST OF THE WORLD'S 

PEOPLE TO THEIR OWN DEARLY WON 

LIBERTY. 

Many and varied were the phases of the gigantic 
parades held all over America in commemoration 
of Uncle Sam's first anniversary of entrance upon 
the world-war, as well as in celebration of the 
opening of the big " drive " for the third Liberty 
Loan ; none were more affecting, to those realising 
its import, than the march of the coloured women 
workers of Cincinnati with the Red Cross. 

Cincinnati lies on the Ohio, just across from the 
Kentucky shore. Placed thus, the city was the 




FKEE COLOURED WOMEN HELPINQ TO FREE THE WORLD. 



logical gateway between American North and 
South before the Civil War, and, therefore, the 
Mecca of no end of fugitive slaves. Here lived the 
abolitionists Coffin and Beecher, and here Harriet 
Beecher Stowe penned her " Uncle Tom's Cabin." 
In fact, here, if anywhere, the big fight for the 
liberty of the iblack man may be. said to have 
concentrated. 

In and about Cincinnati still you may find any 
number of men, or women, who received freedom 
from the Emancipator President. Their children, 
the children of others, who fled from slavery, and, 
again, the children of those, more fortunate, who 
saw the results of slavery just across the Dixie line 
here. 

Now free themselves, at the call to help other 
lands — in fact, to save all the world from auto- 
cracy — these coloured women are not to be 
behindhand m the good work. 

AflRliated with the Red Cross — in fact, now one 
of its definite units — they have formed a Soldiers' 
Comfort Club, originally for providing various 



creature comforts for the coloured soldiers, but now 
given over to all the regular Red Cross activities. 

On Liberty Day, the first anniversary of 
America's taking definite share in the stupendous 
conflict, Cincinnati marked the opening of the big 
drive for the Third American Liberty Loan with one 
of the largest parades in her history. 

Among others, the Red Cross workers turned 
out, marching in their attractive white habits and 
veils, the endless cohorts having their snowy white- 
ness punctuated by the red caps of supervisors here 
and there. 

Boundless applause greeted all these workers 
along the line of march ; but no one unit received 
more acclaim than the one hundred and fifty negro 
women of the Soldiers' Comfort Club — the dusky 
faces of these faithful knitters and sewers and 

the makers of 
dressings and 

comforts for the 
sick all the 
more picturesque, 
in contrast with 
their white attire. 
As black ti oops 
are available from 
America to take 
part in the war in 
Europe, the 
Avoman President 
of the National 
Association of 
Coloured Gi adu- 
ate Nurses offers 
2 ,000 black- 
nurses, ready 

trained for ser- 
Wce at militciry 
hospitals in 
Europe and 
Ameiica. 

There are 
in the AnKfican 



already 
army. 



34 black chaplains 



THE BRITISH LION GROWLS, 

The swishing of the British Lion's tail on the 
enemy alien question has produced some effect. 
The Prims Minister has asked five members of 
Parliament to make a thorough investigation of 
the enemy alien problem, and to advise him what 
action should be taken to allay public anxiety. 

The remedy is simple. There is to be a great 
public demonstration in Trafalgar Square on. 
Saturday, July 13th, at 2.30 p.m., at which a 
resolution calling for immediate interrirnent of all 
aliens cf enemy blood will be submitted 

Let us all be there to see it is passed by accla- 
mation, and later make sure that the demands 
of the people are carried into effect by the Govern- 
ment. The feeling concerning these dangerous and 
crafty spies will soon be out of hand unless firm 
action is enforced. 



8' ^be 3Britl6b Journal of IRurgtng. My 6. 1918 

Ropal Britlsl) Rurses* Jlssociation^ 








(Incorporated bp &j&S\ Ropal Cftarler.) 



THIS SUPPLEMENT BEING THE OFFICIAL ORGAN OP THE CORPORATION. 



Cttmbefland hodgCf 

M Windsor, ... 

\Y June 28th, J9J8. W 

W TO THE MEMBERS OF THE AFFILIATED SOCIETIES, /fe 

^K I desite in this Supplement, the fitst issue of the new official organ of the ''' 

^K Royal British Nurses* Association, to express the sincere gratification the 

y^. affiliation of your Societies with my Association affords me. ^u 

J!f I am confident that my own Nurses would like me to say that they, too, vi: 

M> welcome most cordially closer union between you and them. I have appre- y^ 

:ff ciated warmly the support given by your Societies to the Chartered Association^ ^?^ 

:K and I earnestly hope that the powers conferred by the Royal Charter may be ^{^ 

w used in every way possible to aid your Societies, in all they undertake, to ^{J 

V/ further the interests of all fully trained Nurses. W 

Vf I trust that this union between your Societies will not be a matter of W 

Vf organisation alone, but that it will inspire a spirit of comradeship between '.VS 

Vf/ you and the Members of the Royal British Nurses' 'Association — individually kHS 

and collectively. /|r 

The welfare and happiness of our Nurses is a matter very near to my wJS 

yflf heart, and I have watched with great pride and admiration the magnificent ^,fS 

yi/f and self-sacrificing work they have done. ^jj^ 

ijl) It is therefore a source of much gratification to me to feel that your ifl\ 

^1/ Societies have all united under the Royal Charter granted to my Association /|\ 

yi/f by my beloved Mother, Queen Victoria. jljf^ 

k 

President of the} Royal British Nurses* Association. ^^ 

.J" 







July 6, 1918 



G^be Britieb 3ournal ot "ffluremfl. 



THE OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE 
ROYAL BRITISH NURSES' ASSOCIATION. 



A NhW DEPAKTUkE. 

For several years the conviction has been 
growing in the minds of Members of the 
Council of the Royal British Nurses' Associa- 
tion that a monthly organ, which circulates 
only to its own Members, is no longer adequate 
to the requirements of the Corporation. The 
events of the past twelve months have brought 
this point of view more prominently than ever 
before those to whom the management of the 
Corporation has been entrusted by its Mem- 
bers, particularly as the action of the AssociaT 
tion and its Council has been repeatedly mis- 
represented in sections of the nursing press. 
The opinion of some Memibers of the General 
Council has been that the object of such mis- 
representation was not merely to obscure the 
powers which the nurses possess in their 
Charter and the use which they could make 
of it to improve their economic position, but 
also to spread dissension in the Association, 
and to undermine the confidence of the Mem- 
bers in those whom they have elected to the 
governing body of the Association. If such 
has been the intention it has failed utterly, for 
at no time have the Members been more 
strongly united ; nevertheless the Council feel 
that the time has now arrived for adopting an 
organ, wherein to publish fortnightly a rep>ort 
of what is taking place in connection with the 
Association and its work. Too often it happens 
that matter, inserted in a monthly journal, has 
already appeared in the weekly press, and not 
as official information from the Association. 
These considerations led the Council to the 
decision that some change was now called for 
to enable the Members to keep in close touch 
with their Corporation. At a quarterly meet- 
ing, at which Her Royal Highness the Presi- 
dent of the Corporation presided, it was 
decided that steps should be taken in order 
to arrange that oflficial information should be 
inserted in a weekly organ. It was the unani- 
mous opinion of the Meeting that The British 
Journal of Nursing was the Journal best 
suited in which to insert the official Supplement 
of the Chartered Corporation of fully qualified 
nurses. Instructions were given to the Execu- 
tive Committee to proceed with whatever 
negotiations and arrangements they might 
deem advisable, in order to give effect to the 
proposals of the General Council. At the next 
Meeting of that Committee the Honorary 
Officers were asked to approach Mrs. Bedford 



Fenwick, Editor of The British Journal of 
Nursing, and to request that some arrange- 
ment should be made whereby that Journal 
should become the organ of communication 
with Members of the Association. The pro- 
posals of the Executive Committee were met 
in the most generous spirit by Mrs. Fenwick, 
and ultimately the Committee laid before the 
General Council a formal recommendation that 
a Supplement be inserted fortnightly in The 
British Journal of Nursing as the Official 
Organ of the Corporation. This recommenda- 
tion was unanimously adopted at a Special 
Meeting of the General Council. 

The decision of the Council in this matter is 
a very important one, apart from those aspects 
in which it nearly concerns the Association 
itself, for such a decision embodies the vital 
principle that control of the professional press 
should be in the hands of the profession. The 
British Journal of Nursing, is the only 
weekly nursing paper in England edited by 
nurses. It is, therefore, the Journal best cal- 
culated to promote the interests of the nurses, 
to voice their opinioas, and to keep them 
informed on questions relating to their profes- 
sional affairs ; moreover, directly and indirectly, 
it is undoubtedly the publication which has 
educated the public and the nurses of all 
countries on the necessity for the organization 
of nursing education and the need for Regis- 
tration by the State of those who have qualified 
themselves to be entrusted with the care of the 
sick. 

Some regret was expressed at the Council 
Meeting that the Nurses' Journal should be 
discontinued, but just as " new times demand 
new manners and new men," so also a time 
has come when the Journal, which has served 
its purpose so usefully in the past twelve 
months of controversy, by conveying to the 
Members full verbatim reports of the proceed- 
ings at Meetings of the Corporation and its 
Council, must now be laid aside in favour of 
another which is in a position to be of greater 
value to the Members and to the profession at 
large. We hope that the Members will look 
upon their new organ as an important and 
tangible part of their Association. As Mem- 
bers of the only Corjxiration of Nurses recog- 
nised by the State they have great powers, and 
consequently great responsibilities. In order 
to discharge those faithfully thev must see to 
it that they use the means provided for them 
in order to keep themselves informed on all 
questions relating to the policy of their Cor- 
poration, for the present time is one of grave 
crisis for themselves and all members of their 



$o 



Zbe Britieb Sournal of flursinav 



July 6, 1918 



profession, and questions call for consideration 
which are of vital importance to them and to 
the nurses of the future. 

One word to those who are not Members of 
the Association : the Royal Charter gives to the 
Royal British Nurses' Association prestige and 
powers which no other body of nurses in the 
Empire possesses or is ever likely to possess, 
powers granted to the nurses under the sign 
manual of a sovereign of the realm. The 
extent to which such powers shall be used to 
protect them and to promote their welfare 
is entirely dependent upon the nurses them- 
selves, their comradeship, their willingness to 
unite with one another, and to line up under the 
banner of the Royal Charter, each stepping 
into her place in the Royal Corporation pre- 
pared to take her part as an architect in t^'e 
building of a mighty fabric composed of indi- 
viduals, each individual strengthening and 
being strengthened by the other. By the Royal 
Charter nurses are given the powers to form 
such an organization, and one so powerful that, 
if all the nurses in England would come for- 
ward to help, there is .nothing within reason 
which it could not demand for them and get. 

ROYAL RED CROSS. 

The Royal Red Cross (second class) has been 
awarded to Miss Caroline Cattrll, Mation of the 
Uffculme Military Hospital, Biimingham. Miss 
Cattail held appointments as Sister and, later, as 
Matron in Military Hospitals in France, between 
1914 and 19 1 6. Later, she acted as Sister in a 
Military Hospital in London, and left this for the 
appointment which she now holds. We notice 
that in the same list of awards, a similar honour 
has been conferred upon Miso Bertha Cattell 
(Sister Mary Peter of the Little Company of Mary), 
and the information will give pleasure to many of 
out members t^^ whom these ladies are well known. 
Both are sisters of Miss Alice Cattell, a popular 
member of the Council of the R.B.N. A. 

AFFILIATED SOCIETIES. 

Since the General Meeting of the Corporation, 
information has reached us that the Scottish 
Nurses' Association has accepted the invitation of 
H.R.H. the president and the Council to become 
afl&liated to the Corporation, and Miss Isabel E. 
Henderson has been nominated as its representa- 
tive on the Council. Miss Henderson has been a 
member of the R.B.N. A. since 1909. The 
following Societies are also now affiliated : — The 
Matrons' Council of Great Britain and Ireland, 
the Society for the State Registration of Trained 
Nurses, the National Union of Trained Nurses, 
the Irish Nurses' Association, and the Fever 
Nurses' Association. 

(Signed) Isabel Macdonald, 

Secretary to the Corporation. 



THE LEAGUE OF ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S 
HOSPITAL NURSES. 



The summer general meeting of the League of 
St. Bartholomew's Hospital Nurses was held in 
the clinical theatre of the hospital on Saturday, 
June 29th. In the unavoidable absence of the 
President, Miss Helen Todd, the chair was taken 
by the senior Vice-President, Miss Juliet Curtis. 
Miss Todd wrote expressing her extreme regret 
at her absence, and saying that it was the first 
summer meeting of the League she had missed 
since its foundation ; only urgent duty would 
have kept her away. 

Satisfactory Reports. 

Very satisfactory reports were presented. The 
Treasurer, Mrs. Turnbull, showed a balance in 
hand of over £67, after paying for three issues 
of League News in one year. Miss Cutler, the 
General Secretary, reported that forty-seven new 
members had joined during the year and one 
resigned, and that the League now numbered 
973 members. 

The decorations conferred on members of the 
League included a Military Medal bestowed upon 
Miss Dorothy Foster, two bars to the Royal Red 
Cross, and seven first-class and seventeen second 
class R.R.C.s, and two Serving Sisters of the Order 
of St. John of Jerusalem. 

The Chairman said that many members of the 
League working on land and sea had gained 
decorations. The members of the -League would 
like them to know how they valued their courage 
and work, and that we should welcome them on 
their return with pleasure, love and gratitude. 

We felt their good work was needed, for we saw 
the results of other work which was not so skilled, 
and we felt that our broken men needed the very 
best we had to give and the most skilled nursing 
care ; therefore, when honours came to the 
skilled workers we rejoiced at this recognition. 

Mrs. Matthews, Treasurer of the Benevolent 
Fund reported a balance in hand of over ;^9o. 
One grant of ;f 10 had been made during the year. 
The Executive Committee. 

Miss M. Appleyard, R.R.C., and Miss Lister 
were elected members of the Executive Committee 
in place of the retiring members. 

The Isla Stewart Memorial. 

Mrs. Shuter presented the Report of the Isla 
Stewart Memorial Standing Committee, which 
showed the total amount received to be /600, 
and an income from investments (including the 
£5 annual subscription of the League) of /30 per 
annum. 

Report on State Registration. 

Miss Le Geyt, delegate of the League on the 
Executive Committee of the Society for the 
State Registration of Trained Nurses, then 
presented her report, in which she said, in part : — 

" In taking a general survey of the work of 
the Society during the past year, it would seem as 



July 6, 1 91 8 



Ebe Bviti0b Sournal of •BwrsinQ^ 



H 



if the President and the Executive Committee 
had, Uke the nation at large, experienced the need 
to exercise great vigilance in this instance in 
guarding the ideals and interests of the nursing 
profession, - 

" With truth it might be said that ' Vigilance' 
could be called the watchword of the Society 
for the State Registration of Trained Nurses 
from its foundation in 1902." 

Mrs. Bedford Fenwick briefly outlined the 
present position up to date, commenting, in this 
connection, on the seventh draft of the Nurses' 
Registration Bill of the College of Nursing, Ltd. 
Three important points had now been conceded, 
but the Bill still incorporated the College Com- 
pany ; it also made provision for establishing 
registers of specialists. The claim for such 
r< gisters was a claim on the part of institutions. 
To take women and half train them was to put 
them outside the pale. The first duty of any 
Council considering the State Registration of 
Trained Nurses was to do justice to the members 
of the nursing profession. 

This view was strongly supported by Miss 
Helen Pearse. 

The Chairman said that the nursing profession 
appeared at the present time to be in great 
jeopardy. It was used, put aside, and other 
people put forward ; training did not count We 
must see that the profession was not overlooked. 
She hoped if amalgamation of the two Bills took 
place we should keep the profession at the top, and 
hold firmly to standard?, ideals, and principles. 

The meeting then terminated, and adjourned. 
for tea, which was served in the Nurses' Home 
and the cloisters. 



THE NURSES' MISSIONARY LEAGUE 
CAMP. 



This is the first, but I trust not the last, time 
that I have attended the " Camp " of the Nurses' 
Missionary League. It was held from Jime 20th 
to 27th, at Old Jordans Hostel, Beaconsfield, an 
ideal spot with such a beautiful old-world garden 
and lovely woods and country all round, most rest- 
ful and peaceful. We started with twelve 
members, but were soon fourteen, and several were 
prevented at the last from joining us. We met 
each morning after breakfast for prayers, and then 
most of the mornings and afternoons were spent 
in walks or rambles in the woods, in gathering 
strawberries or in cycle rides. One afternoon two 
of the nuises made an excursion to Burnham 
Beeches, most beautiful woods, some six miles 
away. On three mornings there were Bible 
Circles, which we found most helpful ; but best of 
all perhaps were the evenings, when we had in- 
spiring addresses on such subjects as " God's Plan 
for the World" and " The Great Adventure," 
always ending with prayer and intercession. We 
remembered all our members, very especially those 
in the foreign mission field. We were very for- 
tunate in having with us Miss Herbert, from 



China ; Miss Mathew, from Uganda ; Miss Jbnes 
from North India ; and Miss Edwards, who has 
done mission work in France. Other members 
represented health welfare, civil and military 
hospitals and private and district work. We had 
wonderful examples of God's answers to prayer in 
Miss Herbert's most interesting talks about China 
and Miss Mathew and Miss Jones interested us 
keenly in their work by their conversation and 
photographs. They showed us how very urgent is 
the call for more workers ; while the letters read to 
us from members abroad showed how more than 
usually under -staffed many hospitals are at 
present, making always difficult work well-nigh 
impossible. They showed us too, however, that 
the difficulties are as nothing in comparison with 
the privilege of carrying the message of Christ all 
over the world. Many of these letters told how 
deeply the members abroad appreciate the prayers 
of their friends, and one of the lasting memories of 
Camp will be the emphasis upon prayer. 

It was the most enj oyable and most restful 
holiday I have ever haa, and we all hope that the 
second Camp, which is to be held at Mottram St. 
Andrew, Cheshire, from July 17th to 24th, will be 
as great a success. Any nurses who are free at that 
time should write at once for particulars to Miss 
Macfee, 21, Frognal Lane, Hampstead, London, 
N-W- 3- A Visitor to the Camp. 



NURSES AND INSURANCE. 



The National Insurance Commissioners have 
issued a summary of the Provisions of the National 
Insurance (Health) Acts, 1911-18, for the infor- 
mation of the members of Approved Societies. 
These helpful leaflets can be obtained, cost id. 
through any bookseller, or directly from H.M. 
Stationery Office, at the following addresses : — 
Imperial House, Kingsway, London, W.C. 2 ; or 
28, Abingdon Street, London, S.W. i ; 37. Peter 
Street, Manchester ; i St. Andrew's Crescent, 
Cardifi ; 23, Forth Street, Edinburgh ; and E. 
Ponsonby, Ltd., 116, Grafton Street, Dublin. 
Nurses who are insured, would do w^ell to procure 
and study these leaflets, as they will find them 
very useful to refer to in deaUng with the Secretary 
of the Approved Society in which they are insured. 

A New Rule. 
The amended Act (1918), Clause 27, instructs a 
member who becomes incapable of work through 
illness to give notice to her Society at once, together 
with a medical certificate of incapacity. If she 
does not give notice within three days from the 
commencement of her incapacity, benefit will not 
commence until the day following that on which 
the notice is given. This is a new rule, to which 
insured nurses must give heed, as under the old 
provisions of the Act, they were often most 
casual in notifying illness, sometimes not doing so 
for weeks and then expecting benefit in full, 
although all rules had been broken. For the 
future they will do well to obey the law. 



X3 



Zhc »rttiab Journal ctf Burelng, 



July 6, igi8 



GAMBOLS V. NATIONAL SERVICE. 



I'^isde^y to be deplored that His Majesty the 
King has, with the kindest intentions no doubt, 
given^perniission for a Garden Party, to be held at 
St. James' Palace, for the War Charity, the 
Nation's Fund for Nurses, as it is in no sense 
national, and its methods are detested by self- 
respecting professional nurses. 

We have as a result a new outburst of costly 
advertisements in the daily Press in support of the 
Fund, which continue:^ to boycott the opinions of 
those opposed to the subsidising of the lay consti- 
tuted College of Nursing Company, in its attempt 
to control the Nursing profession. 

Once again our sense of propriety is out- 
raged by the reappearance on the hoardings of 
the poster of a semi-nude female, purporting to be 
a nurse, tenaciously clutching a wounded (and 
evidently abashed) young man ! 

Throughout, the tone of the advertisements in 
support of this War Charity have been tactless and 
offensive in the extreme, and we note amongst 
other advertised attractions there are to be 
" Gambols " at the Garden Party ! Who is going 
to " Gambol " ? Surely not the heads of our 
Nurse-training Schools who are thrusting this 
Society Charity on the profession they should be 
the first to protect. But that the supposed indi- 
gence of our profession is to be the excuse for this 
unseemly rout, 's nothing short of an outrage, 
when we know that brave men, many of them our 
nearest and dearest, are dying or risking death for 
us in every hour. 

We have in our midst an army of rich, vain and 
idle women, under dressed and overfed, whose life 
has, and presumably always will consist of self- 
indulgence, excitement and vapidity, women who 
never have done an hour's real useful work since 
the war began, and who clutch at any excuse to 
amuse themselves. If this heartless clique must 
" gambol " whilst the nation is in danger, we 
strongly object to our profession b( ing used as an 
excuse for their antics, and the sooner Parliament 
conscripts the lot, and compels them to do some 
really useful work for the benefit of the country 
the better. Young, strong, able-bodied women 
should be on the land, in the shipyards, or in the 
factory in this hour of the nation's needs. Any- 
way we nurses protest against their "gambols" 
in our name, under a cloak of Charity. 



MISS ELIZABETH ASQUITH LETS 
ANOTHER CAT OUT OF THE 
COLLEGE BAG. 



As widely advertised. Miss Elizabeth Asquith 
and others have been selling tickets for the 
" Gambols " at St James' Palace at the big 
drapers' shops during the week, which has given 
nurses who object to bdng placed at the mercy of 



the College Constitution an opportunity of 
expressing their views concerning lay patronage. 

The Daily Mirror man also availed himself of the 
opportunity to seek information, to judge by the 
following " par " which appeared on Tuesday 
last : — 

FUTURE OF THE V.A.D. 

College and Full Education Scheme for 

Nurses After the War. 

What is to become of the V.A.D. 's after the War ? 

Miss EUzabeth Asquith told The Daily Mirror 
yesterday : "A College of Nursing has been founded 
by the Nation's Fund for Nurses as a thankofiering 
for what the nurses have done. 

" Undoubtedly," Miss Asquith added, " vast 
numbers of V.A.D.'s will want to continue nursing, 
but they must be adequately trained, and the 
college has a full education scheme, with scholar- 
ships, so that they can finish their course. 

" In peace days, when wounds and shell shocks 
are no more, they must know the women's side of 
musing as well as the men's." 

Trained nurses will do well to consider their 
future if they hope to make a living in com- 
petition with " vast numbers " of V.A.D.'s. who 
are being projected into the profession through 
the Nation's Fund for Nurses 



A PROTEST. 



Under the heading of " A Protest," a communi- 
cation from Miss Alicia Lloyd Still, Matron of St. 
Thomas' Hospital, London, and Miss Amy Hughes 
late General Superintendent of Queen Victoria's 
Jubilee Institute for Nurses appeared in the June 
number of the American Journal of Nursing. 
These ladies write : "Our attention has been 
drawn to an article, headed ' English Nursing 
Politics,' published in the American Journal of 
Nursing for February. As this article is evidently 
written under a misapprehension of the situation, 
and as it is based upon a biassed account given in 
The British Journal of Nursing of the present 
condition of the Nursing World in England, may 
we be allowed to give a short account of the exist- 
ing state of affairs in the nursing world ? 

" The article in question (written by Miss Dock) 
says that an ' odious element which has been the 
afifliction of British nurses for thirty years, is still 
busy trying to enslave them in a web wherein the 
College of Nursing, State registration, and pubHc 
alms are woven with the intent to keep them 
professionally helpless." 

" The Protest " of the two signatories is full, 
no doubt unintentionally, cf inaccuracies which 
can be quite easily refuted from the printed matter 
so lavishly issued by the College of Nursing, Ltd., 
which it is designed to support. 

The confusion of mind of the College Matron 
advocates concerning their own Constitution is 
amazing. Apparently they have never studied it, 
or are incapable of discriminating concerning the 
" odious " provisions of its Memorandum and 



July 6, 1918 



Zbc Brttiab 3ournal of IRurstng. 



n 



Articles of Association (which we know were 
drafted bete-e they were consulted) but which they 
have made no attempt to alter. 

Next week, in justice to The BRirrsH JoxrxNitt, 
OF Nursing, we propose to prove that it is neither 
biassed nor inaccurate in its surmises concerning 
the fundamental policy of the promoters of the 
College of Nursing, Ltd. 

Anyway, those members of the nursing profes- 
sion in England, Scotland and Ireland, who are 
economically independent do not intend to submit 
to its Constitution, as so many ignorant young 
nurses have been persuaded by their employers 
to do. 



APPOINTMENTS. 



MATRON. 



A CONVENIENT SHOPPINQ CENTRE. 

Proprietors of Nur.,ing Homes and private 
nurses in the Marylebone District will find in the 
establishment of Messrs. Gayler & Pope, 11 2- 11 7, 
High Street, Marylebone, W., a convenient 
shopping centre, whethei for materials for nursing 
uniforms, or foi general shopping purposes. Those 
requiring furniture, whether for the equipment of 
nursing homes or its renewal, should inspect the 
varied stock of this firm. 

A POPULAR PUBLISHER. 

Messrs. H. & K. Lewis, Ltd., of 136, Gower 
Street, and 24, Gower Place, W.C. i, publish a 
variety of literature popular with and useful to 
nurses, masseuses and midwives in connection 
with theii work. In this connection we may 
mention " The Theory and Practice of Massage," 
with numerous illustrations by Miss Beatrice M. G. 
Copestake, Member of and Examiner to the 
Incorporated Society of Trained Masseuses. 

SOME VALUABLE FOODS. 

Just now when the anxieties of the war are 
apt to bring many people somewhat below par, 
and rationing and considerations of economy 
restrict the diet, it is well to recall some of the 
valuable foods which we can utilise with advantage, 
for adults, children and infants. The Allen- 
BURYs' P'ooDS (37, Lombard Street, London) 
(Milk Food No. i and No. 2 and Malted Food 
No. 3) will be found most satisfactory in the 
feeding of infants, while their Diet is largely used 
and of proved value for invalid and aged persons. 

Robinson's " Patent " Barley (Keen, Robin- 
son & Co., Ltd., London), for making barley water 
for diluting cow's or goat's milk for infant feeding 
is a preparation which midwives and nurses find 
invaluable, and nothing could be better than their 
" Patent " Groats, for preparing milk gruel and 
porridge for nursing motherc. 

Benger's Food (Otter Works, Manchester) is 
an invaluable preparation in the dietary of 
invalids, a unique feature of which is that it is self- 
digestive and that the extent of the digestive 
process can be regulated to suit individual patients. 

Falieres' Phosphatine (F. H. Mertens, 84, 
Holborn Viaduct, E.C. i) is also a valuable food, 
which, associated with milk, is much liked by 
patients, while its food value is undoubted. 



Hfelsh flo^ltal, Netley. — Miss Kathleen S. 
Stewart has been appointed Matron. She received 
her general training at the Royal Infirmary, 
Sunderland, and maternity training at the Royal 
Maternity Hospital, Edinburgh. She was sub- 
sequently district and ward Sister at the Deaconess 
Hospital, Edinburgh, and Night Superintendent 
and Housekeeping Sister at the Royal Infirmary, 
Sunderland. She has also been Housekeeping 
Sister at Chaiing Cross Hospital, Assistant Matron 
at the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, 
and Matron of the York County Hospital. She 
was awarded the Royal Red Cross (2nd Class) in 
January, 191 7. 

Isolation Hospital and Sanatorium, Belvedere 
Road, Burton-on-Trent. — Mrs. A. ElUs has been 
appointed Matron. She was trained at the Royal 
Infirmary, Derby, and the Fountain Fever 
Hospital, Tooting, where she also held the posi- 
tions of Waid Sister, Night Superintendent and 
Housekeeper. She has also been Matron of the 
District Hospital, Settle, and for the last five 
years of the Joint Hospital and Sanatorium, 
Smethwick. 

Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford. — 

Miss R. A. Longland has been appointed Matron. 
She was trained at the Great Northern Hospital, 
London, where she has been Sister and Night 
Superintendent, and has also held the positions of 
Assistant Matron and Acting-Matron at the Royal 
Surrey County Hospital. 

Tuberculosis Sanatorium, Pelsall Hall, near 
Walsall. — ^Miss P. Partington has been appointed 
Matron. She has previously been Matron of the 
Observation Hospital for Tuberculosis at Bury, 
Lanes. 

ACTING MATRON. 

National Hospital for Diseases of the Heart, 
London.' — Miss Cecilia Beaton has been appointed 
Acting Matron. She was trained at the Taunton 
and Somerset Hospital, and has been Sister at the 
General Infirmary, Worcester, and the County 
Hospital, Bedford, and Home Sistei at Bolingbroke 
Hospital, Wandsworth Common. 

ASSISTANT MATRON. 

Hendon Grove Asylum, Hendon, N.W. — Miss 
Ehzabeth J. Thompson has been appointed Assist- 
ant-Matron. She has been on the StafE of the Prest- 
which Asylum for fifteen years, and for the past two 
years has been Assistant-Matron of Palmerston 
House, Palmerston, co. Dublin. 

WARD SISTER. 

Dudley Union Infirmary. — Miss H. Hollies 
has been appointed Ward Sister. She was trained 
at the Wolstanton and Burslem Union Infirmary, 
and is at present pupil midwife at Queen Victoria's 
Nursing Institute, Northampton. 



t4 



Hbe SrUtfb 3ourtiiil of f^ur^ma; 



]uly 6, 1918 



NURSING ECHOES. 



Miss Mollett's many friends will be sorry to 
hear that on Thursday, June 27th, she met with 
a serious accident when cycling from Bourne- 
mouth to her home at Three Cross, near Ring- 
wood. Apparently no immediate help was at 
hand, and she lay in the road for a considerable 
time, until a gentkman came by and rendered 
aid, taking her in a taxi cab to Miss Forrest's 
Nursing Home, 4, Cambridge Road, Bourne- 
mouth. On examination it was found that the 
injuries sustained were an impacted fracture of 
femur, a bruised head, and cut arm. Through- 
out all this Miss Mollett was full of the courage 
and cheerful endurance which never fails her. 
She may be sure now, as ever, of affectionate 
regard and sympathy, and also of good wishes 
for a steady convalescence and recovery. 



Long before the war we claimed just educa- 
tional and economic conditions for nurses, but 
until recent events has caused the supply of 
nurses in all directions to fall short of the 
demand, those who employed them app>eared 
well content to continue at sweated rates of 
remuneration. Especially has this been 
apparent in various branches of district nursing. 
We note with pleasure the recent awakening of 
conscience (necessity has a way of driving her 
lessons home) on this question. 

There has been far too much patronage and 
too little pelf in the conduct of County Nursing 
Associations in the past, and our Lady Bounti- 
fuls are seldom lavish where working women 
are concerned. 

We observe that Mrs. Cooke-Hurle, speak- 
ing at the annual meeting of the Somerset 
Nursing Association at Taunton, said : " She 
would like to see the time when the salaries of 
nurses would be raised to such an extent that 
they would be able to have their full training 
and adequate payment for their services." 

It is the fault of the women organizers and 
managers of the County Nursing Associations 
that these just terms have not prevailed in the 
past. A network of social influence and self- 
appointed control by the laity has defined the 
standards of knowledge and the remuneration 
of district and village nurses all over the 
country. The standards are woefully insuffi- 
cient, and the remuneration a sweated wage. 
The sooner the nursing of the poor is directed 
by a State Department controlled by a Ministry 
of Health the better — better for patient and 
nurse. Class goverrlment has had its day. 



The Local Government Board has sanctioned 
a joint scheme entered into between the 
Nottingham Guardians and the Guardians of 
the Basford Union for the training of pro- 
bationary nurses, under which the proba- 
tioners will receive their first year's training at 
Basford, and then proceed to Bagthorpe for a 
further three years' training, including mid- 
wifery and massage. By this arrangement the 
services of candidates who desire to qualify' 
as fully certificated nurses will be secured for 
the Basford Union. 



The King Edward Nurses were organized as 
a South African Memorial to commemorate the 
life and aims of King Edward VII, and com- 
prises two divisions (a) European ; (h) Coloured 
and Native, and its immediate object is to make 
good deficiencies now existing in nursing 
circles in South Africa. 

From the Report of 191 7, just to hand, we 
learn from Miss J. E. Pritchard, Superintendent 
of the Order, that 1917, like the two previous 
years, has been one of many difficulties owing 
to the war. The year was begun with a staff 
of 15 — ^and ended with 11. The centres have 
l>een understaffed, and it is impossible to 
estimate the work lost, but we gather that much 
good work has been done, and on visiting the 
various centres the Superintendent found the 
nurses much appreciated in the districts. 

A new centre was op)ened during the year at 
Empangeni, a malarial district, and during the 
floods, when it was cut off for some time, it 
was most fortunate that, as there was no 
doctor, a qualified nurse-midwife was in the 
place, more particularly as some oases who had 
arranged to go to a Maternity Home in Durban 
were unable to get through. 

Several applications for resident nurses have 
not been able to be met owing to the shortage 
of nurses, but considferig the serious under- 
staffing in some of the large civil hospitals, the 
Superintendent considers the Order fortunate 
to begin the year with t i nurses, and she hopes 
when times are normal to expand the work in 
many directions. 

The Committee report with great satisfaction 
that upon the completion of her term of con- 
tract. Miss Pritchard has consented to continue 
in her post. The Committee also records its 
appreciation of the services of Miss Brailsford 
(Senior Nursing Sister at Ladysmith), and 
other members of the Order. 



The South Australian Branch of the 
R.B.N. A. was welcomed by the South Aus- 



July 6, 1918 



dbe Sritidb 3ournarot 'Rurfftna. 



^5 



tralian Branch of the A.T.N. A, at its annual 
meeting, when joint consideration was given to 
raising the fees of private nurses in the State 
from j^2 2s. to ;^3 3s. a week. Dr. Cecil 
Corbin, R.B.N. A., addressed the meeting, and 
it was agreed that other States having adopted 
the higher scale of fees was undoubtedly 
attracting many nurses from South Australia. 
The Council recommend raising the fee, and 
the members will have an opportunity of voting 
on it. 



BOOK OF THE WEEK. 



The future organization of the nursing pro- 
fession was the subject for discussion at the 
Women's Institute on June 21st, when Mrs. 
Alderton, of Colchester, presided. It is a 
hopeful sign that women are beginning to show 
concern in this question, as, so far, they have 
taken deplorably little interest in trained nurs- 
ing. Beyond the address of Miss Georgina K. 
Sanders, who described the methods of nurse 
training in America, and emphasised the im- 
portance of dietetics in the curriculum, there 
was nothing of great value in the discussion. 
We were sorry to hear the Secretary of the 
College of Nursing, Ltd., defending the inde- 
fensible provision in its Memorandum whereby 
power is given to the Council to remove a 
member from its Register without giving her 
a power of appeal. Miss Rundle also, in advo- 
cating autocratic control, confused the Con- 
stitution of the College of Nursing Company 
with the Constitution of the Council. It is high 
time both the officials and nurses realised the 
difference between the two. Miss Cowlin, also 
speaking of Registration in the United States of 
America, said that during a visit there it had 
not taken her long to realize that the value of 
registration in some of the States was practi- 
cally nil, and said, " We put education first." 
Miss Cowlin did not appear to realize that the 
primary purpose of a Registration Bill is to 
standardize and test nursing education, and 
that it is this great reform which the State 
Registrationists have been fighting for, for a 
quarter of a century, and which the nursing 
schools have opposed. She also divulged a 
unique plan for roping in the small cottage 
hospitals. They could not be used for training 
purposes, she said, because they did not pro- 
vide sufficient clinical material. The proposal 
was, therefore, to send round a Sister-Tutor to 
'nstruct the nurses. How the advent of the 
Sister-Tutor would miraculously provide the 
clinical material she did not explain, nor what 
would be the position of the Matrons of the 
smaller hospitals in relation to Sister-Tutors. 



SIR ISUMBRAS AT THE FORD.* 

" And weel ye ken, Maister Anne, ye should have 
been asleep lang syne," said Elspeth severely. 

Master Anne, le Comte Anne-Hilarion de 
Flavigny, gave a little sigh fiom the bed. " I have 
tried ... if you would say ' Noroway ' perhaps ? 
Say ' Noroway — over the — foam ' Elspeth, je vous 
en prie." 

" Dinna bf using ony of yer French havers to me 
wean," exclaimed the elderly woman thus 
addressed. However, she sat down, took up her 
knitting, and began 

" The king sat in Dumferline toun 
Drinking the blude-red wine." 

Anne-Hilarion had not chosen well the date of 
his entry into this world. 

On the very July day when Rene and Janet de 
Flavigny and all their tenants were celebrating the 
admirable prowess displayed by M. le Comte in 
attaining without accident or illness, without 
fl\'ing back to heaven, as his nurse had it, the age 
of one year, the people of Paris also were keeping a 
festival, the first anniversary of the day when the 
bloody head of the governor of the Bastille had 
swung along the streets at the end of a pike. 

Before that summer was out the Marquis de 
Flavigny, urged by his father-in-law, had decided 
to place his wife and child in safety, and so, bid- 
ding the most reluctant of good-byes to the 
tourelles and the swans which had witnessed tneir 
two short year? of happiness, they left France for 
England." 

But on the journey home the little French boy's 
Scottish mother caught a chill from which she never 
recovered, and the openng of the story finds Anne 
in the London house of his maternal grandfather 
in the charge of his Scottish nurse, at the hour when 
his father, in concert -with other notable emigres 
were, in the room below, talking of the intrigues 
and counter intrigues which ate like a canker into 
vhe heart of the Royalist cause. 

There are many charming pictures drawn of the 
little Frarco-Scottish boy. Anne-Hilarion was 
quite aware in a general way of his father's occupa- 
tions. In fact, as he lay in his bed, looking 
through the curtains at the wardrobe door, he was 
meditating upon the important meeting Papa was 
having with his friends in the dining-room. 

His lively imagination, coupled with Elspeth's 
grim ballads, and something he had heard about 
papa going to France, made him decide that there 
was nothing for it but to go down to the conclave 
below and ascetain the truth. 

" Messieurs, a new recruit ! Welcome small con- 
spirator. Come in, but shut the door." And all 
che rest turned on the instant to look at the little 
figure clad only in a nightshirt which was visible 
m the doorway behind Rerte de Flavigny's back. 

He made a dash for his father. 

* By D. K. Broster. John Murray. London 



i6 



ZDc »riti6b 3ournal of flur^tne. 



July 6, 1918 



" Papa," he burst out, ", Do not go to ' Noroway 
over the foam.' You know how it says the feather 
beds floated about in the waves and the sea came 
in and they were all drowned fifty fathoms deep." 

Little Anne learned more at that conclave than it 
was prudent he should know in those troublous 
times. 

Following almost immediately after this he is 
kidnapped and taken by a ruse to the house of two 
charming (?) old ladies, who posed ae his father's 
old friends. 

The conception of these two treacherous old 
pieces of Dresden china is one of the cleverest 
things in the book. 

Mrae. de Chaulnes first dealt effectively with old 
Elspeth, who had also been inveigled away with her 
charge. 

" Elspeth having arranged about the baggage, 
they went upstairs into a spotless little bedroom 
smelling of lavender. She informs the old Scotch 
woman that she will have to sleep out of the house. 

Elspeth looked mutinous, and her mouth took 
on a line that Anne well knew. 

: " A'ni thinkin' Mem," she replied, " it wad be 
best for me tae hae a wee bit bed in here." 

Mme. de Chaulnes shook her head. " I am 
afraid," she said, " that that arrangement would 
not suit us at all." 

Elspeth was very glum as she put the little boy 
to bed. 

" At ony rate" she said, " A'll no leave tiU A 
please." 

" They are very kind Icidies," said little Anne, 
who was excited. " I think Mme. de Chaulnes is a 
beautiful old lady like a fee Marraine." 

Little Anne's tongue did a great deal of mischief 
to his father that night, and the adventure ended 
with his being smuggled out to France, from which 
country, so perilous at that time to the aristocrats, 
he was rescued after excitirg adventures by M. de la 
Vireville. 

But Anne's are not the only adventures in this 
exciting story. Far from it. The whole book 
teems with exciting episodes, and lovers of his- 
torical romance will find much to delight them in 
its pages. 

H. H. 



IN GOOD CHILDREN STREET. 

There's a dear little home in Good Children Street, 
Where my heart turneth fondly to-day ; 

Where tinkle of tongues and patter of feet 
Make sweetest of music at play ; 

Where the sunshine of love illumines each face 

And warms every heart in the old-fashioned place. 

For dear little children go romping about. 

With dollies and tin tops and drums. 
And my ! how they frolic and scamper and shout, 
Oh, the days they are golden and days they are 

fleet 
With the dear little folks in Good Children Street. 

Eugene Field. 



COMING EVENTS. 

July 4th. — Royal British Nurses' Association. 
General Council Meeting. 10, Orchard Street, 
Portman Square, W. 2-45 p.rn. 

July 6th. — Central Committee for the State 
Registration of Nurses. Council Chamber, 
British Medical Association, 429, Strand, London, 
W.C. 2.30 p.m. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects Jor these columns, we wish it to bt 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 

THE COST OF PROPAGANDA. 

To the Editor 0} The British Journal of Nursing. 
Dear Madam, — Every member of the Society 
for State Registration of Nurses and also all 
trained nurses who have any sense of professional 
responsibility, owe The British Journal of 
Nursing a great debt for the most comprehensive 
official Report of the work of the Society, and 
the manner in which our professional interests 
have been safeguarded, which filled fourteen 
columns of space in last week's issue. I wonder 
how many of your readers realized the cost of the 
production of such a Report — the year's voluntary 
labour, the compiling, reporting, transcribing, 
editing, printing, paper and publication. In 
these days of costly labour, such results could 
not have been attained by the expenditure of ;^2o 
— if at that. I know few of my colleagues art 
women of business, but many of them appreciate 
the labour and financial expenditure upon their 
behalf ; and I venture to suggest that those who 
are able to do so should send a subscription to 
the Hon. Secretary of the Society for State 
Registration, at 431, Oxford Street, towards 
the expense of producing this invaluable Report. 

I am. Madam, 

Yours gratefully, 

Henrietta Hawkins. 

ONE AND INDIVISIBLE. 

To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — The British Journal of 
Nursing confirms my understanding on the 
subject of the affiliated societies for State Registra- 
tion. I am so very glad that we have agam 
joined up with the R.B.N. A., and enclose to you 
what I deem a thankoffering on " St. John's Day," 
towards our aims for State Registration, as you 
described it, " all one and indivisible making the 
perfect circle." 

Sincerely trusting our " sweet reasonableness " 
will continue. 

Believe me, yours as ever, also 

A Life Memricr of R.B.N. A. 

1st South African General Hospital, 
B.E.F., France. 



July 6, 1918 



^be Britieb 3onrnal of IRureiufl. 



«7 



RECIPROCAL TRAINING FOR MENTAL 
NURSES. 

To the Editor o/The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — A recent issue of The British 
Journal of Nursing contains an account of 
the annual meeting of the Asyhim Workers' 
Association held at the Mansion House under the 
presidency of the Lord Mayor ; and one of the 
speakers, Captain Kirkland-Whittaker, M.D. called 
attention to some advertisements appearing in 
a contemporary nursing paper, emanating from 
one or two asylums, inviting candidates for the 
posts of Matron and Assistant Matron, and 
specifying that such candidates should have 
received both training in a general hospital and 
hold the Medico-Psychological certificate — that 
is to say, they should have been trained in both 
general and mental hospitals. 

A nurse in a mental hospital has, ordinarily, 
no opportunity of satisfying these requirements of 
general hospital training, and if she has already 
thought of devoting her life to mental work, the 
fact that the higher posts in asylums are barred 
against her, must give hei seriously to consider 
whether it is worth ber while to remain in mental 
work. 

To obtain the Medico-Psychological certificate, 
three years' training in a mental hospital are 
required ; while to obtain a certificate of general 
training, the same period is demanded. The 
nurse who is trained in both institutions would 
certainly be fully-equipped and eligible for the 
higher positions, and this either in a general 
or mental hospital. This would be an ideal 
training and one I should personally recommend, 
but it must not be forgotten that a nurse who left 
asylum work to spend three years in general 
hospital training would lose the benefits of the 
Asylum Officers' Superannuation Act, as far as 
her previous yeais of service were concerned, 
unless by some arrangement with the asylum 
authorities she could still be regarded as being 
" on the strength." 

It would certainly be of the greatest advantage 
to a nurse to be trained in both general and mental 
hospitals, for each of these institutions would 
contribute towards the development of the 
qualities of tact, organisation, discipline, &c., 
so essential for making the nurse thoroughly 
efi&cient in her work and fit her for responsibility 
in either institution. 

At the same time, seeing that the training in 
both general and mental hospitals covers, to 
some extent, the same ground, one is tempted 
to ask, whether a full three yeaxs of training in 
each institution should be made a sine qua nan. 
For instance, if a nurse has received a certificate 
of three years' training at a general hospital, she 
is allowed to sit for the Medico-Psychological 
certificate after two years of training in a mental 
hospital, yet, on the other hand, the nurse who 
has received the Medico-Psychological c^tificate 
is not allowed to proceed to the certificate in 



general nursing, after a similar experience in the 
general hospital. 

Bel' eve me, yours truly, 

Mary Lord, 
Matron, Banstead Mental Hospital. 
[We regret that lack of space compels us to hold 
over a most interesting letter on this question 
from Dr. George M. Robertson, of the Rjyal 
Edinburgh Asylum. — Ed.] 



KERNELS FROM CORRESPONDENCE, 

E. G. Fosbroke. — " I have had to attend 
many cases of scabies lately amongst quite clean 
people, who, owing to expense, have given up 
wearing gloves. As it was usually on the left 
hand, I wonder if the infection comes from touching 
the brass handle in mounting busses — or can 
your|]readers suggest another source ? " 

A Red Cross Nurse writes : — " How about the 
dangers of inexperienced Commandants and 
Quarter Masters (girls often just out of their 
teens) and fires in Red Cross Hospitals ? I have 
known the kitchen chimney left unswept for six 
months at a time, and been told ' to mind my own 
business ' when I suggested the danger of fire with 
blocked flues. I see another fine War Hospital 
has been burnt down. ' Sparks from the kitchen 
chimney ignited the roof,' to be observed by a 
gardener. When was the kitchen chimney at 
Oakwood Hall swept last ? " 



Another Dublin Sister \vrites: — " I also want to 
protest against English Nurses subsidising the 
College of Nursing Irish Board. Unless it is self- 
supporting it should be closed down. We Irish 
nurses object to it on every count. It has been 
thrust upon Ireland by the trainees of St. Thomas' 
Hospital. It will always be an apple of discord 
here. We mean to have Home Rule professionally, 
as Irish doctors do, and we told Sir Arthur Stanley 
so when he was recently over here." 



OUR PRIZE COMPETITION. 

July i^th. — What points would you endeavour 
to impress upon a mother as cf primary importance 
for the rearing of a healthy baby ? 
'July 20th. — State fully how you would disinfect 
a bedroom and its furnishings. 



TERMS FOR " BRITISH JOURNAL OF 
NURSING." 

Do not fail to order The British Journal of 
Nursing through your newsagent, price 2d. per 
week. If you prefer to subscribe the Journal 
costs lOG. lod. annually, 5s. 6d. for six months, or 
2S. 9d. for three months. Abroad, 13s. 4d. 

Trained Nurses who are members of organised 
Nurses' Societies are given preferential terms of 
6s. 6d. annually. 

Apply to the Manager, British Journal of 
Nursing, 431, Oxford_Street, London, W. i, . 



iS 



^he 3Br!ti0b 3ournaI of "Wurelnc Supplement. 

The 



July 6, 1918 



NATIONAL BABY WEEK. 



CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION. 

On Monday, July ist, the National Conference 
on Maternal and Infant Welfare and the Educa- 
tional Mothercraft Exhibition were opened at the 
Central Hall, Westminster, 
by the Dowager Mar- 
chioness ol Londondeiiy, 
who said it afforded her 
the greatest possible 
pleasure to open an 
exhibition of eveiy possible 
appliance for bringing /^up 
children in the best 
raanner. So many chil- 
dren were born and so 
few came to maturity 
that she welcomed any 
knowledge which would 
teach mothers and po- 
tential mothers — as well as 
fathers — to bring up thejr 
children healthy and well. 

On behalf of the 
National Union of Women 
Workers of Great Britain 
and Ireland, whose Child 
Welfare Committee orga- 
nized the Exhibition, the 
President 5 (Mrs Ogilvit 
Gordon) expressed its 
thanks to Lady London- 
derry 

At three o'clock, the 
Conference was inauguiated 
by a Mass 2" Meeting, at 
which • Major Waldorf 
Astor pi esided. Alter 

paying a tribute to Lord 
Rhondda, who, when at 
the Local Government 
Board, with the true 
instincts of a statesman, 
had grasped the funda- 
mental principle that the 
horrible waste of child 
life must be reduced and 
that the immediate creation 
of a Ministry of Health 
was a necessity, to co- 
ordinate the Health efforts of all Departments, 
he spoke of the Departmental jealousy which 
delayed such co-ordination, and said that the 
first essential was the amalgamation of existing 
officials in a department engaged in fighting 
against disease, instead of their being engaged in 
fighting one another. 

I The first speaker was the Bishcp of Birmingham 
who moved the following resolution : — 




MOTHERHOOD. 



" This meeting being confidently assured that 
the existing rate of infant mortality is unnecessary 
and uneconomic and the cause of much misery, 
calls upon the electois to demand complete and 
effective action from all candidates for and 
Members of Parliament or Municipal Councils 
for the better protection of 
the mothers and children 
of the Nation " 

Referring to environ- 
ment as it affects the mother 
and child, he said there 
were two main influences 
on the character of a child — 
one heredity the other en- 
vironment There might be 
some difference of opinion 
as to the effect of heredity, 
but there was none as to 
environment. He instanced 
the boys brought up in 
Poor Law schools, 98 per 
cent, of whom did well 
because their characters de- 
veloped in good conditions. 
No true community, said 
the Bishop, could shirk 
its duty to the np-growi ng 
citizen, and had no right 
to expect to endure if it 
neglected infant life. We 
asked of the State that it 
should safeguard the mother 
and child, that girls should 
understand the sacred duty 
of their ofhce, and receive 
due instruction in their 
future duties. He hoped 
no girl would grow up 
without three months' ex- 
perience in these matters ; 
he would prefer to substi- 
tute years for months. 

Then there was the wage 
problem. No married man 
should receive pay which 
did not enable him to sup- 
port his wife who was 
bearing children. There 
was also the problem of the 
unmarried mother. What- 
ever the moral offence of the father or mother, the 
child should not suffer. 

Mrs. Pember Reeves had said that motherhood 
was the most sweated and the worst paid of all 
the professions. He refused to ask people to have 
numbers of children under ^\Tetched conditions 
and unsuitable environment. A Department of 
Government was required to deal with these 
matters. At present the child was struggled for 



July 6, 1918 (jbc Brttieb 3ournal ot l^uretna Supplement 



19 



by many Departments and was in danger of being 
dismembered. The country was expectant to-day 
but it would not always be patient, even with 
Parliament. He had pleasure in moving the 
resolution. 

Sir Owen Seaman, in supporting the resolution, 
claimed that eveiy child at birth should have an 
equal chance of life. 

Mrs. H. B. Irving sympathetically and elo- 
quently pleaded for pensions for wndows. The 
right of every baby was a mother to feed it, a 
father to work for and protect it. Many of Britain's 
babies were fatherless. The mothers should be 
assisted by the State. 

Mr. Ben TiHett spoke on the relationship of 
the State towards the expectant mother ; and 
Dr. Truby King insisted that unpreparedness for 
motherhood was a main handicap of modern 
civilization. 

The resolution was carried unanimously. 

On both Wednesday and Thursday interesting 
and instructive addresses and lectures were given. 

THE EXHIBITION. 

An extremely interesting exhibition, open from 
10.30 a.m. to 8 p.m. throughout the week, aims 
at the education of the infant welfare worker 
and presents to the public the general scope and 
varied aspects of the movement for the care of 
mothers and children. 

MOTHERCRAFT. 

In the section devoted to Mothercraft, as 
taught in the elementary schools. Mis. Truelove, 
L.C.C. School, ToUington Park, exhibits articles 
used by girls attending mother-craft classes. 
Simple but effective is the baby's basket, 
costing only 8Jd., i.e., a strawbery basket id., 
pink sateen 3d., muslin 4jd. An oval glass, 
originally a potted meat dish, serves as a soap 
dish, and other fittings are quite inexpensive. 

The Battersea Polytechnic, where a thorough 
training is given extending over a year, and 
recognised by the Local Government Board, show 
sets of infants' clothes made by students. A 
feature is a collection of soaps suitable and 
unsuitable for infants (mostly the latter). The 
test of phenolphthalein is applied, and if it is 
unsuited for a baby's use, the soap turns a deep 
pink. 

Clean Milk. 

The model of a modern cowbarn made to scale 
at the Lord Roberts' Memorial Workshops, and 
a second of a dirty and unventilated barn actually 
in existence, is an object lesson in the necessity for 
clean dairy farms. 

Women's League of Service. 

By the kindness of Mrs. O'Rourke, of the 
Women's League of Service for Motherhood, 
128, Pentonville Road, London, N. i, we are able 
to reproduce their striking poster of a working- 
class mother and her infant. Their exhibit is a 
reproduction of their dining-room for mothers and 
children, showing equipment and menus. There 
was the dining-table for toddlers, whose meal is 



served fiist, and then they^are cared for in another 
room while the mothers sit down, free from dis- 
ti action, 'to a well-cooked and well-served meal 
at a cost to themselves of 2d. 

MiDWivEs' Institute. 
The Midwives' Institute have arranged a 
midwife's room containing the necessary equip- 
ment for the efficient booking of patients, including 
various charts for ante-natal records exhibited by 
practising midwives ; also apparatus used by 
teachers of midwifery when preparing pupils for 
the examination of the Central Midwives' Board. 

Maternity Hostel. 
The Maternity Hostel arranged by the Croydon 
Mothers' and Infant Welfare Association is very 
complete, including a well-equipped labour ward 
and a lying-in ward. The new jointless flooring 
supplied by the British Doloment Co., Ltd., is 
utilized with good result. 

Sydenham Infant Welfare Centre. 
The Sydenham Infant Welfare Centre of Adams- 
rill Road, S.E., has arranged (i) a ward for ailing 
babies, (2) other equipment. Paiticularly note- 
worthy is the fitted ohelf for the soap, towels, &c., 
used lor different babies. The soap is in its own 
numbered dish, and each towel and washer is 
numbered and kept apart. 

St. Pancras School for Mothers. 

The St. Pancras School for Mothers — the 
doyenne of such schools — has arranged an Infant 
Welfare Centre, showing the methods followed 
and the equipment required for weighing the 
babies, &c. On the walls are educative posters, 
case papers and card indexes form part of the well- 
ordered equipment. 

Even more interesting is the second section of 
this exhibit, a room, eleven feet by twelve in 
a hostel for working mothers. The room is 
intended for a mother and one or two children 
whose husband is at the war ; or for a munition 
worker. The floor is covered with black 
and white linoleum. The convenient wpoden 
furniture made by the boys of the Technical 
Institute, Shoreditch, can all be easily scrubbed, 
spotless curtains hang at the open window, the 
mother's bed is covered with a bright quilt. By 
her side is the baby's cot, a cheerful rug is laid 
down in front of the fire, a clothes-horse is con- 
verted into a screen. There is a small chart for 
the baby, as well as the other necessaiy equipment 
including a dresser with bright coloured crockery. 
The baby's larder, in which the milk for his use is 
kept, was designed by a father. There is a hay- 
box for cooking, such as is now used by many 
frugal mothers, and a charming diminutive gas 
cooker supplied by the London Light & Coke Co. 
It is a most attractive little home. 
f -- ! Eugenics. 

An interesting exhibit is that lent by the 
Eugenics Education Society, n, Lincoln's Inn 
Fields. A selection of striking posters are illus- 
trative of the veirious aspects of syphilis. 



ib 



abc Brlttsb 3ournai of ihurBtno Suppletneht My 6, 191S 



NORTH ISLINGTON MATERNITY 
CENTRE AND SCHOOL FOR MOTHERS- 

There are 1,200 Infant Welfeire Centres, or 
Schools for Mothers, or Babies' Welcomes (which- 
ever you like to call them, they are practically 
intterchangeable terms) in the kingdom. No doubt 
all are doing excellent work. 

Having a little time and much inclination, and 
having consulted the Superintendent on the tele- 
phone as to her convenience in the matter, I paid 
a visit to the North Islington School on June 28th. 
During the five years of its existence it has grown 
rapidly. The premises consist of two adjoining 
semi-detached houses in Manor Gardens, which 
stand in a fair-sized garden. The exquisite cleanli- 
ness and order of the whole place is the first thing 
that strikes the visitor. The next is the extreme 
cordiality and courtesy of the Superintendent, Miss 
Le Geyt, who, although obviously very busy, takes 
her visitors round — there were several on this 
occasion — explaining everything with pardonable 
pride. There are rooms of a good size for every 
purpose : Weighing-rooms, consultation-rooms, 
lecture-rooms, a room for social gatherings. 

There are three main factors in every school for 
mothers, namely : — i. Infant consultations. 
2. Classes. 3. Home visiting. This forms the 
basis of all the rest of the work. Here, as else- 
where, great attention is paid to these essentials. 
But the activities of the North Ishngton School do 
not end here. Dinners for expectant and nursing 
mothers are provided by the Invalid Kitchens of 
London, which rent four rooms at the school. The 
L.C.C. also use it as a dental clinic for ele- 
mentary school children two er three times a week. 
One of the nurses is employed to attend the dentist 
and keep the lecords. Ancther room is fitted up 
as a surgery for the treatment of minor ailments 
and for the instruction of the mothers in such 
treatment. 

' The records of the Centre are kept by means of 
a card index system. Case papers take the form 
of cardS' — ^pink for girls, blue for boys, grey for the 
expectant mothers, and white for the visitors. A 
, ch£irt of the child's weight is attached to the case 
paper. 

The stafi includes the Superintendent and 
several other nurses, some of them resident. 
About thirty-seven voluntary workers, most of 
whom are visitors, also two women medical officers. 
The most recent development of the work is an 
infants' ward with accommodation for about 
fifteen ailing babies. Children who are not ill 
enough to be taken into a hospital, and yet require 
to be under observation and have skilled care and 
attention. Dr. Truby King has visited the school 
and given an address there. His comment is that 
it is first-rate — the real thing. From such an 
authority this is praise indeed, and Miss Le Geyt 
values it as such. Certainly no Institution of the 
kind could be better. 

B. K. 



POST GRADUATE WEEK FOR 

MIDWIVES AT YORK ROAD LYING-IN 

HOSPITAL. 

On June 26th, a party of post-graduates visited 
Queen Charlotte's Lying-in Hospital. Here they 
were received most courteously by the Matron, 
who deputed one of the Sisters to escort the 
numerous visitors round the wards of the hospital. 

Many interesting cases were pointed out and 
described, the midwives eagerly reading the notes 
on the very comprehensive case papers. The 
babies, as usual, came in for a large amount of 
admiration, for midwives like mothers, seem to 
have an inexhaustible stock of love for infants, and 
one unusually fine or charming drew forth universal 
appreciation. The tiny " prem " was in a tent 
made of blankets and warmed by an electric 
lamp. At Queen Charlotte's they do not use 
incubators. Blankets are considered preferable 
to cotton covering on account of their being 
porous. 

One small ward was a centre of interest, as it 
contained two Caesarian section cases, and one 
bad case of mitral disease. 

The labour wards are roomy and thoroughly 
equipped, and are used in turn. This arrange- 
ment enables each ward to be thoroughly " spring 
cleaned " each month. 

Adjoining the hospital is the ante-natal and 
infant clinic department. 

At the conclusion of the visit, tea was most 
kindly provided by the Matron in the pupils' 
lecture room, and so a very instructive and 
pleasant afternoon was brought to a close. 
Examination. 

As the result of the examination held at the 
conclusion of the week, the first prize was awarded 
to Mrs. Walters (trained at the General Lying-in 
Hospital) and the second prize to I\lrs. McLaren. 



A nursery hospital for 15 babies suffering from 
marasmus, &c., has been opened under the auspices 
of the Birmingham Public Health Comnuttee. It 
affords an opportunity for gaining or increasing 
experience in the treatment and physiological 
feeding advocated by Dr. Holt and Dr. Eric 
Pritchard. Volunteers interested in this form of 
war work may write for particulars to Miss 
Margesson, Nursery Hospital, Bcirnt Green, near 
Birmingham. 



The Midwives Bill, to amend the Midwives 
Act, T902, was considered by the House of Lords 
in Committee on July 2nd. On the motion of 
the Marquess of Salisbury the contentious and 
objectionable Clause (Clause 12) was struck out of 
the Bill. Lord SaUsbury then moved the inser- 
tion of a new Clause, i.e., "Section nine of the 
principal Act (which enables county councils to 
delegate their powers and duties to district 
councils) shall be repealed." So far so good. 
Friends of midwives must now watch the Bill in 
the House of Commons. 




THE 




iUHMPWStG 



WITH WHICH IS INCORPORATED 
EDITED BY MRS BEDFORD FENWICK 



No. 1,580. 



SATURDAY, JULY 13, 1918. 



Vol. LXI 



EDITORIAL. 



OUTSIDE THE PALE— LONDON HOSPITAL 
NURSE5. 

The following instructive discussion took 
place in the House of Commons on 
July 4th : — 

Major Chappie asked the Chancellor of 
the Exchequer whether his attention had 
been called to the existence of a system of 
farming out of nurses in the London 
Hospital under which nurses were taken 
from their training in the wards at the end 
of their second year, were paid 13s. per 
week, and sent out to nurse as trained 
nurses in private cases at £2 2s. per week, 
the hospital profiting by this means to the 
extent of over £6,000 per year before the 
w^ar ; and whether he intended to introduce 
legislation to protect nurses and patients 
from this system. 

Mr. Walsh, Parliamentary Secretary to 
the Local Government Board, who replied, 
said : — The arrangements made by the 
London Hospital with their nurses are not 
a matter over which the Government have 
any control. There is no intention of in- 
troducing legislation on the subject. 

Sir C. Henry : Has the hon. member 
satisfied himself of the accuracy of the 
statements in the question ? 

Captain Carr-Gomm : Are not the state- 
ments in the question of a controversial 
character, and is not the expression "farm- 
ing out," though perhaps picturesque, very 
unfair to an institution which has done 
much good work for a great number of 
years ? 

Major Chappie : Is my hon. friend not 
aware that the London Hospital is the only 
great hospital which takes its nurses from 
their training in the wards at the end of the 
second year, and admittedly pays them 



only 13s. a week while it draws two guineas 
a week ? 

The Speaker : This question should not 
have appeared on the paper. No Govern- 
ment Department has any control over the 
affairs of the London Hospital. If my 
attention had been called to the preamble 
of the question I should have struck it out. 

We are all conversant with the com- 
mercialism of the Nursing Department of 
the London Hospital. No doubt it will pass 
with the present Prussianised incarnation, 
but what is of vast importance to the 
nursing profession, as a whole, is the un- 
blushing confession of the Parliamentary 
Secretary to the Local Government Board 
that arrangements made by employers of 
voluntary charitable institutions, in connec- 
tion with workers under their control, no 
matter how injurious they may be, are 
beyond the power of Parliament. Again, 
the Speaker, in supporting this view, boldly 
said had his attention been called to the 
preamble of the question he would have 
struck it out ! 

In our opinion this is a most Indefensible 
attitude for Parliament to assume in relation 
to any class of worker. Here we have a 
class of women whose work in civilian and 
military hospitals, and in the homes of rich 
and poor is of the utmost value to the well- 
being of the State, and we find members of 
Parliament — to whose emoluments many of 
these workers are compelled to subscribe, 
calmly repudiating all responsibility for 
their conditions of labour. By what right, 
human or divine, are hospital governors 
empowered to treat their nursing staffs as 
helots, to work them and exploit them as 
they please ? We are not living in pre- 
Reformation days when the religious houses 
were barred and bolted, and their conduct 
above the control of the State, and that is 



22 



Zbc Brtttsb 3ournal of •Ruratno. 



July 13, 1918 



the position claimed by Mr. Speaker for the 
London Hospital in this year of grace. It 
is amazing! 

Do not let us forget, however, that there 
is no Act on the Statute Book for the 
protection of trained nurses, and until we 
get a modern Parliament we fear no just 
Act will be enforced. We trained nurses 
must not fail to realise the significance of 
Mr. Speaker's attitude towards us. It is 
indeed high time some Government Depart- 
ment was given control over every institution 
where persons assume arrogant authority 
over the lives of their fellows. 

The subtle provisions for the perpetuation 
of this unrestricted control by Nurse Train- 
ing Schools is what we have been fighting 
in the draft Bill, seven times revised, by 
hospital governors and officials who control 
the College of Nursing, Limited. 



OUR PRIZE COMPETITION. 



WHAT POINTS WOULD YOU ENDEAVOUR TO IMPRESS 

UPON A MOTHER A5 OF PRIMARY IMPORTANCE FOR 

THE REARING OF A HEALTHY BABY? 

We have pleasure in awarding the prize this 
week to Miss Theodora Harris, Slack Lane, 
Derby. 

PRIZE PAPER. 

I should endeavour to impress on the mother 
the following points as essential to the suc- 
cessful rearing of a healthy baby : — 

I. That Nature's way is always the best, and 
that to keep to the plans of Nature will ensure 
the best results. Nature intended breast- 
feeding, therefore breast-feeding is the right 
method. But to ensure her infant getting the 
full value from its natural food the mother must 
bear in mind the following points : — 

(a) That her own physical health must be 
safeguarded by abundance (if possible) of plain, 
. nourishing food and milk ; by sufficient sleep 
and rest ; by sufficient work, exercise, and fresh 
air; and by the avoidance of constipation, hot 
rooms, and any other unhealthy condition. 

(h) That her mental condition must be kept as 
healthful and peaceful as possible, and agita- 
tions, excitements, fits of passion, &c., strictly 
avoided as far as is possible. An anxious, 
worried, or angry mother will find her milk 
suffer. 

If from any unusual cause it is absolutely 
necessary to feed the baby artificially (and a 
baby should not be weaned except under 
medical advice, as a condition serious enough 



to necessitate weaning would be serious enough 
to necessitate a doctor's attendance), the arti- 
ficial feeding must adhere as closely as possible 
to Nature's plan, and, in that case, I should 
advise the mother to procure a pamphlet (price 
2d.) by Dr. Eric Pritchard on " Artificial Feed- 
ing," and follow the directions closely. No 
other food must, of course, be given — no 
"bits." 

2. Regularity in all things : regular three- 
hourly feeding; regularity in holding out, so 
that the infant is soon habituated to connect 
certain times with certain things ; regular hours 
for putting to bed, for getting up, for bathing, 
&c. An infant's life should go by clockwork, 
not only for the sake of present comfort and 
health, but also for the sake of educating the 
child. An infant's education begins on the first 
day of its life : in the first few hours he is being 
taught habits, either good or bad. 

3. Fresh air is an essential whatever the 
season, and the windows should never be shut, 
except just at bath-time. Baby should spend 
a large portion of his time in the open air, not 
with the sun beating on him, and not inside the 
leather hood of a perambulator, and not with 
his face covered with muslin. If a garden is 
available, it is a good plan to place a cot under 
a tree, and allow him to sleep there. A per- 
ambulator is too cramped to sleep in. 

4. Which brings us to another point — 
rational clothing. Away with' stiff binder, linen 
shirt, &c., and supplant them with loose, 
knitted wool vest and binder, high neck and 
long sleeves, no head flannel, and gowns that 
do not pin up over the feet, but allow for 
exercise. 

5. Absolute cleanliness for the baby and all 
appertaining to him is a point the importance 
of which cannot be over-estimated, and too 
much stress cannot be laid on the dangers 
arising from lack of it. 

6. Sleep and rest are things many babies are 
deprived of. A baby should sleep most of his 
life that is not occupied by feeding and bathing. 
He should be allowed to be peaceful when 
awake, and not be "on show " to friends and 
relatives, who endeavour to attract his atten- 
tion ; that way lies a nervous child. Give baby 
every needful attention, and then judiciously 
let him al&ne. It is as bad to deprive a baby of 
sleep as to deprive it of food. 

7. Baby must have a separate bed, be it but 
a clothes-basket or orange-crate, and with no 
curtains to keep out the air. An orange-crate 
and a mattress of chopped straw, that can be 
easily replaced, are within the means of even 
very poor mothers. 



July 13, 1918 



Zbc ©ritisb 3ournal of IRurslno. 



23 



8. No dummy ! Adenoids, misshapen mouths, 
and deformed teeth may result from this evil 
practice ; and the danger of infection when one 
is used is almost impossible to guard against. 

9. Flies are some of baby's worst enemies, 
and must be fought and exterminated. All food 
must be covered ; damp refuse, tea-leaves, 
green stuffs, &c., burnt, and the dustbin be 
always Covered, and no accumulations allowed 
anywhere. 

To sum up, all baby's surroundings must be 
clean, sunny, sanitary, and airy, and not over- 
crowded, either by persons or things. And as 
a child is trained to good habits in infancy, so 
will he be in adult life. 

HONOURABLE MENTION. 

The following competitors receive honourable 
mention : — Mrs. Farthing, Miss M. M. G. 
Bielby, Miss Alice M. Burns, Mrs. S. A. Box, 
Miss Olive M. Balderstone, Miss P. Thompson, 
Miss J. James. 

QUESTION FOR NEXT WEEK. 

State fully how you would disinfect a bed- 
room and its furnishings. 



THE ROYAL RED CROSS. 



The King conferred the decoration of the 
Royal Red Cross upon the following ladies at 
Buckingham Palace, on July 3rd, as follows : — 

Bar to the^Royal Red Cross, 

First Class. 
Matron Ada Yorke, late Queen Alexandra' s Imperi?,! 
Military Nursing Service. 

The Royal Red Cross. 

First Class. 

Queen Alexandra' s Imperial Military Nursing Service. 
— Matron Alexina Guthrie, and Lady Superintendent 
Fdith Beesby. 

Queen Alexandra' s Impeiial Military Nursing Serviec 
Reserve. — Assistant Matron Grace Rowlatt, and 
Sister Gwendoline Williams. 

Territorial Force Nursing Service. — Matron Ethel 
Buchanan. 

Civil Nursing Service. — Matron Emmeline Bann, 
Matron Clare Firth, Matron Agnes Hunt, Assistant 
Matron Eleanor Rodgers, and Assistant Matron 
Martha Rogers. 

British Red Cross Society. — Matron Mary Guy. 

Voluntary Aid Detachment. — Miss Maud Goodhue, 
and Miss Kate Howard. 

Canadian Army Nursing Service. — Matron Bessie 
Mitchell, Matron Elizabeth Ross, Acting Matron 
Irene Cains, Acting Matron Jessie Scott, Acting 
Matron Jean Stronach, Sister Hilda Corelli, Sister 
Alison DiCKisoN, and Sister Minnie McAffee. 

Second Class. 
Queen Alexandra' s Imperial Military Nursing Service 
Reserve. — Sister Elsie Bewsey, Sister Annie Florey, 
p.nd Sister Sarah Hughes. 



Territorial force Nursing Service. — Sister Lillian 

LOVELL. 

Civil Nursing Service. — Matron Lilian Boughey, 
Assistant Matron LiUan Baines, Assistant Matron 
Agnes Bankhead, Sister Elizabeth Anderson, Sister 
Edith Aspinall, and Sister Edith Barber. 

British Red Cross Society. — Matron Pauline Peter. 

Voluntary Aid Detachment. — Miss Pollex Adams, 
Miss Edith Allhusen, Miss Betty Anderson, Miss 
Frances Baguley, Mrs. Elsie Hughes, Miss Beatrice 
Bagnall-Oakley, Miss Katherine Tompson, and Miss 
Mary Wilkinson. 

Canadian Army Nursing Service. — Acting Matron 
Gertrude Radcliffe, Sister Gertrude Ramsden, Sister 
Gertrude Spanner, Sister Letitia Stevenson, ^^Sister 
Jean Sword, and Sister Mary White. 

Queen Alexandra received at Marlborough 
House the Members of the Military and Civil 
Nursing Services who have been awaxded the 
Royal Red Cross, subsequent to the Investiture. 



The King has been pleased to award the Royal 
Red Cross to the undermentioned ladies, in recogni- 
tion of their valuable nursmg services in connection 
with the war. 

Second Class. 

C.4BLE, Miss A. E., Matron, Gen. Infirmary, Salisbury ; 
Callan, Miss H.f Sister, T.F.N. S., 2nd Lend. 
Gen. Hospl., Chelsea; Cameron, Miss J. W., 
Sister, Q.A.I. M.N. S.R., Mily. Hospl., Tidworth ; 
Cameron, Miss M., Sister, T.F.N. S., 4th Sco. 
Gen. Hospl., Stobhill, Glasgow; Cameron, Miss 
M. C, Sister, Tooting Mily. Hospl., Tooting, 
S.W. 17; Campbell, Miss A. G., Matron, The 
Red Cross Hospl., Sussex Lodge, Newmarket; Camp- 
bell, Miss E. N., Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing Service, 
No. 4 Can. Gen. Hospl., Basingstoke, Hants ; Campbell, 
Miss M. S., Sister, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., Wharncliffe War 
Hospl., Sheffield; Carpenter-Turner, Miss E. M., 
Matron, R. Hamp. County Hospl., Winchester; Carr- 
Harris, Miss S. M., Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing 
Service, No. 16, Can. Gen. Hospl., Orpington. Kent; 
Carrier, Miss E., Charge Sister, V.A. Hospl., Lydney, 
Glos. ; Carter, Miss A. M., Matron, Broomlands Aux. 
Hospl., Kirkcudbright; Cattell, Miss C. L., Matron, 
Uffculme Aux. Hosp., Birmingham ; Chandler, Miss G., 
Sister, T.F.N. S., East Leeds War Hospl., 2nd Northern 
Gen. Hospl. ; Christmas, Miss M. L., Sister i/c Ward, 
N.Z.A.N.S., No. 2 New Zealand Hospl., Walton-on- 
Thames; Clerk, Miss E. M., Sister, T.F.N. S., 3rd 
Northern Gen. Hospl., Sheffield ;. Clayton, Mrs. C, Lady 
Supt., Dollis Hill House, Gladstone Park, Willesden ; 
Clery, Miss M., Sister, Q.A.I. M.N. S.R., Mily. Hospl., 
Curragh, Ireland; Clowes, Miss C, Hilder's Mily. 
Hospl., Haslemere, Surrey; Coath, Miss E., Sister, 
American Women's War Hospl., Paignton, Devon ; Cock- 
burn, Mrs. S., Matron, Royston, Herts; Cockeram, Miss 
E., Asst. Matron, Gen. Hospl., Birmingham; Comyn, 
Miss K., Asst. Matron, Dublin Castle Red Cross Hospl., 
Dublin City; Conley, Miss B., Sister, Q.A.I. M.N. S.R., 
R. Herbert Hospl., Woolwich; Connon, Miss A. H. J., 
Matron, Murtle House Aux. Hospl., Aberdeenshire; 
Cook, Miss M., Masseuse, Bath War Hospl., Bath; 
CooMBY, Miss A., Sister, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., King 
George's Hospl., Stamford Street, London, S.E. i ; 
Corrigan, Miss F^., Night Sister, Nell Lane Mily. 
Hospl., West Didsbury, Manchester; Cort, Miss F. M., 
Matron, R. Bath Hospl., Harrogate; Cottrell, Miss 
A., Asst. Macron, Gen. Mily. Hospl., Edmonton; Cramp, 



34 



(Tbe Britieb 3ournal ot IRursma, 



July 13, 1918 



Miss F. G., Sister, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., Reading War 
Hospl. ; Crawford, Miss J., Matron, Stapleton Park, 
Pontefract, W. Yorlis ; Cpawshaw, Mrs. F., Matron, 
Stubbins Vale Red Cross Hospl., Ramsbottom ; Crock- 
WEH., Miss H., Matron, Basford House Red Cross 
Hospl., Old Trafford, near Manchester; Crosfield, 
Lady D., Commdt., Highgate V.A.D. Hospl., " By- 
cuUa "; Crump, Miss E. M., Matron, Red Cross Hospl., 
Belper, Derbyshire; Culliman, Miss A. M., Sister, 
Weston Favell, Northampton, Aux. Mil. Hospl. 

Darley, Mrs. L., Matron, St. John's Ambulance Bde. 
Hospl., 6, Kensington Terrace, Newcastle-on-Tyne ; 
Davies, Miss C, Matron, V.A.D. Hospl., High 
Wycombe; Davies, Miss E. A., Sister, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., 
Council School Mil. Hospl., Aylesbury ; Davies, Miss E. , 
Matron, Countess of Pembroke's Hospl. for Officers, 
Wilton House, Salisbury; Davis, Miss M., Sister, 
Q.A.I. M.N.S., The Co. of Midd'x War Hospl., Naps- 
bury, St. Albans; Da we, Miss A. M., Sister, 
Q.A.I.M.N.S.R., Mily. Hospl., Ripon, Yorks ; Dean, 
Miss N., Senior Sister, Oakdene Hospl., Rainhill ; De 
Bellefeuille, Miss K., Nursing Sister, No. 14 Can. 
Gen. Hospl., Eastbourne; Dennis, Miss L. , Sister, 
T.F.N.S., ist Northern Gen. Hospl., Newcastle-on- 
Tyne; Denton, Miss L., Matron, Normanby Park Aux. 
Hospl., near Doncaster ; Dodds, Miss J. C, Sub-Matron, 
N.Z.A.N.S., No. 3 N.Z. Mil. Hospl., Codford ; 
Dodgson, Miss G, E., Matron, Dane John V.A.D. 
Hospl., Canterbury; Douglas, Mrs. M., Nurse, Princess 
Christian Hospl., South Norwood Hill, London; Dow- 
son, Mrs. A., Senior Nurse, St. John's Hospl., Chelten- 
ham ; Draper, Miss E. A., A./Asst. Matron, Highfield 
Mil. Hospl., Knotty Ash, Liverpool; Dugdale, Mrs. 
E. I., Matron, Eggington Hall Hospl., Derby, Dumble, 
Miss J., Asst. Matron, Welsh Metropolitan War Hospl., 
Whitchurch, near Cardiff; Dunbar, Miss M. A., Sister, 
Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., Mil. Hospl., Sheerness ; Dunn, Miss 
v.. Matron, St. John's V.A.D. Hospl., Sevenoaks ; 
Durward, Miss A. J. D., Sister, Q.A.I.M.N.S.R., 
Queen Mary's Mil. Hospl., Whalley, Lanes. 
(To be continued.) 



Matron Ada Yorke, Q.A.I.M.N.S. (Winchester 
Divisional Red Cross Hospital), received a Bar to 
the Royal Red Cross on the same day as her son, 
Captain H. Yorke, R.A.M.C, received the M.C. 
proud mother and proud son ! We congratulate 
Ihem both. 



NURSING AND THE WAR. 



It is reported that the Queen is particularly 
anxious that w^ounded women should be permitted 
to wear a little gold-braid stripe on their sleeves 
after the manner of tlie men. She is of opinion 
that it is the least recognition they can have. 
For some time now there has been a rumour that 
women should receive orders for distinguished 
service, and we hear that this is under consideration 
and is likely to bear fruit. 



We hope to hear that trained nurses under the 
authority of the Service du Sanii, in France, may 
be granted the right to wear the galons for length 
of service, as soldiers are. The Sisters of the 
F.F.N.C. rank as officers in the French Army, and 
have many of their privileges. 



We hear that some of the American masseuses 
in France are doing remarkably clever work in 
manipulating bad facial wounds. These masseuses 
were originally beauty doctors, and — ^like all the 
American specialists of this order — are very 
clever at their work. 



In France, where the " religious " have been 
for so long the nurses of the sick, the modern 
civil and military nurse is a new specie^, not yet 
quite understood or approved. For instance, 
when the Americans first came to Talence, the 
fact that they were provided with recreation and 
gaily tripped the hght fantastic toe with their 
fellow workers the doctors rather shocked the 
French. But recreation is a most necessary 
provision in the maintenance of a sound mental 
and physical balance, especially in war — and 
dancing may be harmless enough. 

Miss Jane A. Delano, R.N. (Chairman of the 
National Committee on Nursing Service of the 
American Red Cross), writes of " Recreation 
Houses for Nurses " in the American Journal of 
Nursing. The A.R.C., at the request of the 
Surgeon- General, is erecting forty of such recrea- 
tion houses, which are in reality club houses for 
nurses working in the cantonment hospitals. 
Most exacting care is being given to the comforts 
within. The main room (30 by 75 ft.), to be used 
ordinarily as a living room, will also be adapted 
for an assembly hall, and can be used for dances 
and receptions. There vidll be a small balcony, 
which may be utilised, among other ways, for 
operating moving pictures. From the great room 
will open a librajy, a sewing room equipped with 
machines and all conveniences, a small laundry, 
and a fully equipped kitchen. A piano and 
victrola and dainty lounges, and everything else 
necessary to express a sense of home, and to supply 
the needs and add to the comfort of cantonment 
life, have been provided. These clubs will be 
connected with the nurses' quarters. 



Major Chappie recently asked the Under 
Secretary A State for War, in the House of 
Commons, whether any advance in the mess 
allowance to nurses had recently been made to 
meet the increased cost of food ; and whether 
he had satisfied himself that the increased and 
increasing strain being put upon nurses in the 
execution of their duties was being fully met by 
an adequate supply of nourishing food ? 

Mr. Forster replied, as follows : " An advance 
of 4s. 2d. was authorised in Februarj^ 1917. 
I have no information to suggest that the nurses 
are suffering in consequence of an inadequate 
supply of nourishing food." 



A Sister we know, now supervising W.A.A.C.s, 
appears to have put on lbs. of weight. " No 
wonder," she remarked, cheerfully, " we are 
magnificently fed ; meat twice a day, and as 
much of everytliing as we can stuff." Moral : 
To avoid the vacuimi nature abhors, become a 
woman soldier. 



July 13, 1918 ^|)e British 3ournal of Bursing. 25 

FRENCH FLAG NURSING CORPS. CARE OF THE WOUNDED. 



So many of the Sisters were working behind 
the French hnes between the last German push 
and the Marne that their ambulances, in many 
instances, have had to be set up anew. This 
the Service du Sante has accomplished in the most 
admirable manner — and we have received numbers 
of letters expressing the gratitude of the Sisters 
for the great consideration, kindness and appre- 
ciation they have received from the medical 
officers under whom they work. 

One Sister writes : "I cannot express to you 
how good the doctors have been to us . . . they 
have looked after us and spared us in every way 
possible, and treat us as camarades — the greatest 
compliment. This ambulance has been very 
vv-ell notei at Headquarters in the retreat. We 

left G at mid-day and at mid-night were 

working at M . Never shall we forget that 

night, with bombs falling all round us, knowing 
that the Boches were advancing so fast." 

This brave woman once expressed the opinion 
that she would consider it a glorious death to die 
on duty at the Front. So it may be, but we 
cannot spare these heroines' — the wounded have 
too great need of them. 



Another Sister says : — 

" All the six weeks I was there (somewhere in 
France) I only had two quiet nights — 
the Germans bombarded alternately by cannons 
and avions. We got nearly all the Boches from 

R and we were kept very busy. The wounds 

were very terrible — many deaths ; we had some 
who had lain out thiee, four and five days on 
the ground, and it was awful to see enormous 
quantities of worms come out when the dressings 
were taken off." 

In French hospitals, German wounded share 
all the good care that is going equally with the 
heroic P'renchmen. This is the law of chivalry-^ — 
entirely superseded by the law of " f rightfulness " 
so far as our brutalised enemies are cone erned 



The Ambulance 12/2 Unit have arrived at their 
destination and had a wery waxm welcome upon 
their return. 

Sisters Gill, Hanning and Jones have rejoined 
Ambulance 16/21, and have also enjoyed the 
" fatted calf." It is indeed a matter for con- 
gratulation that the medical officers of the Service 
de Sante value their services so much. Both 
units have been told their care means the saving of 
life. This is the great reward to the true nurse. 



Miss Mildred Aldrich, the author of that most 
fascinating little book, " A Hill-top on the Marne," 
has published a second volume, " On the Edge of 
the War Zone," in which she gives a palpitating 
picture of the emotion with which an American 
resident near Meaux has lived through the exciting 
events down to the advance on Soissons. This is a 
book many F.F.N.C. Sisters will want to possess. 



July 4th, American Independence Day, has 
been celebrated in great form by the Allied 
nations, and we were all with President Wileon 
in spirit, when, on that date, he stood by the 
tombs of "\\"ashington and his wife, Martha, 
within the grounds of Mount Vernon, their lovely 
home on the bankr. of the Potomac, now conse- 
crated by the Daughters of the Revolution to 
their imperishable memory. 



July 14th, which typifies to all Frenchmen 
the victory of Liberty over Absolutism when, in 
1789, they stormed and captured the Bastille — ■ 
a victory which swept away the ancien regime — • 
is in this year of grace to be celebrated in London 
as " France's Day," on the 12th inst. A solemn 
mass of requiem for the French soldiers and sailors 
who have fallen in the war will be held at West- 
minster Cathedral at 11.30 a.m. in connection 
with the British Committee of the French Red 
Cross, when the splendid premier Zouave band 
of the French Army will play before lunching 
with the Lord Mayor. A whole day collection 
Avill be made in London for the benefit of French 
sick and wounded — the refugees from the devas- 
tated districts, and other sufferers from the 
invasion of France by the ruthless Hun. Thou- 
sands of sympathisers will sell souvenirs and a 
splendid response is expected. We shall all be 
wearing favours in support of the good cause on 
the 1 2th, to show our admiration for the un- 
quenchable spirit which is France. 



Why Poilu ? Many nurses want to know the 
reason for the name, which now stands for all 
the most splendid attributes of the fighting man. 
According to the French dictionary, the word 
means hairy, shaggy, bristling, and it is said that 
the name was given to French soldiers who have 
served in the trenches because the first French 
soldiers on leave thronged into Paris wearing 
whiskers. Such a sight had never been seen 
before and the people cried : " Oh ! les poilus, 
which may be freely translated : " Oh ! the 
whiskers," and the name stuck. Has anyone 
another explanation ? 



TRUE TALE WITH A MORAL. 

An experienced sistei, who is blest with a sense 
of humour, was asked the other day by her 
wounded soldiers : " How long does it take to be 
a nurse ? " 

" How long does it take to learn to nurse 
soldiers, do you mean ? " 

" Well, yec ! " 

" Oh," she returned, with a twinkle, " you 
require six months in a children's hospital and 
six months in the police force." 

Her patients were hrgely delighted. 



26 



Zbc British 3ournal of IFlureing. 



July 13, 1918 



OUR RO LL OF HONOUR. 

With grief and pride we publish the names of 
our Canadian sisters murdered on the high seas 
by the sinking of the Llandovery Castle. 

Campbell, Christine, N.S,, Victoria, B.C. ; 
Douglas, Carola Josephine, N.S. Manitoba ; 
DussALTLT, Alaxina, N.S., Montreal ; Follette, 
Minnie, N.S., Cumberland Co., N.S. ; ForTescue, 
Margaret Jane, N.S., Montreal ; Fraser, Matron 
Margaret Marjory, Moosejaw, Sask. ; Gallaher, 
Minnie Katherine, N.S., Ottawa ; McDiarmid, 
Jessie Mabel, N.S., Ash- 
ton, Ontario; McKenzie, 
Mary Agnes, N.S. , Tor- 
onto ; McLean, Rena, 
N.S., Prince Edward Is- 
land ; Sampson, Mac 
Belle, N.S., Ountroon, 
Qnt. ; Sare, Gladys 
Irene, N.S., Montreal ; 
Stamers, Anna Irene, 
N.S. New Brunswick ; 
Templeman, Jean, N.S., 
Ottawa. 



of the fourteen Canadian Sisters, every one of 
whom was lost. We learn : — •" Unflinchingly and 
calmly, as steady and collected as if on parade, 
without a complaint or a single outward sign of 
emotion, our fourteen devoted nursing sisters 
faced the terrible ordeal of certain death, only a 
matter of minutes, as our lifeboat neared that 
mad whirlpool of waters where all human power 
was helpless." 



To hundreds of officers 
and men of the Canadian 
Overseas Forces, the 
name of Nursing Sister 
Miss Margaret Mar j orie 
(Pearl) Fraser, will recall 
a record of unselfish 
effort, a fitting tribute to 
this nation's womanhood. 
Volunteering for active 
service in the C.A.M.C. 
on September 29th, 19 14, 
Miss Fraser went to 
France with the ist Can- 
adian Division, and for 
almost three years had 
been on duty in casualty 
clearing stations. Her 
faithf ulncsr was only 
tj'pical, however, of 
that service for humanity 
exhibited by every one 
of these precious 14 lives. 




The majority of the fourteen Sisters volunteered 
for service at the very outbreak ot hostilities in 
1914, came to England 
and France with the first 
Canadian Division, had 
seen active service, chiefly 
in casualty clearing sta- 
tions in France, through- 
out the intervening 
period, and recently 
had been transferred to 
transport duty. For 

many months, and in 
some cases, two years 
these Sisters had endured 
the hazards of the shelled 
areas in France, splen- 
didly contributing to 
the efficiency of our medi- 
cal service. How mag- 
nificently they faced the 
final ordeal on that awful 
evening of June 27th is 
simply yet graphically 
related in the story of 
Sergeant A. Knight, the 
non-commissioned officer 
of the C.A.M.C. who 
took charge of lifeboat 
No. 5, into whicn the 
fourteen nurses were 
placed. 

It is a story calculated 
to make every heart throb 
with admiration and 
gratitude to have been 
born British, and to be a 
member of the Nursing 
Sisterhood. 



SISTER FOX HARVEY. TRIPLE CHEVRONS 



The Minister of Over- 
seas Military Forces of 

Canada (Sir Edward Kemp, K.C.M.G.), having 
made careful inquiries into the sinking of the 
hospital ship Llandovery Castle, on June 27th 
has authorised publication of a report, which 
aflords convincing evidence of the deliberate 
intent and dastardly character by the latest 
German outrage on non-combatants. 

The Splendid Courage of the Sisters. 

: . In an extract from Sergeant A. Knight's stiiring 
record of the supreme devotion and valiant 
sacrifice of the medical personnel, nothing stand 
out more heroically than the coolness and courage 



There is much feeling 
throughout the nursing 
community over the sinking of the Llandovery 
Castle. The International Council of Nurses in 
London is compiling a full list of members de- 
liberately assassinated by the Germans. Canada's 
loss is most grievous. 

THE ROYAL NAVAL NURSING SERVICE. 

Sister Fox Harvey, whose portrait appears on 
this page, wears three chevrons for service afloat 
as a naval nurse. She is now on duty at the 
Koyal Naval Hospital, Chatham. We hear very 
little of the work done by the members of Queen 
Alexandra's Royal Naval Nursing Service, but 
our sick and wounded sailors realize its value. 



July 13, 1918 



ITbe Brtti9b 3ournal ot IRursmg. 



27 



THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE FOR THE 
STATE REGISTRATION OF NURSES. 



A Meeting of the Central Committee for the 
State Registration of Nurses was held in the 
Council Chamber of the British Medical Asso- 
ciation, 429, Strand, London, W.C., on Satur- 
day, July 6th, at 2.30 p.m. 

Mr. T. W. H. Garstang, M.R.C.S., was in 
the Chair. 

Reports were received from the Hon. Secre- 
taries and the Executive Committee. 
New Delegates. 

Upon the nomination of the Royal British 
Nurses' Association, Mrs. Shuter and Miss 
Isabel Macdonald were elected in the place of 
Mr. Comyns Berkeley and Miss Grace Gordon. 

Upon the nomination of the National Union 
of Trained Nurses, Miss Farrant was elected 
in the place of Miss Carruthers. 

Representation of the Irish Nursing Board. 
Upon the recommendation of the Executive 
Committee, the request for representation of 
the Irish Nursing Board, approved by the 
Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland, was 
agreed to. 

Amendments to the Nurses' Registration 
Bill. 
The following Amendments to the Bill were 
agreed to : — 

1. To insert the word *' Nursing," to read 
** General Nursing Council " throughout the 
Bill. 

2. To substitute two for one representatives 
for Male Nurses and Mental Nurses on the 
General Nursing Council. 

Duties and Powers of Council 
To Provide for Reciprocal Curricula. 
The following new Clause was agreed to : — 
" Prescribing the conditions necessary to be 
fulfilled by any hospital desirous of having any 
portion of its training recognised pro tanto 
towards the three years' training required 
under the Act." 

Nomination for Election of Direct Repre- 
sentatives ON THE General Nursing Council. 
The following new Clause was agreed to : — 
" The registered nurses entitled to be elected 
on the General Nursing Council must be duly 
nominated on a Form prescribed for the pur- 
pose. Each nomination paper must be signed 
by at least twelve registered nurses. Form of 
Nomination Paper : — We, the undersigned, 
being registered nurses resident in (England 
and Wales or Scotland or Ireland), hereby 



nominate (name in full), of (address and quali- 
fication), a registered nurse, as a proper person 
to be elected to the General Nursing Council by 
the registered nurses resident in (England and 
Wales or Scotland or Ireland)." 
Resolutions. 
The following Resolutions were approved : — 
An Independent Council. 

1. " That in the opinion of this Committee the 
Registration of Trained Nurses should be carried 
out by an independent Nursing Council, constituted 
by Act of Parliament, entirely dissociated from any 
one Organization of Nurses, such as the College 
of Nursing, Ltd." 

The Registration of Specialists. 

2. " That this Committee desires to protest against 
the Clause recently inserted in the Nurses' Regis- 
tration Bill drafted by the College of Nursing, Ltd., 
which provides for the Registration of Specialists, 
other than male and mental nurses. 

"In the opinion of this Committee the compiling 
of such Supplementary Registers is injurious to the 
best interests of the nursing profession, and the 
public, and is calculated to undermine the value of 
a Three Years' General Training, a One Portal 
Examination for the Nursing Profession, and the 
efficient standard of a General Register of Trained 
Nurses." 

Letter from Major Chapple, M.P. 
A letter from Major Chappie, M.P., concern- 
ing the re-drafted Bill of the College of Nurs- 
ing, Ltd., was read, and it was agreed to refer 
it to the Executive Committee for consideration 
and report. 

Ethel G. Fenwick, Hon. Nurse Sec. 
E. W. GooDALL, Hon. Medical Sec. 



THE CONSECRATION OF THE NURSING 
PROFESSION. 

The Address of the President, Miss Annie W. 
Goodrich, R.N., to the American Nurses' Associa- 
tion, delivered recently at Cleveland, Ohio, might 
well be reprinted in leaflet form and scattered 
broadcast throughout the nursing world. The 
theme is the consecration of the nursing profession, 
in the most momentous period in the history of the 
world, to the service of humanity. It is an inspiring 
trumpet call. 

" Never," says Miss Goodrich, " in our history 
have we been so under fire, never perhaps again 
will there ibe such a period of testing. With all 
the strength we ha^e, with all the undreamed-of 
strength we can summon, through every avenue of 
service we can find, we should seek to raise the 
standard of nursing immeasurably above the service 
rendered in all previous wars, that, after this 
ghastly struggle is over, freed, through a record of 
high service, our profession may contribute in 
fullest measure to the restoration of this crippled, 
scarred humanity. " ■ 



28 



Zbc Brttieb 3ournal of IRureino. 



July 13, 1918 



Ropal Britlsl) Rurses' flssoclatlon^ 




(Iticorporatca Dp &^Mi Ropal CDarten) 



THIS SUPPLEMENT BEING THE OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE CORPORATION. 



LOYAL CONGRATULATIONS TO THEIR 
MAJESTIES. 



On behalf of the Royal British Nurses' Asso- 
ciation, Her Royal Hig-hness the Princess 
Christian, President of the Corporation, has 
been graciously pleased to convey to their 
Majesties the King- and Queen the loyal and 
dutiful greetings and respectful cong-ratula- 
tions of the Hon. Officers, of the Greneral 
Council, and of the Members of the Corporation 
on the occasion of their Majesties' Silver 
Wedding. 

MEETING OF THE GENERAL COUNCIL. 

A Meeting- of the General Council was held at 
10, Orchard Street on July 4th, at 2.45 p.m. 

Before the Minutes were read, Mr. Pater son, 
who occupied the Chair, extended a very warm 
welcome to the new Members of the Gieneral 
Council. He hoped that the precedent made by 
the harmonious co-operation of the Representatives 
of the Affiliated Societies and other Members of 
the R.B.N. A. on the Council of the Chartered Cor- 
poration of Nurses would be followed by the nurses 
themselves, and if this happened he had very little 
doubt but that there would soon be a great 
improvement in the conditions under which the 
nurses worked. 

Reports of the Executive Committee and the 

Hon. Treasurer. 
The report of the Executive Committee for April 
and May was read, the Medical Honorary Secre- 
tary remarking that already most of the informa- 
tion contained therein had already been conveyed to 
Members of the Council through other channels, as 
the summer Meeting of the Council had been some- 
what delayed owing to the fact that one of the Bye- 
laws stipulated that it should not be held within a 
fortnight of the Annual Meeting. The Report of 
the Hon. Treasiirer for the same two months 
showed a balance of jC26g in the General Fund, and 
;^i,489 and ;^2,4o6 in the Helena Benevolent and 
Settlement Funds respectively. Expenses for print- 



ing formed an extremely heavy item in the expendi- 
ture account of the Greneral Fund. 

Loyal Congratulations to the King and Queen, 

Mrs. Bedford Fenwick moved, and Miss Easton 
seconded, a Resolution that an expression of loyalty 
and the congratulations of the Royal Corporation 
of Nurses be sent to their Majesties on the celebra- 
tion of their Silver Wedding. This was carried 
unanimously. 

Elections of Hon. Officers and Executive 
Committee. 

It was moved by Miss Cattell, seconded by Miss 
Sendall, and carried, that the following be elected 
Hon. Officers for the ensuing year : — Vice-Chair- 
men, Miss Heather-Bigg, R.R.C., Sir James 
Crichton Browne, Dr. Percival White ; Medical 
Hon. Secretary, Mr. Herbert Paterson ; Nurse Hon. 
Secretary, Mrs. Campbell Thomson ; Hon. Trea- 
surer, Dr. Kenneth Stewart. It was moved by 
Mrs. Campbell Thomson, seconded by Mrs. Sher- 
liker, and carried, that the following be elected to 
fill vacancies on the Executive Committee : — Dr. 
A. P. Beddard, Dr. A. S. Currie, Dr. J. T. C. 
Laing, Dr. Eric Pritchard, Dr. Leonard Williams, 
Mrs. Bedford Fenwick, Miss Easton, A.R.R.C., 
Miss Roberts, R.R.C., Miss Sinzininex, A.R.R.C, 
Miss Bedwell, A.R.R.C, Miss Alice Cattell, Miss 
Beatrice Kent, and Miss Liddiatt. Miss Henderson, 
the nominee of the Scottish Nurses' Association, 
was elected to a vacant seat on the General Council. 

The Medical Hon. Secretary read a report of a 
Meeting of the Consultative Committee, and 
instructions were given to the Executive Committee 
with regard thereto. 

The Midwives Act Amendment Bill. 

Miss Breay then moved the following Resolu- 
tion : — 

The Council of the Royal British Nurses' Asso- 
ciation desire to place on record their satisfaction 
that Clause 12 has been deleted from the Midwives 
Act Amendment Bill, a Clause which the Council 
consider to be against the interest of the Public and 
of the Midwives. 

This was seconded by Mrs. Scott and carried 
unanimously. The Secretary was instructed to 



]uly 13, 1918 



^be Brittsb 3ournal ot Buremo. 



29 



forward a copy of the Resolution to the Lord Pre- 
sident of the Council, the Right Hon. the Marquis 
of SaHsbury, the President of the Local Govern- 
ment Board, and the Chairman of the Central 
Midwives' Board. 
The Meeting then terminated. 



Captain and Mrs. J. C. Moulton. The honeymoon 
was spent in Penang and Singapore, and a month 
later Dr. and Mrs. Greene returned to Sarawak. 
Mrs. Greene joined the Association in 19 14. 



APPOINTMENTS. 

Miss Margaret Tait has been re-appointed 
Matron of the Government Hospital, Sarawak. 
Four years ago the late Rajah of Sarawak asked 
the Royal British Nurses' Association to recom- 
mend to him a nurse to undertake the duties of 
Matron in this hospital, where the patients are all 
Europeans. Miss Tait was appointed for the term 
of three years. At the end of that time, much to 
the disappointment of all connected with the hos- 
pital, she decided to return to England. The 
Government of Sarawak again asked the Corpora- 
tion to recommend one of its Members, and Miss 
Ina Macdonald secured the appointment, which is 
a very desirable one in many respects. Some six 
months after she sailed the news of her engage- 
ment to the Chief Medical Officer of Sarawak 
reached us, and considerable pressure was brought 
to bear upon Miss Tait by the Sarawak Govern- 
ment in order to persuade her to return and take 
charge of the hospital again. Much appreciation 
has been expressed regarding her work in Sarawak, 
and many friends will extend to her a warm wel- 
come upon her return. Miss Tait was trained at 
the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, and ibecame a 
Member of the Corporation in 1914. 



Miss Louisa Kate Clarke has been appointed 
Night Superintendent at Gateshead Hospital. Miss 
Clarke gained the Diploma of the Royal British 
Nurses' Association, and became a Member in 1908. 



Miss Alice M. Brittain has been appointed Dis- 
trict Nurse in Bournemouth. She joined the 
Association in 1902. 

ENGAGEMENT. 

As we go to press we learn that Miss Jean 
MacLauchlin is shortly to be married to Mr. 
Deltman, of Belmont Park, Blackheath. Miss 
Maclauchlin joined the Association in 19 15. Until 
recently she was Matron in a Government Colony 
for Munition wor'cers, an appointment which she 
obtained through the Association. 



MARRIAGE. 

On March nth, at St. Andrew's Church, Singa- 
pore, by the Venerable Archdeacon Swindell, Dr. 
Downes Latimer Greene, Principal Medical Officer 
to the Government of Sarawak, was married to 
Miss Ina Macdonald, second daughter of Roderick 
Macdonald, Esq., of Ashford. The ceremony was 
a very quiet one, the only witnesses being Lieut. 
Gibson-Fleming, who gave the bride away, and 



The marriage took place recently, at the 
Brompton Oratory, of the Hon. M. P. E. R. 
Antelme to Miss Mary C. Lewis. Miss Lewis 
became a Member of the Association in 1917, and 
took private cases from it for some time. 



DONATIONS RECEIVED. 

GENERAL FUND. 

Mrs. Rogers, ,^3 ; Miss Coward, £2 ; Miss Eden, 
;^2 ; Mrs. Broadfoot, _;^'i is. ; Miss Habgood, 
£1 IS. ; Miss Boldero, £1 ; Miss Cattell, £1 ; Miss 
Glover, ;^i ; Mrs. Raikes, £1 ; Miss Jordan, 15s. ; 
Miss Conway, los. 6d. ; Miss Liddiatt, los. ; Miss 
Sumner, los. ; Miss Hawkes, 5s. ; Mrs. Roberts, 
5s. ; Miss Oldham, 3s. 6d. ; Miss Randall, 3s. 2d. ; 
Miss Shorter, 2s. 6d. ; Miss Young, 2s. 6d. ; Miss 
Coates, 2S. ; Miss Stewart, is. 6d. ; Miss Conster- 
dine, is ; Miss Munson, is. 

STATE REGISTRATION FUND. 

Miss Easton, ^^2 ; Miss Budd, ;^i 6s. 6d. ; Miss 
Cureton, p^i ; Miss Farquharson, £1 ; Miss 
Clifford, los. ; Miss Copeland, los. 6d. ; Miss Davis, 
los. ; Miss Glover, los. ; Miss Holmes, los. ; Miss 
Robinson, los. ; Miss Ault, 5s. ; Miss Bedwell, 5s. ; 
Miss Gurnett, 5s. ; Miss Byard, 2s. 6d. ; Miss Coull, 
2S. 6d. ; Miss Jones, 2s. 6d. ; Miss Leigh, 2s 6d. ; 
Miss Standing, 2s. 6d. ; Miss Tarry, 2s. 6d. 

HELENA BENEVOLENT FUND. 

Maintained by the Members for the benefit of 
their fellow-Members in times of sickness or 
distress. 

Miss Habgood, £1 ; Miss Cutler, los. ; Miss 
Glover, los. ; Miss Cattell, 8s. 6d. ; Mrs. Hewer, 
5s. ; Miss Chippendale, 5s. ; Miss Oldham, 4s. ; 
Miss Garland, 2s. 6d. ; Miss Hooper, 2s. 6d. ; Miss 
Smith, 2S. 6d. ; Miss Young, 2s. 6d. ; Miss Bayley, 
2S. ; Mrs. Dalton Holmes, 2s. ; Miss Humphry, 2s. ; 
Miss Newcombe, 2s. ; Miss Dyke, is. 6d. ; Miss 
Ansett, IS. ; Miss Blizard, is. ; Mrs. Douglas, is. ; 
Miss Fewkes, is. ; Miss Haynes, is. ; Miss Henry, 
IS. ; Miss Henson, is. ; Miss Hore, is. ; Miss 
Kenten, is. ; Miss Millar, is. ; Miss Morris, is. ; 
Miss Ommaney, is. ; Miss Pardy, is. ; Miss Pike, 
IS. ; Miss Relph, is. ; Miss Robertson, is. ; Miss 
Slater, is.; Miss Steuart, is.; Miss Tabuteau, is.; 
Miss Wilson, is. ; Miss Groom, 6d. 

SETTLEMENT FUND. 

Subscribed to by the Members for the mainten- 
ance of the Princess Christian Settlement Home for 
aged nurses. 

Miss Henry, £1 ; Miss Baskerville Smith, 2s. 6d. 

(Sig-ned) Isabel Macdonald, 

Secretary to the Corporation. 



3^ 



^be JBritieb 3ournal ot flursinQ, 



July ij, 1918 



A PROTEST. 



We referred last week to a letter of protest 
addressed by Miss Lloyd Still, Matron of St. 
Thomas' Hospital, and Miss Amy Hughes, in the 
June issue of the American Journal of Nursing, 
against an article by Miss L. L. Dock entitled 
" English Nursing Politics," which they state was 
based on a biassed account in The British 
Journal of Nursing of the present condition of 
the Nursing World in England. 

The two ladies think it right American nurses 
should hear both sides ; so do we. 

They claim that the College of Nursing, Ltd. 
came into existence as a result of the great lack of 
uniformity, and (in many instances) the lack of 
efficiency in the training of nurses, and state that 
its avowed objects are to obtain (i) State Regis- 
tration for the trained nurses, (2) the protection of 
the interests of trained nurses, (3) the raising of 
the standard of training, (4) the establishment of 
a uniform curriculum of training and the one- 
portal examination, (5) the establishment of 
lectureships and scholarships. 

Whose the fault for this deplorable condition of 
affairs, that all these reforms have not long ago 
been instituted ? Certainly not that of the State 
Registration Party, who have called urgently for 
one and air through their organ, The British 
Journal of Nursing, for thirty years but of the 
lay governors of hospitals, and Matrons like Miss 
Lloyd Still, who have opposed by every means in 
their power the organisation of trained nursing 
education, and registration through an Act of 
Parliamer.t, and who have signed manifestoes 
without end to Members of Parliament and the 
public, stating that : — 

" We believe that any system of State Registra- 
tion would be detrimental to the public, and 
harmful to the nurses themselves," and further 

" A State Register of Nurses, far from being a 
security, to the public, would be an actual source 
of danger." 

No, the College did not come into existence to 
effect the State Registration of Nurses. It came 
into existence to attempt to circumvent State 
Registration by a voluntary system of Registra- 
tion controlled by the employers of nurses, and 
only recanted when its promoters found we State 
Registrationists had, by thirty years' work and the 
expenditure of upwards of ;^2o,ooo, convinced the 
country and the legislators of the j ustice of our 
cause. Then they adopted the letter of registra- 
tion law without its spirit. 

We claim a just Bill, incorporating self-determi- 
nation and self-government. The College Com- 
pany and its nominees have denied this funda- 
mental basis of good government and have 
attempted to thrust a Bill upon us incorporating 
a lay company' and its tyrannical Constitution as 
the General Nursing Council of our profession. 
The College has the support of the laity who 
Control the large Nursing Schools and Nursing 



Institutions, the Anti-Registration Party ; their 
Bill is inspired by some of the most subtle anti- 
feminists in our midst, and their claim that the 
government of the College is democratic is, 
presumably, a huge joke. 

Take a few of its provisions : — 

2. This Council has power : — 

(a) To appoint any persons (whether already 
members or not) to be members of the Council. 
(Article 37.) 

(b) To exclude from office Matrons of Hospitals 
or Superintendents of Nursing, Sisters or Nurses 
who are not engaged in the active practice of their 
profession. (Article 35.) 

(0) To adopt, if thought fit, the results of ex- 
aminations held by approved Nursing Schools as 
sufficient evidence of proficiency. (Memo. 3 
(D.).) 

(d) To grant certificates . . . Provided that the 
College shall not grant or profess to grant titles 
or diplomas. (Memo. 3 (E).) 

(e) To remove from the Register the name or 
names of any person or persons as the Council 
may in its discretion think proper. (Memo. 3 

(J)-) 

We claim professional independence. 

We take exception to the appeal made by the 
British Women's Hospital Committe'? because 
(i) as professional wom.en we object to be made 
the objects of a War Charity by a self-appointed 
committee of Society women and actresses who 
know nothing of our professional needs, (2) because 
to endow a lay Company of employers, the College 
of Nursing, Ltd., with unlimited funds means the 
subjugation of the class of working women they 
are attempting to control, and we object to our 
independence being bought up. 

Enough. Our American readers mil not have 
far to seek to realise our claim that if these anti- 
registrationists are converted and truly penitent 
for their unreasoning obstruction to nursing 
reform in past years, and its consequent injury 
to the sick, and are prepared to refund to working 
women the ;^20,ooo they have spent in con- 
scientious agitation, they could prove their bona 
tides by evincing sympathy with oui professional 
aspirations, -without adopting our programme, and 
claiming it as their own. 

The truth is the attitude of the Governors and 
officials of our Nurse-Training Schools is British 
to the backbone. We are in the aggregate 
creatures of habit, a dull, worthy, unimaginative 
people, but we are credited with being honest. 

The founders of the College must repent them of 
their stupidity before they can hope to inspire 
confidence in those whose ideas they have ex- 
ploited with such avidity. 

Miss Lloyd Still and Miss Amy Hughes are 
much respected ladies, but their environment 
is circumscribed. They look down on mere 
mortals from the heights of Olympus. 

We claim a fair field and no favour. 

We will not be cooped up in the College 
compound. 



Jidy 13, 1918 



^be Bntisb 3ournal of IRursina. 



3< 



A LITTLE BIT OF SUGAR. 



We hope we shall not be accused of undue 
vanity if we reprint the following- parag-raph 
from the " Foreign Department " of the 
American Journal of Nursing, in charg-e of 
Lavinia L. Dock, R.N. ; but to have struggled 
for the past thirty years for professional ideals 
in an antagonistic and reactionary atmosphere 
at home, makes the appreciation we have 
always received abroad doubly sweet. It has 
been the " spirit " which has sustained the 
" Dynamos " and made the wheels go round. 

Our Dear Dynamos. 

For many years we have been in the habit of 
calling Mrs. Bedford Fenwick and Miss Margaret 
Breay afEectionately, the/' Dynamos," because of 
their unceasing and un,tiring energy in all the mani- 
fold crises met with in the process of conducting a 
weekly nursing journaJ, which is also an organ of 
the most vital propaganda — ^really a watch tower 
quite as much as a brilliantly-edited magazine. 
The chief lady dynamo, Mrs. Fenwick, has com- 
pleted, on the first of April past, her fortieth year 
of professional work, sixteen of which she spent in 
varied pieces of active nursing, including the 
matronship in one of England's most famous hos- 
pitals, St. Bartholomew's, where she laid the 
foundation of the modern democratic, educational, 
enlightened discipline of training-schools as against 
the older autocratic, repressive methods ; while 
her last twenty-four year.= of the most intense and 
unremitting labours for the advanced education 
and organisation of Aursco in self-governing profes- 
sional bodies, with the attainment of State regula- 
tion of nurses' training as the goal, have been given 
their special fire and fervour by the necessity of 
combating the most solid, determined and obsti- 
nate hostility to the economic progress of women 
that has been encountered by any nurses in any 
otherwise progressive country. We do not, of 
course, here consider those countries which are dis- 
tinctly unprogressive as regards women. In these 
forty years, Mrs. Fenwick has seen her ideals sup- 
ported and developed in many countries, and these 
proofs of their merit have given her courage and 
joy even though " State registration still hangs in 
the balance " in Great Britain. 

A marvellous, self-renewing spring of energy has 
been hers. She writes : " It has been splendid to 
have been given health and strength, energy and 
spirit, to keep the cause alive for all these years, 
and to realise that victory is at hand." Not only 
on these well-known lines, but in mjrriad ways of 
civic and war work is she now busy. 



THE IRISH NURSI NG BOARD. 

The first of the three yearly elections of the 
Irish Nursing Board was held in the Royal College 
of Surgeons in Ireland, Dublin, on July 4th. The 
voting was by postal ballot, and 38 nurses had 
been nominated to fill 22 vacancies. 

The following 22 names received the largest 
number of votes, and were dul)' declared elected : — 
Miss E. T. Bacon, St. Vincent's Hospital. 
L. Bradburne, The Meath Hospital. 
Hon. A. L. Brodrick, Caher Daniel, co. Kerry. 
Miss T. Doorly, 9, Blackball Place. 
,, E. Hezlett, Richmond Hospital. 
„ J. Hughes, Temple Hill Hosp., Blackiock. 
,, M. Huxley, Elpis, Lower Mount Street. 
„ J. Jordan, Mercer's Hospital. 
,, K. Kearns, 29, Gardiner's Place. 
,, M. A. Keating, National Maternity Hosp. 
N. McArdle, Castle Red Cross Hospital. 
Mrs. F. Manning, Elpis, Lower Mount Street. 
Miss G. O'Donel, 24, Eccks Street. 
„ M. O'Flynn, Cliildren's Hosp., Temple St. 
A. M. Phillips, Dr. Steevens Ho.spital. 
C. Pike, 38, Ranelagh Road. 
,, A. Carson Rae, 34, St. Stepher's Green. 
„ L. Ramsden, Rotunda Hospital. 
,., A. Reeves, Royal Victoria Hospital. 

A. S. Rhind, Cork Street Fever Hospital. 
,, E. Sutton, St. Vincent's Hospital. 

M. Thornton, Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital. 
A Meeting of the Irish Nursing Board was held 
in the Royal College of Surgeons on July 12th, to 
elect the Committee. 

We learn that certificated Irish Nurses are sup- 
porting this movement for the improvement of 
their professional education and status in a very 
satisfactory manner, and many intend to register 
as soon as they have completed their three years' 
training and have obtained their Certificates. 



Twenty-five teaching Sisters from Roman 
Catholic convents in Ontario are taking a special 
course in agriculture at Guelph College. This is 
a fine example to thousands of idle young Soc'ety 
women in P^ngland. 



APPOINTMENTS. 

MATRON. 

Ilford Maternity Home. — Miss Edith Waring 
has been appointed Matron. She held the position 
of Ward Sister at the Chelsea Hospital for Women. 

ASSISTANT MATRON. 

St. Mary, Islington, Infirmary, Highgate Hill, 

N. 19. — Miss Jean McKenzie has been appointed 
Assistant Matron. She was trained at the Toxteth 
Infirmary, Liverpool, where she was afterward 
ward and theatre Sister. She has also been Night 
Sister at the Mile End Military Hospital, and 
Assistant Matron at the Westminster Infirmary. 
Hendon. She has also had experience of District 
Nursing as a Queen's nurse. 

SISTER. 

General Hospital, Northampton. — Miss Annie 
Askew has been appointed Sister. She was trained 
at the Workhouse Infirmary, Portsmouth, and has 
been Staff Nurse at the Royal London Ophthalmic 
Hospital, and Sister at the Birmingham Midland 
and Eye Hospital. 



33 



Jlbc Britiab 3ournal of IRursino. 



July 13, 1918 



A DESIRABLE APPOINTMENT. 

A desirable appointment in the nursing world is 
now vacant in the Cheltenham Cjeneral Hospital. 
For particulars in regard to it we refer our readers 
to our advertisement supplement. 

QUEEN ALEXANDRA'S MILITARY NURSING 
SERVICE FOR INDIA. 

Miss Helen Dorothea Campbell and Miss 
Margaret Deans Scott have been appointed 
Nursing Sisters in Queen Alexandra's Military 
Nursing Service for India. 

QUEEN VICTORIA'S JUBILEE INSTITUTE. 

Transfers and Appointments. 
Miss Miriam Booth is appointed to Charlton ; 
Miss Celia R. Clapson to South Wimbledon ; Miss 
Agnes C. Cottrill to Brixton ; Miss Mary Crosse to 
Leeds (Armley) ; Miss Ivy A. Fawkes to Man( hes •■ 
ter (Harpurhey) ; Mrs Eva Markby to Ports- 
mouth ; Miss Adelaide J. Pringle to Prestwich ; 
Miss Mary F. Ronchetti to Leeds (Armley) ; Miss 
Janet Wilcock to Radchffe ; Miss Edith J. 
Woodhouse to Charlton. 



COLONIAL NURSING ASSOCIATION. 
Imperial Institute, S.W. 7. 

The Committee of the Colonial Nursing Associa- 
tion desire to notify that at a meeting of the 
Executive Committee,, held at the Impierial 
Institute on Wednesday, June 5th, 191 8, the 
following Resolution was unanimously carried : — 

" That from and after the date of the next 
General Meeting (July 3rd, 191 8), the name of 
the Association shall be the Overseas Nursing 
Association." 

By Order of the Committee. 

EDITH CAVELL HOMES. 

A large number of applications are being 
received from nurses by the committee of the 
Edith Cavell Homes of Rest for Nurses, of which 
Queen Alexandra is the patron, and new homes 
are in the course of being opened. Funds, are 
urgently required. Subscriptions should be sent 
to the Hon. Secretary, 25, Victoria Street, S.W. 

PRACTICAL POINTS. 

Vaseline in Ether Anesthesia. 

" M.P.A." writes in the American Journal of 
Nursing : " CarboUsed vaseline applied to the 
nasal niucosa has been found to overcome post- 
operative vomiting and to do away with the 
unpleasant taste of ether while taking it and 
afterwards. It is not infallible, but in a number 
of cases it has been most successful and is worth 
trying." 

AN INTERESTING ANNOUNCEMENT. 

Mr. J. S. Wood, the Chairman, has purchased the 
entire interest in The Gentlewoman and the Press 
Printers, Ltd., held by Mr. Alex. J. Warden, who 
has now no connection with either company. 



NURSING ECHOES. 

The Report of the Treasurer of St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital for 1917 remarks : — 

" The inadequate and unsatisfactory housing 
of the Nurses in the Hospital is a subject to 
which I have referred on numerous occasions, 
and in my Report for 1916 I ex:pressed the 
opinion that the provision of a suitable Home 
must be dealt with immediately upon the termi- 
nation of the war. 

" I fully realise that the task of raising a 
large sum which will be required for this pur- 
pose will be an extremely difficult one, but I 
would urge that, as a preliminary, a Special 
Committee should be appointed forthwith to 
consider the question of a site, arrange for 
the preparation of plans, and advise as to the 
means to be adopted to obtain the necessary 
funds for the erection of the building. 

" The urgency of this matter Is naturally 
more apparent to those actively engaged In the 
administration of the Hospital, and I venture 
to think the views I have expressed will be 
fully endorsed by my colleagues, the Almoners, 
and by those members of the Visiting 
Governors' Committee whose duty It Is to 
periodically Inspect the existing accommoda- 
tion." 

The fact Is that the housing ^f the Nursing 
Staff at St. Bartholomew's Hospital Is quite 
Inadequate and the sanitary arrangements 
obso'ete. Upwards of thirty years ago the 
question of providing a Nurses' Home 
was under the consideration of the then 
Treasurer and Almoners, and that a catas- 
trophe from fire has not happened Is more 
from good luck than good looking for; there 
has been more than one narrow escape. Again, 
the Nursing School attached to the hospital has 
been most seriously handicapped for need of 
proper classrooms and teaching facilities for 
many years past. The neglect of the Nurses* 
Interests In these particulars at the premier 
royal hospital In the Empire Is a lesson to the 
community that no class of worker should be 
entirely left to the mercy of Irresponsible 
employers, however benevolent In Intention. 
The sooner we have a Ministry of Health, 
responsible for the expert Inspection of every 
Institution where sick people are attended, the 
better. Generations of professional women 
will then be protected from the control of 
philanthropists where education Is concerned, 
and conditions of housing dangerous to life. 
His Majesty the King, who Is President of St. 
Bartholomew's Hospital, expressed his solici- 
tude for the health and comfort of Nursing 
Staffs of Hospitals in Lord Stamfordham's 



July 13, 1918 



^be Brittdb 3ournal ot Durema. 



33 



letter to the Council of King Edward's Hospital 
Fund for London in December last : it is doing 
His Majesty a very poor service to permit him 
to run the risk of blame for neglect and injury 
to the devoted nursing staff at Bart's. We 
hope the Governors will respond whole- 
heartedly, as suggested by Lord Sandhurst, as 
to providing a new Nurses' Home. 



OUTSIDE THE GATES. 



We are glad to note the Nursing Staff are 
congratulated on the honours they have 
received for war work, and that the emolu- 
ments of the probationers have been consider- 
ably increased. The Sisters and senior officers 
are generously remunerated, and their off-duty 
time at St. Bartholomew's Hospital is most 
liberal. 

The Establishment Committee of the London 
County Council reported to the Council last 
Tuesday that they have not deemed it desirable 
to revise the scale of salaries of the school 
nurses in the Public Health Department during 
the war, though they have granted war wages 
of 9s. a week, but the nursing staff — 141 in 
number — have submitted a petition asking that 
the matter may be reconsidered. The Com- 
mittee still think the time inopportune for a 
revision of the scale, but consider there is 
justification for increasing the amount of war 
wages, especially as there has been a consider- 
able number of resignations among the staff in 
order to take up more remunerative work. 
They now recommend that, as from the ist 
July, 1918, until the expiration of six months 
after the declaration of peace, the war wages 
of 9s. a week granted to the assistant super- 
intendents of school nurses and the nurses 
serving on the permanent staff in the public 
health department, be increased by ;^5o a year. 
This recommendation is approved by the 
Finance Committee, and provision is made in 
its estimates for the necessary increase as a 
matter of urgency. 



We hear from several Matrons of country 
hospitals that it is almost impossible to get 
suitable trained women to fill the positions of 
sister and night sister. We wonder if an 
increase of salary to ;^5o annually would not 
meet with some respKjnse. Hospital com- 
mittees should realise that the supply of really 
well-trained and first-class women is not at 
present equal to the demand. The law of 
economics demands an uprising scale of re- 
muneration. The new-laid summer penny egg 
is now 5d. ; for a spring chicken anything from 
los. to 15s. Either you must pay for them or 
go without. It appears a simple proposition. 



The New Register. 

The new Parliament Bill brings the next genf ral 
election a little nearer, for it is understood that 
tliis Bill will be the last of the series. If an election 
is to take place before the end of the year a great 
speeding up of the new register will be necessai-y 
Women are all longing for a new Parliament which 
they have helped to elect. We want young fresh 
men {and women, if we may have them) full of 
patriotism and energy. We want to set to and 
get things done for the benefit of the people. 
Make Sure. 

The new voters' lists are being posted at post 
offi.ces, churches, chapels, and public buildings. 
All qualified, including women over 30, should see 
their names are included. If not, information 
must be given to the local registration officer 
before July 17. 

We Offer Sympathy. 

We ofEer sincere sympathy to our American 
Sisters, that after all their strenuous work, into 
which many of them, like Lavinia Dock, have put 
their whole heart, the requisite two-thirds 
majority in the Senate of the United States was 
not obtained for the Woman Suffrage amendment 
to the Federal Constitution, in spite of the 
president having openly advocated woman suffrage 
for . the United States, as part of the creed of 
democracy for which the war is being fought. A 
few reactionary Senators have turned it down, 
men, we learn, described as " crusted Tories and 
Junkers, old slave holdero." The result is that, 
after a battle of nearly thirty years to get the 
Federal Amendment through Congress, it will be 
necessary for the women to begin all over again 
at the next session to put the measure through 
the lower House. Anyway, these " old slave 
holders " who defeated the amendment have given 
abroad in enemy countries the impression that 
America is not as far advanced as her slogans of 
democracy would indicate. She must wipe out 
this impression at the first possible opportunity. 

SANITAS. 

A most satisfactory report was presented at the 
twentieth ordinary general meeting ot the 
" Sanitas " Company, Ltd., on July 3rd, at 
Winchester House, Old Broad Street, E.C. The 
Chairman, Mr. C. T. Kingzett, F.I.C., F.C.S., in 
moving the adoption of the report and accounts 
said that the business of the company had been 
well maintained. In some directions there had 
been great extensions, notwithstanding the diffi- 
culties attendant upon trading in these days — the 
scarcity of materials, difficulties of securing 
licences to obtain them, scarcity of freight, deple- 
tion of staff, and so forth. The volume of trade 
had nevertheless increased proportionately. Both 
sales and profit constituted a record in the history 
of the company. The reserve fund has been 
increased by over £y,ooo, and the total dividend 
for the year has been 8 pei cent. 



34 



ITbe Sritteto Sournal of Burdtna. 



July 13, 1918 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects Jar these columns, we wish it to ht 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 

WHY NOT STOP THE 5ALE OF THIS 
MISLEADING BADGE? 

To the Editor o/The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — The attention of the Council 
of the Nightingale Fund has been drawn to the 
fact that a trading association has been selhng a 
badge which they call the " Nightingale Badge," 
and the Council feel, therefore,' that they ought to 
explain that the selhng of this badge is not author- 
ised by them, and that its possession does not 
imply that the owner has received a training at 
the Nightingale School. 

It would appear tha.t the badge can be purchased 
by any nurse, or indeed anyone, if she wishes. 

. My' Council, therefore, feel it right to make 
this explanation and dicclaimer in response to 
requests that have come to them from influential 
quarters in the nursing world, and they will be 
much obhged if 3^ou will give it as wide pubUcity 
as possible. 

I am, dear Madam, 

Yours faithfully, 

W. H. Bonham-Carter, 
Secretary 0/ the Nightingale Training 
School. 

[It will be remembered that a correspondent 
drew public notice to this matter in this Journal 
a iew weeks ago. At the request of the Matron 
of St. Thomas' Hospital we placed further informa- 
tion at her aisposal, and congratulate the Com- 
mittee of the Nightingale School for Nurses on 
disclaiming responsibility for this "Nightingale 
Badge." For the protection of "Nightingales" 
we suggest the Committee should take steps to 
prcA^ent the sale * f this " badge," Avhich any 
person trained or not can buy, and wear. It is 
calculated to mislead the public. — Ed.] 

HUMILIATING HUMBUG. 

To the Editor 0/ The British Journal of Nursing. 
Dear Madam, — I wonder how much deeper of 
the cup of humiliation the nursing profession will 
have to drink — to the very dregs ? I happened 
to walk into Waring & Gillow's shop the other 
day, where I saw a most extraordinary entertain- 
ment in progress. Miss Elizabeth Asquith was 
exhibiting a wax cioU, which she informed me 
represented Queen Alexandra in her wedding 
dress. Upon further questioning, I learned that 
this toy was to be raffled for " The Nation's Fund 
for Nurses," so called. I gave her to understand 
very clearly that self-respecting nurses resented 
being held up as objects of charity. I further 
informed her that the only thing we did want 
was what her father — when Prime Minister — had 
had the power to give us, and had refused, namely, 



State Registration ; and that what we did not 
want was that she should patronize the nurses 
in such an insulting way as to invite raffling 
(gambling is the most honest term) over a wax doll 
to obtain charity money for trained nurses. 
What has Miss Asquith to do with the Nursing 
Profession I should much like to know. Instead 
of this unjustifiable interference, she would be 
better employed doing some work of national 
importance, and this I told her as a parting word of 
advice. Where is the esprit de corps among nurses 
if they can tolerate this ignoble treatment of 
what is often called by those who deUght to 
humiliate it — " a noble profession" ? 
Yours indignantly, 

Beatrice Kent. 
P.S. — I am in perfect sympathy and agreement 
with Henrietta Hawkins in the views she expresses 
about the work which the splendid official report 
of the work of the Society for State Registration 
represents, and I enclose a donation towards the 
expenses with the greatest pleasure and gratitude. 

[Appreciation, as well as financial support for 
a just Bill, is most welcome. — ^Ed,] 

A QUESTION OF IMPORTANCE TO MENTAL 
NURSES. 

To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — I was much interested in Captain 
Kirkland-Whittaker's remarks at the Annual 
Meeting of the Asylum Workers' Association {The 
Asylum News, p. 18) on the promotion of mental 
nurses to the posts of Assistant Matron and Matron, 
and from the applause they received it would appear 
that the sentiments were approved of by the whole 
meeting-. It is interesting to record that he repeats 
in England the views which were expressed in 
Scotland by Dr. Yellowlees, of Gartnavel (the 
Father of the Medico-Psychological Association), 
so long ago as 1898. While agreeing with Captain 
Kirkland-Whittaker that the matron of an Asylum 
ought to be fully qualified in her profession, and 
hold both the Certificates of Hospital Nursing and 
of Proficiency in Mental Nursing, he thought the 
best matrons were those who had first been mental 
nurses and had subsequently completed their train- 
ing in the wards of a Greneral Hospital. The 
Asylum, he eloquently said, was their " first love," 
and their interest in work of this kind of institution 
would be greater. 

Dr. Yellowlees' remarks were made during a 
discussion on the training of hospital nurses in 
mental work for the purpose of fitting them to 
become matrons of Asylums. A considerable 
number since 1880 had been appointed matrons of 
Asylums in Scotland, and, owing to their want of 
training, with indifferent success in many cases. 
I thought this defect should be rectified, and I 
induced the first hospital nurses to enter the wards 
of an Asylum in the year 1896. The prestige of the 
Asylum service was then so low that it took nearly 
a year before I could get a single candidate. Two 
others came shortly afterwards. All three became 
matrons of Asylums within three years, and after 



The Bntteh Toumul of Nurtutg, July 12, tflS. 



" Science is, I b^eve, 
nothing but trained and 
organized common-sense, 
differing from the latter 
only as a veteran may 
differ from a raw recruit: 
and its methods diffe' 
from those of common- 
sense only so far as the 
Guardsman's cut and 
thrust differ from the 
manner in which a savage 
wields his club." 

Professor Huxley. 




The Basis 
of 
Science 



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36 



Z\)e British 3ournal of flurginfi. 



July 13, 1918 



that candidates became numerous. The full double 
training is, of course, a tremendous advantage to 
any applicant for a matron's post. No person 
should, however, be appointed matron of an 
Asylum, if it can be avoided, who does not hold the 
Certificate of Proficiency in Mental Nursing, and 
the training which was instituted in 1896 for hos- 
pital nurses, and adopted in many other Asylums 
since then, obviates the necessity of doing this. 

In answer to Dr. Yellowlees I replied that enter- 
prising and intelligent mental nurses, meeting 
hospital nurses in the wards of Asylums, would be 
induced to complete their training in Hospitals, 
and would in their turn be available for matrons' 
posts. Also that the status of Asylum nurses would 
be improved by Hospital nurses working in the 
wards of Asylums. My surmises both proved 
correct. Scores of my nurses have taken their hos- 
pital training. I fancy this practice is more pre- 
valent in Scotland than in England, as our Asylums 
have become more hospitalised and we employ more 
hospital nurses in them. The result of this is that 
many mental nurses who have completed their 
double training in hospitals are afterwards 
appointed assistant matrons, and some do ulti- 
mately become matrons of Asylums. Lately, I 
think four out of five assistant matrons at the West 
House of the Morningside Royal Asylum had begun 
their career as mental nurses. During the last 
three years three at least, if not more, of my former 
assistant matrons, who started as mental nurses, 
have been appointed matrons of English Asylums. 
More mental nurses may be appointed matrons than 
Captain Kirkland-Whittaker suspects, but they 
usually have the double training, which we all 
think so desirable. In any case, good mental 
nurses are now coming into their own in this 
respect, as I predicted twenty years ago they would, 
and the status of mental nurses is much higher now 
than then. 

Hard lines still occur, as when a faithful experi- 
enced mental nurse is passed over for a younger 
woman who holds both certificates. Some weight 
must, of course, be attached to the possession of 
the second certificate, and the interests of the 
patients and the institution must come first. One 
cannot fail to sympathise with these older officials ; 
not so much, however, with the younger generation 
of rnental nurses. Those of them who are enter- 
prising and ambitious should know by this time 
that if they aspire to the higher posts they must 
complete their training in a general hospital. If 
they do this, there are many I know of, like Dr. 
Yellowlees, who will give them a preference when 
opposed by candidates who are equally qualified, 
but whose " first love " has not been the Asylum. 

I do not think there is any diflficulty such as 
Captain Kirkland-Whittaker suggests in a mental 
nurse completing her training in a general hospital. 
My experience, which is not exceeded by anyone, 
is opposed to this. She must, of course, resign 
her asylum post after obtaining her certificate, 
which she can do by giving a month's notice. She 
will find she will have less difficulty than the un- 
trained woman in entering a Hospital, as the 



certificate of the Association which she possesses, 
•I am proud to say, is held in high esteem. The 
matron of the Hospital knows that she is not a 
raw, untrained, ordinary probationer. If she has 
done good service in the Asylum, the Superinten- 
dent and the Matron will help her to enter a 
Hospital. 

I think it distinctly hard that one year should not 
be deducted from the three required for Hospital 
training, in virtue of her mental certificate, as is 
done when a hospital nurse enters for the mental 
certificate. This point has already been brought 
by the Medico- Psychological Association to the 
notice of the College of Nursing, and the favour 
will no doubt ibe obtained in time. It was several 
years before the Medico-Psychological Association 
itself granted the favour to hospital nurses. As I 
was the first to train hospital nurses in Asylums, I 
naturally proposed at the meeting that this favour 
should be accorded them, but I underwent the 
trying experience of not finding anyone to second 
my proposal. Several years afterwards, at a large 
meeting in London at which I was present. Dr. 
Mercier made a similar proposal, and he not only 
found a seconder, but his motion was enthusias- 
tically carried without a dissentient voice. His 
argument may have been as lucid, interesting, and 
convincing on that occasion as his speech was at 
the Annual Meeting, and the times may have been 
ripe. 

I am. Madam, &c., 
George M. Robertson, M.Dt, F.R. C.P.Ed., 
Physician-Superintendent of the 
Royal Edinburgh Asylum. 

KERNELS FROM CORRESPONDENCE, 

Self-supporting Nurse : — " I ventured into Self- 
ridges the day last week that actresses and others 
were selling tickets for the Nation's Fund for 
Nurses. I told one lady how strongly many 
nurses objected to its being done as a war Charity. 
She kept repeating, " Nonsense, Miss Davies must 
know ! " I resented this. Who is Miss Davies, 
and what has she to do with my freedom of 
opinion ? She is neither the keeper of my con- 
science nor my purse. I claim the right to form 
an,d express my own opinions. To the little 
actress in question, this appeared entirely super- 
fluous." 

[It would.— Ed.] 



OUR PRIZE COMPETITIONS. 

July 20th. — State fully how you would disinfect 
a bedroom and its furnishings. 

July 27th. — What are the chief racial poisons ? 
What steps should be taken to prevent and 
counteract their effects ? 



OUR ADVERTISERS. 

Do not omit to buy, as far as possible, every- 
thing you need from "Our Advertisers," and to 
recommend them to your friends. They are all 
first-class firms. 



July 13, 1918 {ibc »rttl0b 3ournal of flur«lna Supplement* 

The 



37 



THE MIDWIVES' ACT AMENDMENT BILL 

On Tuesday, July and, as we briefly notified 
last week, the House of Lords resolved itself into 
Committee to consider the Midwives Bill, the Earl 
of Donoughmore being in the chair. 
Future Revision of Constitution of Central 
Midwives' Board. 

Clause I of the Midwives' Act Amendment Bill 
is important, because, if passed into law, it confers 
on the Central Midwives' Board of England 
powers which, so far, it has not possessed. It 
provides that : — 

I. (i) The Central Midwives' Board may at any 
time represent to the Privy Council that it is 
expedient to modifj' the constitution of the 
Board, either by 

(rt) increasing or diminishing the number of 
persons appointed by any body or person ; or 

(6) abolishing the power of appointment by 
any body or person ; or 

(c) conferring on any body or person a power 
of appointment of one or more persons ; or 

{d) altering the term of office or quahfications 
of any members. 

The Privy Council is then to cause such repre- 
sentation to be laid before both Houses of Parlia- 
ment ; and, if within forty days, either House 
presents an address to His Majesty, declaring that 
the representation, or any part thereof, ought 
not to be given effect to, no further proceedings 
shall be taken in respect of the representation in 
regard to which the address has been presented ; 
otherwise, it shall be lawful for His Majesty, 
by Order in Council, to give effect to the same. 

This provision is made both in the Midwives 
(Scotland) Act, 1915, and the Midwives (Ireland) 
Act, 1918 ; but the Amending Bill makes no 
provision for " bringing the English Act into lino 
with those in the other parts of the United King- 
dom," by the inclusion of certified midwives 
upon their governing body. 

A Vital Omission. 

This omission has always been a very grave 
blot upon the English Act. 

In the Amending Bills introduced into the 
House of Lords in igio by Lord Presidents of the 
Council, first Viscount Wolverhampton and then 
Earl Beauchamp, steps were taken to rectify it. 
Both Bills proposed that two certified midwives 
should be appointed on to the Central Midwives' 
Board — one by the Incorporated Midwives' Insti- 
tute, and one by the Royal British Nurses' Associa- 
tion. During the passage of Earl Beauchamp'g 
Bill through the House of Lords, the representation 
of the Midwives' Institute was increased by the 
addition of a medical representative, and that of 
the R.B.N. A. was (by a majority of six) altered to 
give it the option of appointing a representative 



other than a certified midwife — though Lord 
Beauchamp opposed the amendment on the 
ground that out of a Board of fourteen appointed 
to deal with midwives, it was not unreasonable 
that two of the members should be midwives. 
Before the Bill passed into law, the House of 
Commons of 1910 was dissolved. 

The Central Midwives' Board for Scotland 
consists of eleven persons. Three of these are 
appointed by the Lord president of the Council 
and two of the three must be certified midwives. 

The Central Midwives Board for Ireland 
consists cf eleven persons, four of whom are 
midwives. 

The Central, Midwives' Board for England 
consists of nine persons, none of whom need be 
midwives. 

Why should not the Amending Bill provide 
for the addition of two certified midwives to the 
Board ? The grievance of English midwives will 
be accentuated if a Bill of wnich the declared 
purpose is to bring it into line with those in other 
parts cf the United Kngdom fails to do so in this 
vital particular. It is a point which midwives 
should not allow to be lost sight of in the House 
of Commons, and should urge upon their local 
Members of Parliament — and especially upon 
Labour Members. 

An Amendment was adopted on July 2nd to 
section five of the principal Act. This section 
provides that the Central Midwives Board shall, 
as soon as practicable after December 31st in 
each year, publish a financial statement, and 
submit a copy to the Privy Council. If there is 
any balance against the Board, and the balance 
is approved by the Privy Council the Board may 
apportion such balance between the councils of 
the several counties and county boroughs in 
proportion to the number of midwives who have given' 
notice during the year of their intention to practise 
in those areas respectivel\^ and may recover from 
the councils the sum so apportioned. 

The amendment provides that the apportion- 
ment of such balance shall be in proportion to the 
population of those counties and county boroughs, 
according to the returns of the last published 
census for the time being. Tiiis is obviously an 
improvement, and a more just arrangement. If 
the basis of apportionment is the number of 
practising midwives, then the more active a county 
or county borough is in inducing midwives to 
practise, the larger the amount of the subsidy 
which can be recovered by the Central Midwives' 
Board, while a slack authority gets off lightly. 

Section 3 makes the following necessary addition 
to section 7 of the principal Act : — • 

" A certificate purporting to be signed by the 
Secretary of the Board that the name of a 
woman whose name appears in the roll of mid- 



38 Jlbc 3Br!tl6b 3ournal of "Wurelnc Supplement. My ^3, 1918 



wives has been removed from the roll and of the 

date of such removal shall be evidence that such 

woman is not certified under this Act, and of the 

date as from which she ceased to be so certified." 

Section 4 makes provision for the payment of 

reasonable expenses to members of the Board in 

respect of their attendance at meetings on a scale 

approved by the Privy Council. 

Section 5 deals with the annual report of the 
Board to the Privy Council. Such a report is, in 
fact, already made by the Board. The section 
provides that it shall contain " such particulars 
as the privy Council may direct." 

Section 6 (i) authorises the Central Midlives 
Board to frame rules deciding the conditions under 
which midwives may be suspended from practice 
and includes a power cf framing rules — 

(a) Authorising the Board to suspend a 
midwife from practice in lieu of striking her 
name off the roll and to suspend from practice 
any midwife accused before the Board ot 
disobeying rules or regulations, 01 of other 
misconduct, until the case has been decided 
and, in the case of an appeal, until the appeal 
has been decided. 

(&) Authorising the local supervising authority 
which takes proceedings against a midwife before 
a Court cf Justice, or reports a case for con- 
sideration by the Central Midwives Board, to 
suspend her from practice until the case has 
been decided. 

At present, neither the Central Midwives Board 
nor a local supervising authority has power of 
suspension in a punitive or disciplinary sense, 
though, under its rules, local supervising authori- 
ties may suspend a midwife from practice to 
prevent the spread of infection. 

Section 6 (2) provides that when a case has 
been decided in favour of a midwife who has 
been suspended from practice pending its deoisicn, 
the Board, or local supervising authority con- 
cerned, " may, if they think fit, pay hor such 
reasonable compensation for loss of practice as 
under the circumstances may seem just" 

" Breaking a Lance for the Midwife." 
On this Clause, he Earl of Meath moved to 
delete the words we have quoted, and to insert 
" shall pay her reasonable compensation for loss 
of practice," because, as he explained, it appeared 
to him there is a want of elementary justice in this 
second sub-section. 

" I wish," he continued, " to breaks lance for 
the midwife. It appears to me she is hardly 
properly treated. You give power to the Central 
Midmves' Board and to the local supervising 
authority to suspend her, but if it is proved that 
she is innocent it would be only justice that some 
reasonable compensation should be given to her 
for loss of practice. . . . Once upon a time, Mr. 
Gladstone said that we, in this House, lived up in 
a balloon ; but I think we know enough of affairs 
terrestrial to be aware of the fact that a prosecutor 
is not likely to do justice to a defendant it it is 



proved that the defendant is innocent, and that 
the prosecutor is the very last person to give com- 
pensation and thus be hkely to stultify himself." 

Viscount Peel said he did not think the noble 
Earl ve^d aisplay any anxiety that there would 
not be plenty of noble I^ords in that House who 
would break lances on behalf of midwives, because 
in his experience, they had many strong friends, 
rot only there, but in +he other House. He was 
advised that the particular propo^^al of the noble 
Lord would make little, if any difference in prac- 
tice. Further, he believed it would be far better 
to leave the whole matter to the fair discretion of 
the Board. He hoped the noble Earl would not 
press his amendment. 

The Earl of Meath said the noble Viscount 
had alluded to the Central Midwives' Board, but 
not to the local supervising authority, which was 
the body least likely to give the compensation 
needed. 

On question, the Amendment was negatived 
and Clause 6 agreed to. 

{To be concluded.) 



NATIONAL BABY WEEK. 

Presiding at a meeting at the Central Hall, 
Westminster, during Baby Week, Sir Francis 
Champneys, Chairman of the Central Midwives' 
Board, advocated a closer co-operation between 
medical practitioners and midwives and a longer 
training for the latter. Their status, he said 
must be increased and the calling made more 
attractive. He also spoke of the great future 
before ante-natal clinics and the necessity for the 
provision of decent houses — housing conditions 
affected the health of mother and child enormously. 

Pathological Section of the Exhibition. 

Admission to this section was restricted to 
doctors, nurses, midwives, sanitary inspectors, 
health visitors and infant welfare workers. Very 
terrible, but veiy informing, wore some of the 
exhibits, showing various diseases and abnor- 
malities, including the ravages of syphilis. 



"ORDER OF THE BRITISH CRADLE." 

At the opening of a day nursery at Stuart 
Crescent, V^ood Green, last Saturday, Mr. Pett 
Ridge said that while a great many Orders had 
been given to more people than wanted them, no 
one bad thought of creating the Order of the British 
Cradle, to be given to mothers who brought up 
their children well under difficulties. A small 
boy of three, on being brought one day to a Hoxtoa 
nursery, cried bitterly when his mother left him. 
The next morning the mother stayed chatting 
with the sister for a few moments to break the 
anguish of the parting, but the boy glanced up 
from his playthings on the floor and said, " 'Op it, 
mother." 

We don't like that little boy. 



THE 

A. 

WITH WHICH IS INCORPORATED 

aiE MBMSXIKI M^COIII 

EDITED BY MRS BEDFORD FENWICK 




umo 



No. 1,581. 



SATURDAY, JULY 20, 1918. 



Vol. LXI 



EDITORIAL. 



FRANCE'S DAY. 

REQUIEM FOR THE FALLEN. 

" Pray for my soul. More things are wrought by 
prayer than this world dreams of.'' 

It is the common instinct of humanity to 
honour the dead who have fallen gloriously 
in battle, or have died in the defence of their 
country of wounds and sickness, and it is 
the practice of all branches of the Catholic 
Church, from primitive times, to associate 
that honour with prayers for the departed. 

It was fitting and natural, therefore, that 
on France's Day a Solemn Mass of Requiem 
for the Fallen should be sung at the Cathe- 
dral at Westminster for the French soldiers 
and sailors who have fallen in the war, and 
the great congregation which filled the 
Cathedral to overflowing was proof that 
this remembrance of their dead was appre- 
ciated by a large number of the relatives 
and friends of these fallen heroes. 

The King, Queen Alexandra, and the 
Government were represented, and the 
Lord Mayor and Sheriffs attended in state, 
and there were present the French Ambas- 
sador and the full staff of the Embassy, as 
well as many of the Diplomatic Corps, the 
French Commission, the French Red Cross, 
Members of Parliament and the Consular 
Service, Ministers of the Allied Countries, 
representatives of British Overseas 
Dominions, the wives of French soldiers, 
and many others. 

At the foot of the Sanctuary steps was 
the Catafalque adorned with the Tricolour. 
Around it burned six tall candles, and by 
each, erect and motionless, stood a Zouave, 
in his striking red and blue uniform, with 
fixed bayonet, and facing the Catafalque 
w^as an officer in khaki, with red, blue, and 
gold laced cap. Bishop Butt, the celebrant, 
was vested in black, but on the High Altar 
burned many candles, and colour was the 



prevailing note, for the Cardinal Arch- 
bishop wore his red robes and cappa magna, 
the Metropolitan Chapter wore exquisite 
rose-coloured cappas, and the Cathedral 
clergy grey silk. 

The Zouave band played before the 
service, and then was silent for the music 
of the Mass, when the plain-song melodies 
in the Mass of Anerio, a i6th century 
composer, were sung by the choir under 
the direction of Dr. Terry with beautiful 
effect, the men's and boys' voices alternat- 
ing in the Dies Irce. 

In the Offertorium the Zouave Band 
played a fragment from Gounod's Jeanne 
d'Arc Mass, and at the Elevation of the 
Host, signalized by fanfares of trumpets, 
the Zouaves at the Catafalque presented 
arms, and the officer's sword came to the 
salute. 

After the departure of the Celebrant, the 
Cardinal, vested in cope and mitre, and the 
choir, sang the Libera Me, and then with 
his procession, carrying lighted torches, he 
came down to the Catafalque, sprinkling 
and censing it and giving the Absolutions. 

Then came the heart-stirring roll of the 
drums, which re-echoed through the Cathe- 
dral, the Last Post sounded by the buglers 
of the Grenadier Guards, and the " Marche 
Heroique," rendered with consummate 
skill and inspiring beauty by the Zouave 
Band. After these the "Marseillaise" 
thrilled the great congregation, and a pro- 
foundly impressive service concluded with 
the National Anthem. 

In many a quiet side chapel in our 
churches to-day an increasing number of the 
faithful avail themselves of the opportunity, 
and consolation, afforded them of praying 
for their dear ones, quick and dead, in the 
presence of the Blessed Sacrament. 

"To souls departed in the fear of the 
Lord, grant refreshment in the land of 
peace, Jesus, God of life and death." 



40 



Hbe Brltleb Journal of 'Rurstna. 



July 20, 1 918 



A MINISTRY OF HEALTH. 



The most pressing of all reconstructive 
problems is the foundation of a Ministry of 
Health; and Major-General Sir Bertrand 
Dawson, G.C.V.O., in an address on " The 
Future of the Medical Profession," in his 
Cavendish Lecture delivered recently before 
the West London Medico-Chirugical Society, 
emphasised this point. 

There is, he said, " a growing appreciation 
of the fact by the medical profession and the 
public that much disease is preventible; a 
growing sense that health is of supreme im- 
portance alike to the State and the individual ; 
that the best means for preserving health and 
curing disease should be available for (not 
necessarily given to) every citizen, irrespective 
of his position, and by right and not by 
favour. 

" There is an interesting parallel between 
provision for education and health, both as 
regards historical development and present 
needs. Education was at one time patchy, 
unorganized, and dependent on voluntary 
effort. In 1870 Parliament stepped in, with 
the result that State and voluntary education 
proceeded side by side. Since then the State 
Service has gradually overgrown the voluntary 
one, because it has been recognized that educa- 
tion should be available for all, that the State 
is responsible for the education of its citizens, 
and that the cost is too great to be supported 
by fees, or by voluntary effort alone. This cost 
is in part defrayed by an education rate charge- 
able on householders, and Dr. Gordon Dill's 
suggestion that a similar rate should be 
charged for health has a great deal to recom- 
mend it ; it would be a local contribution to the 
cost, and would not be altogether an additional 
burden, for its application would soon be 
followed by a diminution in the poor rate. 

" Health organization is following a similar 
development, though tardily and at a distance. 
Yet in reality health is a more fundamental 
need than education, and without doubt the 
two together form the foundation stone of 
the State. Notwithstanding there exists no 
Ministry of Health, and even now, when it is 
proposed to form one, such a Ministry is to 
be tied f>oHtically to the Local Government 
Board." 

Sir Bertrand Dawson considers that medical 
services must have some kind of State aid and 
central control; that for their efficiency they 
need co-ordinated effort installed in specially 
equipped institutions, and reaches, by what he 



regards as the irresistible logic of facts, the 
following conclusions : — 

1. State aid : central control. 

2. Co-ordinated effort — team work. 

3. Development of institutions specially designed 
for diagnosis and treatment, styled for brevity 
institutional treatment. 

To the foregoing he adds a fourth — that 
curative and preventive medicine are no longer 
separated in accordance with any sound prin- 
ciple, and should be brought together in 
thought, teaching, and organization. 

The Administration of the Medical 
Services. 

Conditions he regards as essential to any plan 
are that "all the buildings and equipments, 
such as hospitals, clinics, laboratories, neces- 
sary for the medical services, will be con- 
structed and maintained by the new health 
authority. They would be available for all 
citizens, though in practice they would be only 
partially used by the well-to-do. . . . 

"All professional and technical questions 
must be determined alone by the doctors, and 
administrative questions by a health board com- 
posed of both lay and professional members. 
Neither the professional nor lay members 
should be chosen from any area smaller than 

a county or large borough Though 

granted adequate powers, the health boards 
should be controlled as regards larger questions 
of policy, by the Ministry of Health. 

" By this plan of choosing big areas for the 
Health Board electorate, one would hope to 
avoid the evils of local politics and to secure a 
better type of representative. By retaining the 
determination of policy, and the confirmation 
of the more important administrative acts at the 
Health Ministry, one would secure control with- 
out over-centralization, . . . 

" But whatever the actual plan, the principle 
that technical matters must be decided by 
medical men must be adhered to, and thus one 
of the errors of the Insurance Act put right. 

" The practice of putting the skilled under 
the control of the unskilled must cease. . . . 

" With so much of the flower of our manhood 
sacrificed for the great cause, the rearing of 
a healthy race has become a supreme necessity. 

" The Ministry will need to draw to its 
counsels representatives from all departments 
of medicine, both preventive and curative, and 
these counsellors must have real power, with 
direct access to the Minister, in Contrast to the 
baneful tradition at the Local Government 
Board, whereby the medical officer can only 
advise the Minister through the intermediary of 
a lay official." 



July 20, 1918 



Zhc Brttieb 3ournal of IRutBtna. 



41 



FOR DAUNTLESS FRANCE.* 



France, dear to men that honour human things, 
To have helped or heartened any of these your maimed 
And homeless, is itself felicity. 

— From the Dedication. 

" For Dauntless France " ! The heart of many 
an EngUsh nurse who has worked in French 
hospitals throbs responsive to the words ; for her 
admiration and liking for the French poilu, so 
brave, so gentle, so courteous, so grateful, is 
unbounded, and she desires no greater privilege 



a singularly happy one. Let us say at once the 
book is one to possess, not, like so many war 
books, one to be read with enjoyment and then 
laid aside. Enjoyment certainly, may be pro- 
mised, but as a history of the work of Englishmen 
and Englishwomen for the dauntless people of 
France, carefully and sympathetically compiled, 
it merits an abiding place on our bookshelves. 

His Excellency the French Ambassador, M. Paul 
Cambon, who contributes the preface, writes : — 

" Le budget des ceuvres auxquelles Mr. Laurence 
Binyon a si bien rendu justice, en dit long sur la 
generosity britannique. Mais il ne I'exprime 




"THE WOUNDED POILU." By JANE DE QLEHN (Mrs. Wilfrid de Qlehn.) 

Reproduced from Laurence Binyon's New Book, FOR DAUNTLESS 
FRANCE, by kind permission of Messrs, Hodder & Stoughton, 



than to serve him till peace once more reigns and 
■happily he no longer needs her skilled services. 

" For Dauntless France " is the title chosen by 
Mr. Laurence Binyon for his book compiled for 
the British Red Cross Societies, and the British 
Committee of the French Red Cross, which con- 
tains an account of Britain's aid to the French 
wounded and victims of the war, and the title is 

* By Laurence Binyon. Hodder & Stoughton, 
St. Paul's House, Warwick Square, London, E.C. 4. 
ID?. 6d. net. 



qu'en termes d' argent et de materiel. Les pages 
qui suivent nous montrent I'ceuvre admirable des 
hommes et des femmes venus de Grande Bretagne 
comme a une sainte croisade, au secours de leurs 
frdres de France. Les nurses anglaises qui ont, 
des le premier jour, offert le secours pr^cieux de 
leur experience au service medical franfais, les 
ambulances automobiles qui, equipees en Angle- 
terre, montees et conduites par des volontaires 
anglais, ont suivi nos armees j usque sur la ligne 
de feu, par les chemins que balayait I'artillerie, oA 
il fallait passer de nuii et sans lumi^re ; les groupes 



42 



Zbc 3Briti6b 3cnirnal of IRureing. 



July 20, 191 8 



de Quakers qui, sans'^renoncer a leur attitude 
traditionelle a regard|de la guerre sont venu 
r^construire nos villages detruits, et soigner les 
femmes et les enfants chasses dc leur foyer par 
I'invasion ; les cantines creees sur les routes ou 
s'6coule le flot incessant des combattants et des 
blesses ; la quantity des hopitaux fondes, recrut6s, 
entre-tenus par nos amis de I'Empire britannique, 
tout cela forme un tableau auquel I'auteur a su 
donner la grandeur qui lui appartient. Nous ne 
souhaitons qu'une chose, et elle est facile a realiser : 
c'est que son livre puisse etre lu en France 
comme en Angleterre." 

The Call and the Answer. 

Part I deals with the Call and the Answer, and 
includes three chapters " The Scene Surveyed," 
" A Day's Work at the Office of the Comite 
Britannique," and " British Nurses in France : 
The French Flag Nursing Corps." 

The Scene Surveyed enables us to look down as 
from an aerial vantage-point upon the regions of 
Western Europe — upon a world at war. 

" That scarred line from Yser to Jura attracts 
like a magnet ; it sucks up like a sponge. All 
Europe and much more than Europe is conscious 
of it. Not a hamlet by the Atlantic or the remote 
Pyrenees — not a village in the British Isles but has 
a vision of it ; and far away in the South Seas and 
beyond the North Atlantic it is the same. To it 
raen and women are sending, sending, sending. 
They have sent sons and brothers, lovers and hus- 
bands. They have sent arms and ammunitions. 
They are sending letters and little gifts. Those 
that have nothing send their thoughts and their 
fears. Could we use that other vision of the mind, 
we might see those thoughts, prayers, curses, 
apprehensions, hopes and passionate desires flying 
in that one direction like the birds that fill the sky 
at the time of their migration. But we should see 
also, pressing thither, streams of embodied 
human energy — passion and calculation alike 
translated into active force and absorbed into the 
momentum of a single will." 

Writing of the British workers for the French 
soldier Mr. Binyon says that when they have 
returned to their homes in Britain " they will 
testify to what they have seen and known. 

" They will have learnt that Paris is not France, 
and that the tourist of other days but rarely came 
into touch with the true French nature, with 
France herself. They will grow to understand how 
fine is the texture of human qualities and human 
resources which underlie French history, French 
art and civilisation, and which have made the 
French so great and renowned a people." 

Of the British nurses in French hospitals Mr. 
Binyon writes : — 

" Who, that has seen them at work, has not 
admired their skill, their resource, their patient 
deftness ? They have behind them a hard and 
splendid training, which ensures that only enthu- 
siasts for the vocation become fully-qualified 
nurses. Very few had experience of war and the 
wounds a modern war produces ; therefore their 



interests were all the more engaged. But it is not 
only their own work that has been invaluable, it 
is the training they have given to others less 
skilled. For under the nurses or sisters work the 
V.A.D. probationers. 

" The V.A.D. s," says a surgeon, " are un- 
doubtedly the surprise. They are splendid, and as 
probationers vmder trained nurses in a ward, 
nothing that I can say is good enough for them." 

(We wish the V.A.D.'s were always, or cora- 
monly, content with the position of probationers.) 
At the Office of the ComitA Britai^ique. 

The day's work at the Office of, the Comity 
Britannique, at No. 9, Knights bridge, S. W., begins 
" when, at a punctual nine o'clock in the morning, 
the purple-scarfed Boy Scout, who with so polite 
a firmness guards the door, lets in the arriving 
Director-General." From that time onwards its 
manifold activities are ceaseless. 

" Seating ourselves beside the Director-General, 
and looking unabashed over his shoulder, we get a 
glimpse of his morning's correspondence. It is 
comprehensive and formidable." 

But first there are some fifty " Ordres de 
Mission "to be signed, those valuable vouchers 
which, by a special concession to the Comite, 
enable its workers to travel free in France. 

One touch will amuse trained nurses. 

" Two drivers Avrite to ask about their passports, 
their fiches and their carnets. The fiche is a paper 
of identification; but I dare not try to explain 
what the carnet is ; it is just a little Jjook that gives 
a great deal of trouble." 

We cannot even peep into the many rooms, 
all hives of industry, in this busy building, but 
mention must be made of the room on the ground 
where the President, the Vicomtesse de la Panouse, 
reigns, who, Mr. Binyon explains, " holds all 
the threads of the Comite s activities. No one 
is so intimate with the condition of things in 
France ; no one knows better the real needs of the 
sick and wounded ; and with her large sympathy 
with the Enghsh people, her knowledge of the right 
persons to do the right things on both sides of 
the Channel, she has done, and continues to do, 
inestimable service to the cause of the friendship 
between the two nations." 

The French Flag Nursing Corps. 

We congratulate the Sisters of the French Flag 
Nursing Corps on being accorded -the position of 
honour in the book, the first chapter after that 
on the office in London being devoted to their 
work ; for although the need of skilled nursing to 
mitigate the sufferings of the French wounded 
was obvious in the early days of the war, the 
assistance offered by this Corps was discounten- 
anced and discouraged by the War Office and the 
British Red Cross Society, and it was not until 
the Director-General and the president of the 
Comite de Londres, now the Comite Britannique 
of the French Croix Rouge, recognising the value 
of the fine work of the Corps in the French Mil tary 
Hospitals, affiliated it as a department of its 
own work, that the Corps received the appreciation 



July 20, 1 9 18 



^be ©ritieb 3ournaI of IRursina* 



43 



and sympathy which was its due, and its services 
were offered as a gift to our French Allies. 

Mr. Binyon writes : — 

" There was unlimited devotion, immense 
eagerness to serve, but of trained and expert help 
there was an inevitable deficiency. The ladies of 
Paris staffed the Red Cross Hospitals, and did all 
they could. It was the same in other towns. 
Some of the most devoted nursing work in those 
days was done, let it be recorded, Dy women of the 
streets. But the crying need was for skill, training, 
experience. And it is told that a-Frenchwoman 
who knew what nursing requirements really were, 
and who had seen a well-appointed English 
ambulance train, sat and wept because so many 
of her dear countrymen lacked the comforts and 
the help they so sorely needed." 

It was then that an Englishwoman went to t he 
head of the French Army Medical Corps, and 
proposed to raise the Corps of fully-trained 
;^ritish nurses, known as the French Flag Nursing 
Corps, an offer which was eagerly accepted. 

" It was an opportunity for testing the value of 
skilled nursing in war time ; and the testimony of 
the French doctors and surgeons under whom 
they have worked, shows what precious metal 
the test revealed." 

A high official wrote ; " The nurses of the 
French Flag Nursing Corps are considered by the 
doctors of our armies as assistants of the first 
class, and their presence in France, in a number 
the insufficiency of which we regret, is one of the 
most touching evidences of the sympathy of the 
English nation towards our country." 
[To be concluded.) 



THE ROYAL RED CROSS. 

The King conferred the Decorations recorded 
below on the following ladies on July loth, at 
Buckingham Palace : — - 

Bar to the Royal Red Cross, 

Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service. 
• — Matron-in-Chief Caroline Keer (retired), and Matron 
Edith Nixon. 

The Royal Red Cross. 
First Class. 

Queen .Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service. 
— Acting Matron Bertha Perkins. 
Second Class. 

Queen Alexandra's Royal Naval Nursing .Service. — 
Sister Isabella Long. 

Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service 
Reserve. — Assistant Matron Nellie Merriott, Sister 
Sara Barrowcliff, Sister Harriett Perfrement, Sister 
Elizabeth Russell, Sister Lizzie Varley, Sister Lillie 
Wright, Sister Lilian Wynn, and Staff Nurse Grace 
Mannell. 

Civil Nursing Service. — Matron Alice Bayne, Matron 
Edith Blayney, Matron Elizabeth Boath, Matron 
Florence Borton, Matron Adeline Cable, Matron 
Caroline Catteix, Matron Emily Carpenter-Turner, 
Lady Superintendent Lucy Binns, Assistant Matron 
Sophia Smith-Bevan, Assistant Matron Kathleen Comyn, 
Sister Florence Bingley, Sister Margaret Birt, Sister 
Gertrude Bltler, Sister Cargill Cameron, Sister 
Elizabeth Coath, and Sister Sophie Fry. 



British Red Cross Society. — Matron Alice Bottomley, 
Matron Frances Brown, Matron Maria Buxton, Assist- 
ant Matron Clara Henderson, Assistant Matron Lois 
Maksden, and Sister Eliza Workman. 

Voluntary Aid Detachment. — Mrs. Agnes Bayfield, 
Miss Mary Bell, Mrs. Gladys Bei.lville, the Hon. Mrs. 
Margaret Birkin, Mrs. Katherine Blatch, Miss Maud 
Blenkarn, Miss Ada Boss, Miss Freda Bowring.'Mts. 
Margaret Bramley, Miss Edie Brown, Miss Cicely 
Burbidge, Miss Ellen Carrier, Miss Anna Carter, Mrs. 
Caroline Clayton, and Miss Claudia Clowes. 

Q.ieen Ahxandra received at Marlborough 
House the members of the military and civil 
Nursing Services after the investiture. 



The King has been pleased to award the Royal 
Red Cross to the undermentioned ladies, in 
recognition of their valuable Nursing Services in 
connection vnih the war : — 

Second Class. 

Eager, Miss F. E., Sister, Queen Mary's Hospl. for 
the East End, Stratford; Edgar, Miss A., Sister, 
T.F.N.S., 4th Sco. Gen. Hospl. ; Edwards, Miss E. A., 
Supt. of Nurses, Toxteth Park Mil. Hospl., Liverpool; 
Edwards, Mrs. H., Matron, Boothroyde and Longroyde 
Hospls., Brighouse, Yorks ; Elliott, Miss A., Sister, 
T.F.N. S., 3rd Northern Gen. Hospl., Sheffield; Ell- 
wood, Miss P. H., Sister, Red Cross Hospl., Horncastle, 
Lines; Elms, Miss J., Matron, Sussex Eye Hospl., 
Brighton; Epps, Miss E. M. T., Lady Supt., Rauceby 
Hall, near Grantham, S. Lines; Evans, Miss B., Supt. 
Nurse, Jericho Mil. Hospl., Bury, Lanes; Evans, Miss 
C, Sister, Aux. Mil Hospl., Tranmere, Birkenhead. 

Fanning, Miss R. G., Sister,' Matron's Asst., 
N.Z.A.N.S., No. I N.Z. Gen. Hospl., Brockenhurst, 
Hants; Farmer, Miss A., Sister, Cyngfeld, Shrewsbury; 
Fakmer, Miss M., Sister, Q A^.LM.N.S.R., R. Victoria 
Hospl., Netley ; Fearon, Miss M. L, Nursing Sister, 
Can. Nursing Service, No. 11 Can. Gen. Hospl., Moore 
Barracks, Shorncliffe ; Fitzgerald, Miss N. A. L., Staff 
Nurse, War Hospl., Bradford ; Fricker, Miss M., Sister, 
N. Z.A.N. S., No. 2 N.Z. Gen. Hospl., Walton-on- 
Thames; Fry, Miss S. C, Sister, R Sussex County 
Hospl., Brighton ; Ferguson, Mrs. C. F., Commdt., 
Bredbury V.A.D. Hospl., Tunbridge Wells. 

Galbraith, Miss L. E., Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing 
Service, No. 4 Can. Gen. Hospl., Basingstoke, Hants; 
Gale, Miss E. G., Matron, Hospl. for Sick and 
Wounded, Boscombe, Hants; Galloway, Miss J., Sister, 
Q.A.LM.N.S.R.. Queen Alexandra Mil. Hospl., 
Grcsvenor Road, S.W. i ; Galt, Miss C, Nursing Sister, 
Can. Nursing Service, No. 15 Can. Gen. Hospl., Taplow, 
Bucks; Gardiner, Miss M-. Senior Sister i/c, St. John 
Ambulance, Radcliffe ; Gay, Miss F. E., Sister, 
T.F.N. S., 4th Lond. Gen. Hospl., Denmark Hill; 
Gibbon, Miss L. C, Matron, R. Infirmary, Blackburn; 
Gibson, Mrs. L. M., Matron, Gatcombe House, Isle of 
Wight; GoosEMAN, Miss F., Asst. Matron, T.F.N. S., 
2nd Western Gen. Hospl., Ducie Avenue, Manchester; 
Gordon, Miss J. W., Sister, R. Infirmary, Manchester; 
Gould, Miss I. M. H., Sister, Pembroke Aux. Mil. 
Hospl., Lytham ; Gowan, Miss F. W.. Sister, Mil. 
Orthopaedic Hospl., Shepherd's Bush, W. ; Graham, Mrs. 
E S. (Mrs. W. V. Graham), Matron, Hdqrs., B.R.C.S. ; 
Graham-Smith, Miss M. M., Staff Nurse, Regent's Park 
Hospl., Southampton ; Green, Miss L. M., Sister, Union 
Infirmary, Darlington; Green, Miss L. E. , Matron, 
Ilford Emergency Hospl., Ilford ; Griffiths, Mrs. L., 
Staff Sister, Aux. Mil. Hospl., Quarry Place, Shrews- 
bury. (To be continued.) 



44 Zbc British 3ournal of IRursinQ. My 20, 1918 

OUR ROLL OF HONOUR. NURSING AND THE WAR. 



Miss Isobel M. Mackintosh, A.R.R.C., Sister, 
Bermondsey Military Hospital. 

We regret to have to record the death, at the 
early age of 31, of Sister Isobel Mackintosh, who 
died at her post on July loth. 

Miss Mackintosh, who was a daughter of Mr. A. 
R. Mackintosh, of Glenlyon Lodge, Nairn , and 
Kincorth, Forres, received her four years' training 
at the Prince of Wales's General Hospital, London, 
and almost immediately after war broke out she 
volunteered for active service at the Front. From 
1914 to 1916 she served in British hospitals at 
Wimereux, Calais, and L-e Touquet, and was 
recently awarded the 
Mons Ribbon. 

In 1917 she was ap- 
pointed Sister-in-Charge 
of one of the medical 
blocks at Bermondsey 
Military Hospital, Lady- 
well, . where her death 
from acute influenzal 
pneumonia took place. 
She had had a number of 
soldiers Avith influenza 
under her charge, whom 
She had nursed with great 
devotion. 

Sister Mackintosh 
(Sister "Mac" as she 
was affectionately called) 
was a great favourite 
with staff and patients 
alike, 'and acted as Night 
Superintendent at Lady- 
well before being appoin- 
ted Sister-in-Charge. She 
was recently awarded the 
Royal Red Cross {2nd 
Class) for her valiiable 
services during the war. 

The large attendance 
at her funeral indicated 
how deeply she was 
mourned. The medical 
and nursing staff with the invalid soldiers 
filled the hospital chapel, while men from 
her own wards carried the cofl&n, which was 
draped with the Union Jack and covered 
with floweis. One beautiful ^vTeath was labelled 
" from the ' Boys ' of D Section, in grateful and 
loving memory." 




MI5S ISOBEL M. MACKINTOSH, A.R.R.C 



The Training of V.A.D. Members as Nurses. 
Mr. W. H. Bonham-Carter, Secretary, Nightingale 
Training School, informs us in the following letter 
of the terms on which V.A.D. members will be 
received for training at St. Thomas' Hospital : — 

Dear Madam, — The conditions under which 
V.A.D. Nursing Members ard Special Military 
Probationers, who have served in military nos- 
pitals for a consecutive period of not less than two 
years, who are considered suitable, and who desire 
to become trained nurses with a view to subse- 
quently entering Queen Alexendra's Imperial Mili- 
tary Nursing Service, have now been defined. Three 
years' training in a civil 
hospital training school 
being a necessary con- 
dition, it has been decided 
by the Committee of 
the Nightingale Training 
School at St. Thomas' 
Hospital to admit such 
cardidates under the 
conditions now applying 
to special probationers 
but without payment of 
the usual fees, and they 
will therefore, after pa'^s- 
ing the short preliminary 
training in the Prelimin- 
ary School, and subject 
to their quaUfying in the 
usual examinations, re- 
ceive their certificate on 
the completion of three 
years' work in the wards. 
I, therefore, crave Ihe 
courtesy of your columns 
to maice this decision 
public. 

lam, dear Madam, 
Yours faithfully, 
W. H. BoNHAM Carter, 
Secretary, Nightingale 

Trainim; School. 



I take my heart in my hand, I shall not die 
but live. 
Before Thy face I stand, I for Tnou caUest 
such. 
All that I have I bring, all that I am I give ; 
Smile Thou, and I shall sing, but shall 
not question much. 

C. Rossetti. 



It is an open secret that it was the influence 
brought to bear through the British Red Cross 
Society,' Supported by the Matrons on the Army 
Nursing Boards, and the College of Nursing Council, 
which has induced the Army Council to issue 
Instruction 678, styling V.A.D. nursing members 
and special military probationers, when they 
enter a general hospital for training, " Pi-obationers 
for Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing 
Service-" and giving them priority of promotion 
to the Service when trained. 

This Instruction will, in practice, make it impos- 
sible for civil probationers, even with four years' 
certificates, to enter this Imperial Nursing Service 
for years to come, as a rota of V.A.D.s after three 
years' general training will be kept, and if no 
vacancy exists for them they are promised future 



July 20, 1 91 8 



Hbe aBrttieh 3ournal of fluretna. 



45 



vacancies as they occur ; so that practically 
Queen Alexa,ndra's Imperial Military Nursing 
Service is no longer open to the whole nursing 
profession, as all Government Nursing Services 
should be. 

Imagine the Army Council enforcing an Instruc- 
tion that no medical practitioner should be 
permitted to enter the Royal Army Medical Corps 
unless he had worked under the Red Cross Society 
or the Order of St. John during the war ! Such a 
Suggestion for men would not be tolerated for an 
hour. 

We presume trained nurses on the Reserves 
who have joined the College of Nursing, Ltd., 
realise that its promoters have helped to deprive 
them of military promotion in three years' time 
and used their influence to have them superseded 
by V.A.D.s. 

The Royal Victorian Trained Nurses' Associa- 
tion of Australia has refused to consider service in 
a military hospital as supplementary to training 
schools under any circumstances. 



CARE OF THE WOUNDED. 



Brisoues. 

It is well to let it be known that nurses have no 
right to wear the French Military Seivice Brisque 
(gold braid) worn by soldiers. 

In the case of Nurses working in the French 
Military or Bene vole Hospitals there is the 
" Ensigne de Service " for which their Med. Chef 
cites them. This consists of two small palm leaves 
with a tiny red cross in the centre. The leaves are 
Bronze for one year's service, Silver for two years' 
service, and Gold for three years. With the 
" Ensigne '/ is given a short citation indicating the 
length of service. 

In the case of Canteen Workers, whose service is 
as a rule rather, disconnected, long vacations being 
taken between each period of service, there does 
not appear to be any distinguishing Service Badge. 



It is interesting to note that H.M. the King of 
the Belgians has conferred upon Miss Edith Mawe, 
of Lee Hurst, Weston-super-Mare, the Medaille 
de la Reine Elisabeth. It will be recalled that 
during the dark days of 1914 and the early part of 
1915 a great many wounded Belgian soldiers were 
sent to this countiy to be cared for. At this time 
Miss Mawe was Honorary Lady Superintendent 
of the Royal West of England Sanatorium, 
Weston-super-Mare, and 800 of the Belgians came 
under her care. It is in recognition of the care 
bestowed upon these men that the medal has been 
conferred. . 

The same honour has been conferred upon Mrs. 
Bernard Allen, hon. organizer of the Belgian 
Hospital Fund, in recognition of the work which 
she has done since January, 1915, in aiding the 
military and ci\nl hospitals and institutions in 
France and Belgium ; and on Mrs. Rowland Fisher 
in recognition of her work in establishing and 
conducting the Belgian Children's Home at Alde- 
burgh, Suffolk. 



A ROYAL GIFT. 

Since our last issue, the King and Queen of the 
Belgians have flown over from France and back 
again, just to be with our King and Queen on their 
Silver Wedding Day. King Albert has about 
him so much of the glorious tradition of a fairy 
King that he should come and go on wings is all 
in the picture ! 

The Queen of the Belgians, before leaving Lon- 
don handed to Queen Mary ;^500, with the request 
that she would distribute it among any charities^ 
in which she was specially interested. 

The Queen has decided to allot the money thtis : 
— ;^ioo each to the War Refugees Committee for 
the Relief of Belgians in England, Queen Mary's 
Convalescent Auxiliary Hospital for Widows of 
Soldiers and Sailors at Roehampton, Queen Mary's 
Hospital at Frognal, Queen Mary's Royal Naval 
Hospital at Southend, and Queen Mary's Hostels 
for Nurses. 



Dr. Mary M'Neill, of the Scottish Women's 
Hospital at Saloiuca, has had conferred upon 
her the Order of St. Sava by the King and the 
Crown Prince of Serbia for services rendered to 
sick and wounded soldieis. 



The following British women motor ambulance 
drivers working under the Red Cross in France 
ha.ve been mentioned in French Army, Orders, and 
awarded the Croix de Guerre for bravery during 
an air attack : 

Miss M. Thompson, First Aid Nursing Yeo- 
manry, O.C, M.A.C. 

Miss M. Lowson, First Aid Nursing Yeomanry, 
Sergt., M.A.C. 

Miss M. Mordaunt, First Aid Nursing Yeomanry, 
Sergt., M.A.C. 

The brigade order citing them states that on 
May 1 8th, during a bombardment by aeroplanes 
which lasted over five hours, they went at once 
to the point of danger, and picked up the dead 
and wounded to transport them to hospitals. 
" They showed absolute disregard of danger, and 
at the same time gave to all the finest example of 
courage and sang Jroid." 



The largest American military hospital in 
Great Britain, to be estabUshed near Southampton, 
will accommodate nearly 3,000 wounded. The 
site is a country estate of 186 acres, formerly 
known as Sarisbury Court. The central building 
of the hospital vnll be the old Manor House, 
round which the American Red Cross is building 
nearly 10 acres of frame hutments. There will 
be separate buildings for the medical and nursing 
staffs, the other employees, the kitchens, and the 
operating rooms, and a large isolation hospital. 

Everything is planned in the most wonderful 
way. 



46 



Zbc Brtti0b 3ournal of IRursing. 



July 20, 1 9 18 



The 10 acres of vegetable gardens will be 
intensively cultivated. The hospital will produce 
a considerable part of its dairy requirements, its 
bacon, and its eggs and poultry. 
:' i Ambulances will bring the Anaerican wounded 
from the piers at Southampton. The convalescent 
soldier \vill find several miles of sunny or shaded 
walks without going outside the hospital grounds. 

Captain F. Harper Sibley, of the Red Cross, 
formerly President of the Chamber of Commerce 
of Rochester, N.Y., who has been in charge of 
the American Red Cross work at Southampton 
since April, is supervising the construction of the 
hospital. 

Part of the beds will at first be placed in tents 
of the Bossoneau type, with windows set in the 
walls to make them light and airy and a double 
roof with air-chamber between to insulate them 
from the heat of the sun. Seme of the tents may 
be retained for convalescents or reserved for 
emergencies. 

JOINT WAR COMMITTEE. 



THE COLLEGE OF NURSING, LTD., 
AND AMERICAN NURSES. 



The following Sisters have been deputed for duty 
in Home Hospitals : — 

Red Cross Hosp., Chippenham.— M.iss C. L. Still. 

Barham Lodge, Weybridge.- — Miss E. Redmile. 

Dunraven Castle Red Cross Hosp., Bridgend. — 
Miss P. Palmer. 

Hanover Park V.A. Hosp., Peckham. — Miss A. H. 
Murray. 

Weir Hosp., Balham. — Miss C. A. H. Rhodes. 

Kingwood Park Hosp., Tunbridge Wells.- — ^M'iss 
C. C. Krelle. 

V.A. Hosp., Burnham- on- Crouch. — Miss M. 
Johnston. 

Hosp. for Officers, 16, Bruton Street, W. — ^M'iss 
E. A. Nurse. 

Park House Aux. Hasp., Newbury. — ^Miss E. 
Gribben. 

Brackenhurst Hall Aux. Mil. Hosp., Southwell. — 
Miss L. Poole. 

Hosp. for Facial Injuries, 24, Norfolk Street. — 
Miss M. C. Thompson. 

6, Kensington Terrace, Newcastle- on- Tyne. — Miss 
E. G. EUiott. 

Beach Red Cross Hosp., Holyhead. — Mi^ H. A. G. 
Hawley. 

Victoria Aux. Hosp., Stretfold, Lanes. — ^Miss E. 
Rycroft. 

V.A. Hosp., Northwood, Middlesex. — ^Miss M. B. 
May. 

Kempston Red Cross Hosp., Bedford. — Miss K. 
Aitken. 

Officers' Red Cross Hosp., Worsley, Lanes.- — Mrs. 
E. L. Lamb. 

De Walden Court, Eastbourne. — Miss M. P. Peter. 

Newnham Paddox Hosp., Lutterworth. — Mrs. 
M. E. C. Swann. 

Kempston Red Cross Hosp., Eastbourne. — Miss 
V. Kendal. 

Auxiliary Hasp., Bitterne, Southampton. — Miss 
M. G. Welch. 



A REPLY TO MISS LLOYD 5TILL 
AND MISS AMY HUGHES. 

The following article appears in the July 
number of the American Journal of Nursing in 
the Foreign Department, which is in charge of 
Miss L. L. Dock, the Hon. Secretary of the 
International Council of Nurses. 

A PERIL TO INDEPENDENCE AND SELF- 
GOVERNMENT. 

The peril to the independence and profes- 
sional self-government of English nurses 
through the College.of Nursing, Ltd., of which 
we have often spoken in these columns, is 
growing daily more imminent, and it now 
concerns American nurses more closely to 
understand this peril, since a very definite 
attempt is now being made to enlist them in 
support of the College. The letter in its behalf, 
which appeared last month in the Journal, and 
the suggestions of re-enforcement of its struc- 
ture in the invitation to individual Americans 
to accept associate membership in the College, 
are indications of this approach, and we think 
it is highly important that American nurses 
who may be asked to align themselves in any 
way with the College should understand that 
if they do so they will, in effect, no matter how 
well-meaning and friendly their intentions, be 
helping to strangle their British Sisters' long, 
hard efforts to obtain that professional freedom 
which we Americans have been fortunate 
enough to obtain for ourselves. No American 
nurse would knowingly do a thing of this kind. 
Let us urge them, earnestly, not to do it un- 
knowingly. Let it be remembered that, in the 
first place, the alumnae association is by no 
means the accepted starting point of English 
nursing organization, as in this country. This 
grouping of graduates by their schools, which 
we consider so necessary as the first step in 
self-government, has never been liked by the 
conservative hospital managers of England 
and their matrons, and only those nursing 
schools that came under the influence of Mrs. 
Fenwick, the late Miss Isla Stewart, and their 
group of progressives in the Matrons' Council, 
developed the alumnae association under the 
name of " Nurses' League." 

The historic school at St. Thomas', of which 
Miss Still is matron (Miss Still is one of the 
signers of the letter to the Editor in June), has 
no alumnae association, and would regard the 
idea with the utmost disapproval. Still le'ss do 
such conservative matrons tolerate the idea of 



July 20, 1 918 



(The British 3ournal of IRureing. 



47 



their nurses (they do not willingly admit that 
they are ever " graduates " or free from school 
control, but like to keep this control over them 
for life) joining general societies, such as the 
county, city, or State groups, which Americans, 
in their precious freedom, have been able to 
build up, and which we know to be so all- 
important in breaking down lines of narrow 
separation and bringing all together in one 
circle, in enabling nurses to compare their 
views and to unite their strength for true 
standards and principles. 

How far should we have progressed in State 
Registration had we not had our self-governed 
county and State societies? 

When such matrons, then, talk of demo- 
cratic management and control, it simply means 
that they do not understand the essence of such 
control, since their own nurses have never been 
permitted to learn it. They have taken up the 
popular catchwords of the day, no doubt in 
good faith, but do not know their actual 
implications. 

The structure of the College of Nursing, 
Ltd., is essentially autocratic. The letter itself, 
signed by Miss Still and Miss Amy Hughes, 
shows this, as it is perfectly clear therein that 
this College Company is a close corporation. 



"THE LANCET" AND THE SOCIETY 
FOR THE STATE REGISTRATION OF 
TRAINED NURSES. 



The Leaflet issued by the Trained Nurses' 
Protection Committee, exposing the autocratic 
Constitution of the College of Nursing, Ltd., 
is republished in the American Journal of 
Nursing in support of Miss Dock's criticism. 



We have once again to thank Miss Dock for 
her clear-sighted and courageous advocacy. 
Many years ago Miss Dock toot the trouble to 
tour Europe, and to enquire into Nursing con- 
ditions in nearly even.' country. Her opinions 
are not formed on accounts, " biassed " or 
otherwise, which appear in the press. She has 
studied " English Nursing Politics " on the 
spot, and is fully conversant with the 
antagonism with which hospital authorities and 
their discreditable " press " have treated the 
State Registration question as advanced by 
what she terms the " intelligentsia,"^ — that is, 
by the women who years ago had the brains to 
evolve a well-defined policy of reform. 



AN HfSTORICAL SURVEY. 

Mrs. Bedford FeuAvick has consented to 
repeat her address to the National Party, " An 
Historical Survey of the Registration Move- 
ment," as the younger generation of nurses 
have had little opportunity of instruction on the 
question. 



In its issue of July 6th, The Lancet published, 
in an article on " Registration of Nurses," 
comments on the conduct of business at the 
Annual Business Meeting of the Society for the 
State Registration of Trained Nurses, based on 
misapprehension, which reflected adversely ou 
the policy of the Society. 

Having pointed out that Major Chappie, who 
is in charge of the Central Committee's Bill, was 
prepared " to assist in 3.x\ agreed Bill " with 
the Cxjllege of Nursing, Ltd., The Lancet remarked : 

" We welcome an assurance made by Mrs. 
Bedford Fenwick from the Chair, speaking on 
behalf of the Society for the State Registration of 
Trained Nurses, that the Society has never been 
obstructionist ; and now is evidently the time 
to give practical proof of this. A resolution was 
passed at the Annual Meeting of the Society for 
the State Registration of Nurses, and sent to the 
Central Committee for State Registration, which 
contained a clause dissociating the Society from 
the College of Nursing. The afi&rmative vote was 
by no means a large one, but an amendment to 
secure freedom frcm ' the dcmination ' of the 
College of Nursing, ' without dissociation from 
it ' was not accepted by the chair. We find 
this attitude hard to distinguish from obstruction ; 
we have every confidence in the ability of nurses 
to settle their own polity without help from 
outside . . . nothing is more certain than that 
the profession of nursing is likely to undergo 
profound changes wnthin the next few years ; 
and, provided that it is placed in a position to 
manage its own affairs, plasticity is altogether 
desirable." 

As quite inadvertently, no doubt. The" Lancet' s 
statement was calculated to give a wnrong. im- 
pression, Mrs. Bedford Fenwick, whose conduct of 
business was criticised, sent an explanation 
to The Lancet, too late, she was informed, for 
insertion in its issue of July 13th; and upon 
asking that it might appear tliis week, she has 
been informed that — 

" We shall, of course, be glad to insert a state- 
ment that the amendment was proposedjby a 
person not a member of your Society and therefore 
not accepted by you as Chairman. I fear con- 
siderations of' space will hardly permit of deahng 
with the other matters at length, especially as 
they would give rise to correspondence for which 
we could not possibly find room." 

To which Mrs. Fenwick replied : — 

" I much regret that you are unable to 'find 
space for my letter on the article which appeared 
in The Lancet on July 6th, on the ,' Registration 
of Nurses,' as it is calculated to give a wrong 
impression, so far as the policy of the Society is 
concerned, and al,so of my ^ersona/Jattitude and 



48 



Zbc 3Briti0b 3ournal of "Wureine, 



July 20, 1918 



conduct of business. Frankly, this is unfair. 
If by inadvertence, reports are published which 
are not correct, the person named should have 
the right of reply. T had hoped The Lancet would 
have agreed with this ethical journalistic stand- 
poi nt. From the lay press, generously subsidised by 
our opponents, we have ceased to expect fair play. 
" I shall do myself the justice of publisliing 
my reply to The Lancet in The British Journal 
OF Nursing." 

Lette/ sent to the Editor of " The Lancet " by Mrs. 
Bedford Fen wick. President of the Society for 
the State Registration of Trained Nurses. 

Registration of Nurses. 

Sir, — I observe that in your last issue, July 6th, 
you refer to the character of the proceedings at 
recent meetings of the College ci Nursing, Ltd., and 
the Society for the State Registration of Trained 
Nurses. The single object of the latter Society 
since its inception in 1902 has been " To obtain an 
Act of Parliament providing for the Legal Registra- 
tion of Trained Nurses," and it naturally restricted 
itself to the question of Nurses' Registration at its 
annual business meeting. 

The College of Nur.sing, Ltd., which purports to 
control Nursing Education, together with Registra- 
tion and Discipline, and also to associate the 
members of the Nursing Profession under its direc- 
tion, at its recent Conference chose a wider field for 
discussion. 

As you refer to ray statement'made at the former 
meeting, that the S'ociety for the State Registra- 
tion of Nurses had never been obstructionist, 
adding, " now is evidently the time to give prac- 
tical proof of this," I feel sure you will grant me 
the opportunity of disabusing your readers of a 
wrong impression. 

The Society for the State Registration of Nurses, 
which first drafted a Nurses' Registration Bill, 
passed in 1908 by the House of Lords, and read a 
first time under the ten minutes' rule in the House 
of Commons in 1914 with a majority ot 229, has 
stood, and will continue to stand, for fundamental 
principles of good government in any Nurses' 
Registration Bill to which it gives its support. In 
opposing five successive drafts of the Bill promoted 
by the College of Nursing, Ltd., we have so far 
acted in protection of the interests of the Nursing 
Profession as a whole, the four vital principles for 
which we contend having been omitted from the 
drafts. Fighting for principles is not obstruction. 

You state further that " A resoltition was 
passed . . . and sent up to the Central Com- 
mittee for State Registration, which contained a 
clause dissociating the Society from the Collegf 
of Nursing . . . but an amendment to secure 
freedom from " the domination " of the Collqge of 
Nursing without dissociation from it " was rot 
accepted by the Chair." 

May I explain that my Society is not, and never 
has been, associated with the College of Nursing, 
and that the amendment to which you allude was 
not accepted by me as Chairman, as it was pro- 



posed by a person who was not a member of the 
Society, and was therefore not in order. 

May I express my appreciation of your state- 
ments " w-e have every confidence in the ability of 
nurses to settle their own polity without help 
from outside . . . and " Nothing is more certain 
thar that the profession of J nursing is likely to 
undergo profound changes within the next few 
years, and, provided that it is placed in a position 
to manage its own affairs plasticity is altogether 
desirable." 

It is this power of self-determination and plas- 
ticity for which the organised Societies of Nurses 
grouped in the Central Committee are contending, 
and which will be rendered impossible if the 
College of Nursing, Ltd., and its present restrictive 
and inelastic Memorandum and Articles of Associa- 
tion are incorporated in an Act of Parliament, 
bestowing upon it powers exercised in the Medical 
Profession by three separate bodies, wliich main- 
tain the balance of power in that profession, i.e., 
the Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons 
(Education) the General Medical Council (Regis- 
tration and Discipline) and the British Medical 
Association (free action in the body politic). 

The Constitution of the College of Nursing, Ltd., 
(a company of laymen) is calculated to establish a 
Nursing monopoly, which in our opinion would 
undermine the professional and economic inde- 
pendence of the Nursing Profession. 

We claim in our Bill a democratic and inde- 
pendent Governing Body authorised by Act of 
Parliament, entirely free from the restrictive Con- 
stitution of the College of Nursing, Ltd., and tliis 
principle of democratic organisation we must con- 
tinue to support. Hoping for the sympathy of 
The Lancet for our professional claims. 
I remain. 

Yours faithfully, 

Ethel G. Fenwick, 

President. 



As this explanation has not been inserted, the 
readers of The Lancet are left to assume that the 
members of the Society for the State Registration 
of Trained Nurses, who have largely inspired, and 
paid for, the campaign for nursing reform for the 
protection of the public, and the nursing profes- 
sion, are contumacious obstructionists, and its 
President incapable of conducting its business 
without prejvidice. 

A most unmerited aspersion upon the public- 
spirited character of the Society, and one we 
cannot permit to pass without protest. 



WEDDING BELLS. 

At the reception held after tlie wedding of 
Mr. Cyril Thatcher to Miss Ethel Benjamin, 
Assistant Commandant of the Women's Legion, 
the bride was presented by the wife of the Serbian 
Minister A\dth the Order of th.e Royal Red Cross of 
Serbia, in recognition of hev services to that 
country. 



July 20, 1918 



ZTbe British 3ournarof IRureing. 



49 



PROGRESS OF REGISTRATION IN 
CANADA. 

The Canadian Nurse publishes the good news 
that after nearly six years of preparation and 
attempts to get it, " the Nurses' Registration Act 
has been passed in British Columbia, and she now 
joins the rest of the Western Provinces in such 
recognition." One interesting feature about the 
support given to the Bill was the very general 
feeling among members that, by having established 
aflfMiation, the evident attempts of the Graduate 
Nurses' Association to help the smaller hospitals 
formed a good reason for passing the Bill. The 
Bill was introduced as a Public Measure, and was 
generally recognised as a protection to the public 
as well as the graduate nurse. 

The Act seems a thoroughly sound one, and 
follows closely the principles laid down in the 
Central Committee's Bill in this country — Indepen- 
dent Governing Body, three years' term of training, 
protected title, affiliation of special hospitals, and a 
ten-dollar {£2) registration fee. Good. Hearty 
congratulations to our Canadian colleagues. 



COLLEGE OF NURSING, LTD. 

Centres of the College have been formed at Derby 
and Bristol. At tne latter centre Sir Arthur 
Stanley stated that the local centre would include 
the adjoining counties, and everything would be 
done to encourage its power of initiative. At the 
moment they were not bothering about big build- 
ings in London, but they did need an annual income 
of about ;^5,ooo, which they hoped to secure by 
means of an endowment fund of ;^ioo,ooo. Sir 
Arthur then announced that six prominent laj'-men 
had consented to serve on the finance committee, 
so the system of placing the laity in charge of the 
money means placing the practical contiol of these 
local centres in their hands. Nothing can be more 
stultifying to " initiative " on the part of the 
nurses than to deprive them of the financial control 
of their own affairs. But this is the College policy 
throughout. There is no truer proverb in our 
language than "those who hold the purse-strings 
call the tune." All the College nurses need do is to 
toe the line. 



THE IRISH NURSING BOARD. 

At the meeting of the Irish Nursing Board, held 
on July i2th, the following seven members were 
elected by ballot as the Executive Committee, to 
hold office for three years : — Miss" Huxley, Miss 
Carson Rae, Dr. Kirkpatrick, Miss O'Flynn, Miss 
Ramsden, Miss Reeves, Miss Kearns. Colonel Sir 
Arthur Chance, F.R.C.S.I., was elected Chairman 
of the Board for the ensuing year. 

The Board have every reason to be satisfied with 
the first year's work. Nurses have joined in 
numbers, fully realising the value of a strong 
Register to support them, and of the Irish Nursing 
Board to look after their interests when Parliament 
grants State Registration of Nurses. 



PR ESENTAT ION. 

Miss Ellen Chippindale, on leaving the Clapham 
Maternity Hospital, of which she has been Matron 
for six years and Sister for five years, was pre- 
sented, on July 1 2th, by past and present nurses 
with a silver tea-tray and tea kettle and stand. 

Her departure is very deeply regretted by all 
who have worked with her or had the privilege of 
training under her. She also received other gifts. 



APPOINTMENTS. 

MATRON. 

District Hospital, Newbury. — Miss Phoebe 
Jones has been appointed Matron. She -was 
trained at the Royal Infirmary, Liverpool, and 
has been Sister at No. 2 Red Cross Hospital, 
Rouen ; Night Superintendent at tie British Red 
Cross Hospital, Netley ; and Matron at Groesynyd 
Hospital, Conway. 

NIGHT SUPERINTENDENT. 

Welsh National Hospital, Netley.— Miss Emily God- 
frey has been appointed Night Superintendent. 
She was trained at the York County Hospital, 
and subsequently held the position of Sister in 
the same institution, and that of Night Super- 
intendent at the Royal Infirmary, Perth. 

THEATRE SISTER. 

Nortli Lonsdale Hospital, Barrow-in-Furness. — 

Miss Alys M. Hatton has been appointed Theatre 
Sister. "She was trained at the Royal Salop 
Infirmary, Shrewsbury, has been Night Sister and 
Sister at the General Hospital, Walsall, and Sister 
at the Miller General Hospital, Greenwich, and 
at the Red Cross Hospital, Sandivery, Cheshire.; 
SISTER. 

W Ormskirk Military Hospital.— Miss Nellie Walton 
has been appointed Sister. She was trained in 
general nursing at St. Luke's Hospital, Halifax, 
and in Fever Nursing at Mortrn Banks, KeigWey. 

SECOND MASSAGE SISTER. 

Leicester Royal Infirmary. — Miss Ella H. Cozens 
has been appointed Second Massage Sister. She 
was trained a.t Bristol Royal Infirmary, and holds 
the certificate of the incorporated Society of 
Trained Masseuses. 

WELCOME HELP. 

The President of the Society for the State Regis- 
tration of Trained Nurses acknowledges with 
thanks the following donations to the funds of the 
Societv :--Miss A. E. Hulme, £s'y Anon., £2; 
Miss F. Sleigh, £1 is. ; Mrs. Turnbull, £1 is. ; 
Miss M. N. Cureton, £1 ; Miss E. J. Hurlston, 
£1 ; Miss J. C. Child, £1 ; Miss Beatrice Kent, 
los. ; Mrs. G. F. Wates, los. ; Miss C. A. Little, 
9s. ; Miss L. Huggins, 8s. 6d. ; Miss C. MacGarthy, 
6s. ; Miss E. Ross, 5s. ; Miss Macvitie, 5s. ; Miss 
Lucy Woodrow, 5s. ; M'ss Muriel Withers, 5s. ; 
Miss E. Martin, 5s. ; Miss L. M. Havers, 3s. 6d. ; 
Miss C. Wright, 2s. 6d. ; Miss F. E, Batt, 2s. ; 
Miss M. G. Allibut, is. 6d. ,- Miss McGimpsey, is. 



^be Bnti9l5 3ournal of murstng. 



July 20, 1 918 



NURSING ECHOES. 



The beautiful verses which appear in this 
Journal from time to time, signed " C. B. M.," 
are written by the sister of the Editor. We 
note that " R-achel Weeping " has been in- 
serted in a nursing exchange without acknow- 
ledgment to The British Journal of Nursing. 
We are glad to give permission for our exclu- 
sive contributions to be re-published by profes- 
sional journals, but courtesy and the law of 
copyright demand that their source should be 
acknowledged. 



Mrs. Baines and Miss Imandt, of the Society 
of Women Journalists, are to be At Home to 
meet the Colonial Matrons-in-Chief, at 2-4, 
Tudor Street, E.G., on Thursday, July i8th, 
from 3.30—6. We surmise this will be a very 
interesting occasion. We have quite a number 
of nurse journalists in these days, and many 
of our matrons have quite the literary touch. 
The pre-war teas of the Society of Women 
Journalists were renowned. Alas ! we fear that 
delectable raisin cake our souls loved no longer 
graces the menu. Let us hope good-fellowship 
continues to make up for luxuries of a more 
material nature. 



The Committee of the County Hospital, 
York, has decided to raise the salaries of the 
probationers in training from ^6, ;£i2, and 
£16 per annum to ;^i8 and ;^20 respectively. 
If they remain on for special experience they 
will be paid at the rate of jQ2/\. for the first 
six months, and of jQ^o for the time they act 
as Sister. The Sisters' salaries start at £j\o, 
vi^ith ;^5 war bonus, with a yearly rise up to 



Dr. H. C. Cameron, the examiner of proba- 
tioners at the Portsmouth Infirmary, has re- 
ported very favourably on their standard of 
knowledge. 

" As a whole," said Dr. Cameron's report, 
" and especially in the second and third years, 
the standard attained by the nurses was uni- 
formly high — higher than I have met with else- 
where." 

The Infirmary Committee has decided to 
admit probationers at the age of 19 instead of 
21, owing to the difficulty in obtaining proba- 
tioners. 



having a wonderful success. ;^5,ooo has been 
raised, and a capital fund of ;;^io,ooo is aimed 
at. Premises have been obtained at 206, Bath 
Street, Glasgow, and are being suitably 
equipped. 

Mrs. Strong, formerly Matron of the Royal 
Infirmary, is giving much personal help with 
the organization, and Dr. McGregor Robertson 
is encouraging the nurses to help themselves. 
This is the right policy where professional 
women are concerned if success of the right 
kind is to be attained. 



A correspondent sends the following adver- 
tisement from the Glasgow Herald: — 

PROBATIONERS wanted for general training, 
hospital, 60 beds (North of England), recog- 
nised as a training school by the College of Nursing ; 
applicants must be strong, well educated, age 20 to 
28; salary, first year, £15; second, £iy ; third, 
;^2o, with a yearly bonus of £5 ; indoor uniform 
provided after two months. 

She thinks it is misleading to young candidates 
for training, as the College of Nuising, Ltd., 
cannot possibly know anything of the result of 
the teaching and training at this hospital. 



THE TRAINED WOMEN NURSES' 
FRIENDLY SOCIETY. 



The Scottish Nurses' Club in Glasgow, pro- 
moted by the Scottish Nurses' Association, is 



We have pleasure in informing the members 
of the Trained Women Nurses' Friendly 
Society that their Committee (owing to careful 
management) has just invested ;^i,200 on 
behalf of their Sick Benefit Fund, so that now 
their invested savings are nearing ;^5,ooo — a 
splendid result. This proves how thrifty women 
are in managing public money, and should 
encourage trained nurses to join their own pro- 
fessional society, and help to pile up an invested 
fund, so that in the future they can expend the 
income in extra benefits. Each member should 
get her friends to join, and prove women's 
capacity for financial responsibility. 

Now that the Insurance Act has been 
amended, the bad habit of omitting to give 
notice to the Secretary of illness, sometimes for 
weeks after the event, must be discontinued by 
Nurses, as they are only to receive benefit from 
the day following that on which notice of in- 
capacity is given. Thus a serious loss may be 
sustained. On the other hand, nurses who con- 
tinue to break the law must expect to suffer 
for it. They must learn to be business-like, 
and not treat an Act of Parliament like a scrap 
of paper. 



July 20, 1918 



^be »ntl0b 3ournal ot 'Kureina. 



5^ 



THE OVERSEAS NURSING ASSOCIATION. 

The twenty-second annual report of the 
Colonial Nursing Association (now the Over- 
seas Nursing Association) states that in the 
face of the present difficulties it was hardly 
to be expected that any new developments in 
the work would take place. The Committee 
are, therefore, pleased to record that in three 
instances requests for nurses in new fields of 
labour ^have been met. A Matron and two 
nurses have been supplied to the British Hos- 
pital, Lisbon ; a female Head Attendant to the 
St. Anne's Lunatic Asylum, Trinidad; and two 
nurses for Government service in what before 
the war was German East Africa. 

The Committee continue to receive encourag- 
ing reports of nurses serving abroad. In 
Nyasaland Miss R. Paterson, Matron of the 
Government Hospitals, and Nursing Sister A. 
Fallot have been decorated with the Royal Red 
Cross, and were mentioned in a Dispatch from 
Brigadier-General Northey " for their splendid 
work during the past year." Nineteen addi- 
tional badges for meritorious service for five 
years and upwards have been awarded. The 
Committee record with deep regret the death 
of two of their nurses on their voyage home to 
this country on leave. Miss M. Graham, from 
Southern Nigeria, was a passenger on the 
ss. " Abasso," torpedoed on May 17th, and 
Miss M. Poulter on the ss. "Appapa," tor- 
pedoed in December last. 

Nothing definite appears to have been done 
towards supplying midwives to the outlying 
districts of Canada, concerning which proposal 
there was some strong criticism expressed from 
Canada last year. The report states : — " It is 
felt that this matter can only be taken in hand 
in compliance with the wishes of the Canadian 
Authorities, but active steps are being taken to 
make it known that the Association is anxious 
to lend its aid in the selection and provision of 
nurse midwives from the Mother Country." 

The Dowager Countess Grey, Miss Amv 
Hughes, and Major D. K. McDowell, C.M.G.', 
R.A.M.C., have been elected to fill vacancies 
on the committee. 



HOSPITAL WORLD. 

In consequence of the increasing number of 
Child Welfare Centres in North London, the Com- 
mittee of the Great Northern Central Hospital, 
Holloway, have established a Consultative Centre 
for Children. Consultations mil be on Wednesday 
and Thursday each week, when children referred 
from any Welfare Centre in North London wall be 
seen by appointment. At a later date a Clinic for 
Children will be inaucfurated . 



LONDON H OSPITA L NURSES. 

A lively correspondence has been kept up in 
the Times on the " farming out " of two years' 
trained nurses at the London Hospital, sub- 
sequent to Major Chappie's question on the 
subject in the House of Commons. 

Lord Knutsford, the Chairman, and a keen- 
supporter of the lucrative intensive system of 
training at the London Hospital, repeats his 
convictions, and accuses Major Chappie of 
trickery in the House. 

Colonel Maurice, A. M.S., supports in a well- 
reasoned speech the sound economic claims of 
Major Chappie. 

Then, of course, in butts Sir Henry Burdett, 
and presumes to " voice the wish of the nursing 
profession," and " ventures " incidentally " to 
appeal to the Chairman of the London Hos- 
pital " to do justice to the probationary nurses 
under his control, and abandon the ambiguous 
system of giving a two years' certificate of 
training, and supplementing it with a second at 
the end of two years' private work — a system 
Sir Henry has supported with vehemence in his 
nurses' papers, especially when " Bart's " 
nurses protested against the depreciation of 
their three years' certificate, when a 
*' Londoner " was thrust upon them as Matron 
with the lower qualification ! 

Lord Knutsford returns to the attack on 
July nth and i6th, and points out that 
neither Sir Henry Burdett nor " his son-in- 
law," Colonel Maurice, "have given any 
reason why the London Hospital should change 
its methods." He trot^ out the well-known 
fact that both the Matrons-in-Chief — in 
England and "France — of Q.A.I.M.N.S. are 
" Londoners," but fails to inform the public 
that he and other officials of the London 
Hospital have seats on the Nursing Board 
which made these appointments ! As the dis- 
pute is one of the exploitation of the Nursing 
Profession, Lord Knutsford might very per- 
tinently have invited Sir H. B. to disclose the 
profits on his nurses' papers, and prove how 
entirely disinterested has been his connection 
with our profession for the past thirty years ! 

Up to date Major Chappie sits on velvet ; he 
repeats his statements categorically, and no 
fcne can disprove them. 

Nurses with only two years' experience are 
certified as " trained " and " farmed out " 
for the profit of the charity, under a contract 
for a further two years' service. 

It is significant that the emoluments paid to 
the Matron who originated, and controls, this 
profitable business are considerably in advance 
of those of any other Matron in the kingdom. 



52 Zbc »rttieb 3ournal of flurama. ^"^y ^°' '9i8 

OUTSIDE THE GATES. BOOK OP THE WEEK. 



DIED FOR THEIR COUNTRY. 

The King and Queen went to St. Paul's to pray- 
on July 13th, with over 4,000 Woolwich munition 
workers. 

The special prayer said by the Bishop of South- 
wark was : " Almighty God, we commend into 
Thy hands of mercy the souls ol our brothers and 
sisters who have laid down their li>'es whilst 
devoting their skill and industry to the service 
of their country. Grant that they may be 
accounted worthy of a place amongst Thy faithful 
servants in the Kingdom of Heaven ; ard give 
both to tliem and to us forgiveness for all our sins 
and increasing understanding of Thy will ; for 
His sake Who loved us and gave Himself for us. 
Thy Son, our Saviour, Jesus Christ. Amen." 

There was a moment of great emotion when 
the King and his people stood and listened to the 
" Last Post " and Reveille, sounded by the 
trumpeters of the Royal Regiment of Artillery, 
" as a tribute to those who in Woolwich munition 
factories have laid down their lives for their 
country." 



The House of Commons accepted without, a 
division the second reading of the Government 
Bill for prolonging the life of Parliament for 
another six months to January 30th, 1919- 
Then it is to be hoped this tired Parliament will 
cease to exist, and women have a chance of 
recording their votes for men of a very difEerent 
type. 



ENEMY ALIENS. 
A CLEAN SWEEP. 

Mrs. Dacre-Fox, the organizer of the enthusiastic 
mass meeting held in Trafalgar Square last Satur- 
day in support of a " clean sweep " of Germans at 
large and in office, had reason to be w«ll satisfied 
with the spirited determination it evinced. The 
speakers used good old Saxon English, and the 
following resolution was passed with loud and pro- 
longed acclamations : — 

That this mass meeting regards the proposals 
made by the Hofne Secretary on Thursday in the 
House of Commons as futile and useless to deal 
with the alien enemy, and refuses to accept any 
such compromise on the part of the authorities. 

It demands the immediate internment of all 
aliens of enemy blood, whether naturalised or 
unnaturalised, the removal of all such aliens from 
every Government and public office, and calls 
•upon the Government to take whatever steps are 
necessary to put this resolution into effect. 

When the resolution was carried, Mcs. Dacre-Fox 
said she would ask the Prime Minister to receive a 
deputation in order to convey to him the determina- 
tion of the meeting to see that no half-measures 
were adopted by the Government in the treatment 
of the enemy alien f>eril. 



THE SINQER.* 

There is enough good material in this book to 
make two stories and so many interesting personali- 
ties that it is impossible tc do them justice in a 
short notice. 

Pauline, the singer, is the central figure and her 
career is full of interesting details. 

It was when singing at a country house that she 
fi.rst met Doctor Carnovious, who opened the door 
for her to all that her ambition had dreamed of. 
He fell in love with her voice, with her beauty, 
with everything that belonged to her at that first 
meeting, and from the first was determined to 
marry her. But it must be well understood that 
he was a German, that the time was that prior to 
the war and that he was in England studying 
coast erosion. It was he who procured for her an 
introduction to the great Ottenscheiner, who in 
his turn introduced her at the German Embassy. 
Although Pauline was as yet unaware of any deep 
feeling for Carnovious, the thought of another 
woman in the field of his favour was vagubly 
distasteful to her. The face of the beautiful 
Baroness whom her friend Florrie Keppel had 
designated ' a cat, but a beautiful cat," persisted 
in Pauline's remembrance when that of others to 
whom she had spoken was blurred. " What was 
she to Carnovious or he to her ? And did the 
answer to either question matter to her who 
devoted her immediate future to 'art ? " But of 
course she married him, because he had deter- 
mined that she should do so, and she apparently 
was quite happy with him until she regained from 
him by a trick the secret code of the disposal of 
the British Navy, which the beautiful Baroness had 
obtained for the German Secret Service, of which 
she and Carnovious were illustrious members. 
Pauline loved her German husband (strange as 
may seem to us), but she unhesitatingly tricked 
him when the honour of her country was at stake. 

He condemned her to die by her own hand in 
consequence, but the same night he was electro- 
cuted, in his study, by a naked wire on his electric 
lamp. Not by any means an accident, we are led 
to believe. 

The excitement and colour of beautiful Pauline's 
career is balanced by that of the super-mother, 
Mrs. Barbacre.to whom we are introduced at the 
moment that she has selected the golf course as 
a suitable place for a picnic for her infant son. 

Her husband was a novelist, but Mrs. Barbacre's 
interests were somewhat circumscribed. At 
irregular intervals she had taken an interest in his 
later books, but it had more reference to their sales 
than their composition. It will be possible, there- 
fore, to believe that when Mr. Barbaore announced 
that he was taking lessons in golf, she did not 
enquire what golf was, in what manner it was 
played, or where, but simply said, " How nice. 
You might pass the mustard." 

♦ By W. J. Escott. Blackwood & Sons, London. 



The British Journal of Numng, luly 20, 19lS. 



" Science is, I believe, 

nothing but trained and 
organized common-sense, 
differing from the latter 
only as a veteran may 
differ from a raw recruit : 
and its methods diffe' 
from those of common- 
sense only so far as the 
Guardsman's cut and 
thrust differ from the 
manner in which a savage 
wields his club." 

Professor Huxley. 




The Basis 
of 
Science 



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54 



Z\)c »rttl6b 3ournal of "Wurgina. 



July 20, 1 918 



So it came to pass that she and her infant 
settled to their picnic upon tue golf course. 

" A tall gentleman came rapidly up to her and 
lifting his cap, said most urbanely : 

" You'll excuse me, madam, but might I remove 
your chair and things to a better place ? " 

" Not at all. Oil, don't trouble, please. We 
are quite comfortable here." 

" But the danger, madam, to your little boy ! 

" Cows ? " said Mrs. Barbacre, looking round 
in various directions. 

" No, no, madam ; golf balls." 

" Oh, yes," said she, still bewildered. 

" This, madam, is what we call a ' green,' a 
little over hero would be quite safe." 

Pretty httle slangy Patricia, her young daughter, 
is the very antithesis of her matter-of-fact mother, 
but she is a charming little person, and we are 
glad that she is happy with Jules at last. 

" Pat, Cherie, I love you a thousand times more 
than anyone else in the world." 

Jules sealed the betrothal, and so did she. 

" How could I ? " said she, blushing furiously. 
" Now go downstairs and face the music. I am 
going to change my face." 

" Then I shan't marry you," said Jules. 

H. H. 



MISSING. 



Tell me he's dead or dying ; say he stands 

Seeking for guidance the warm touch of hands. 

Doomed in an instant to eternal night, 

With only mind and memory for sight — 

For I could cheer him.— But, Lord, quench this 

drought. 
The unfathomable immensity of doubt. 
Tell me he's maimed or crippled, torn or blind. 
Staring through eyes that show his wandering 

mind, — 
Tell me he's rotting in a place abhorred, — 
Not this, not this, O Lord ! 

—From Poems by Geoffry Dearmer. 



WHAT TO READ. 

In these days of difficulty in getting books 
it is well to know of the best, so as not to waste 
time in reading rubbish. Read, if you can get 
them, " General von Sneak," by Robert Blatcb- 
f ord ; "Towards Morning," by Miss I. A. R. 
Wylie ; " That Which Hath Wings," by Richard 
Dehan ; " On the Edge of the War Zone," by 
Mildred Aldrich ; " Yellow English," by Dorothy 
Flatau ; and " First the Blade," by Clemence Dane. 



COMING EVENTS. 

July 25th. — Central Midwives' Board. Monthly 
Meeting, i. Queer Anne's Gate Buildings, Dart- 
mouth Street, S.W. 

August 15/.— Central Midwives' Boaid. Exami- 
nation in London, Birmingham, Bristol, Leeds, 
Liverpool. Oral Examinatiion a tew days later. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects jor these columns, we wish U to h$ 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 

NATIONAL BABY WEEK. 
To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 
Dear Madam, — On behalf of National Baby 
Week Council I wish to thank you most warmly 
for the generous help you have given to our work. 
Free publicity at a time like this, when space 
has to be so severely curtailed, can only be given 
at the cost of real individual sacrifice, and I should 
like you to realise how deeply my Committee 
appreciate all you have done. 
Yours faithfully, 

Eric Pritchard, 
Chairman ot the Executive Committee. 

THE HEALTH OF THE RACE. 

To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Mapam, — If Dr. Truby King could have 
brought with him New Zealand skies, open spaces, 
healthy homes and conditions generally prevailing 
there, he might have added greatly to his reputa- 
tion as a " baby saver "• — a title which is being 
claimed for him by the lay press. 

But the world is as it is. When he compares 
figures and conditions in his own country and in 
this, he will, one hopes, admit that our medical 
men must be given the palm for the reduction of 
infantile death rate. 

They have improved the health of the race 
in spite of tiemendous obstacles ; Dr. Truby King 
is improving it by harnessing his knowledge to 
the chariot of a beneficent nature ; aided by social 
conditions which are the outcome of experience 
for which we are still paying the price. 
L. E. Sherliker, 
Member, Royal British Nurses' Assoc. 

A "NURSE'S BADGE" MISLEADINQ. 

To the Editor oj 'UnEBmrisH Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — Since writing to you my letter 
with reference to the badge which was being sold 
as the " Nightingale Badge," I have been in com- 
munication with the Nurses' Outfitting Associa- 
tion, Ltd., which was selling it, and, as the result 
of my protest, they have agreed in future to drop 
the word " Nightingale " irom the title of the 
badge and to call it in future the " Nurses' 
Badge," and they have added that the badge has 
always been sold simply as a distinguishing mark 
for nurses in general. 

Whilst it is doubtful whether any nurse can be 
advised to wear such a badge, which implies no 
certificate of efficiency but might be interpreted as 
carrying that certificate, I think it is fair to the 
Nurses' Outfitting Association to mention that 
they have met the objection to their using the title 
" Nightingale." Yours faithfully, 

W. H. Bon HAM Carter. 
Secretary Nightingale Training School. 



July 20, 1918 



Hbe Brttl0b 3ournal of Bureino. 



55 



WAS IT FAIR TO THE SICK NURSE? 

To the Editor oj The British Journal of Nursing. 

Madam, — On a recent date, the Matron of a 
Nurses' Home in London called at a Hospital 
seeking advice regarding a member of her stalf, 
who is very ill. She was received by the secretary 
of the hospital, to whom the details of the case 
were explained. The secretary said there was 
no bed available for some days, and in any case, 
the only suggestion shi. could make was that the 
pick nurde should attend at the out-patient depart- 
ment on Thursday at one o'clock (presumably 
with other casuals !) and see the medical officer 
then. 

Does a trained nurse, who has gone under in 
the zealous performance of her duty in these 
strenuous times, not merit a little more privacy 
and delicacy in seeking professional advice ? 
This is the hospital for which your excellent 
Journal asks subscriptions from all classes of 
women workers to perpetuate the undying memory 
of one whom all professional women love, and 
who would never have meted out such casual 
. courtesy to one of her sisters. 

I enclose my card, and remain, 

Another Hard-working Sister. 

[We regret to hear of tins treatment of a sick 
nurse at a Woman's Hospital. Our expetience at 
the General Hospitals has been quite otherwise. 
Sick nurses are often given preference before the 
general public, and leceive ^-lie very best of care 
and kindness. Sometimes we have asked our- 
selves the question : " Are medical women and 
women hospital offici.T.ls as sympathetic towafvis 
nurses as men ? " We '='hould be pleased to heaf 
expert opinion on this point. — Ed.] 

HUMILIATINQ HUiYlBUQ. 

To the Editor oj The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — I quite agree with the views 
expressed re " Humiliating Humbug," by Beatrice 
Kent, in your last issue. I am just back from 
France, a land of horror and sadness, and during 
my absence many nursing affairs may have 
changed. I do not krow, but one thing I feel 
sure about is, that we women who have had the 
honour of nursing the greatest men in the world, 
both at home and abroad, do not want patronage 
from Miss Asquith, or charities such as the 
" Nation's Fund for Nurses." 

It is to be hoped that trained nurses will wake 
up soon and let the nation know who and what 
we are in this great country of ours. Then, 

perhaps. Miss Asquith will understand and 

leave us alone. 

Yours faithfully, 

F. M. B., 

B.E.F. 

Queen Mary's Hostel for Nurses. 

[The whole War Charity scheme to finance the 
College has been manoeuvred during the absence 
of the flower of the nursing profession on active 
service. No Bill should be hurriedly passed in 
their absence.^ — Ed.] 



KERNELS FROM CORRESPONDENCE, 

" A Sister of Sixty " writes : " Gambols, 
indeed. I want no idle Society women gambolling 
on my behalf. Has not the Premier made a most 
touching appeal to every woman who has the 
great gifts of youth and strength to go on the 
land and save the harvest. He says, ' the harvest 
is in danger,' owing to lack of labour, and ' there 
is not a moment to lose.' Let young women 
gambol amongst the hay-cocks and the corn 
stooks, and later on let them plough and sow 
and spread manure. Forty years ago I could 
have given them a lead. If the Queen would 
express her displeasure with the waste of time 
by Society girls, and the Royalties refuse to give 
their patronage to ' gambols,' they would set a 
popular example and discourage these merry 
mumrners. Anyway I protest with you that 
the nursing profession should be used as their 
excuse for frivolity and self-indulgence." 



"Australian Sister " writes : — "As you advised, I 
attended the mass meeting in Trafalgar Square on 
Saturday, in support of interning Huns high and 
low. The speeches were hot and strong, but it is 
a pity the men and women who governed this 
country for ten years before the war were not in thfe 
crowd to heai what the man and woman in the 
street think of them. ' Hang the lot,' was the 
import of their suggestions — and in very ugly 
language with plenty of groans. I was surprised 
and pleased to hear calls for ' Hughes.' ' Give us 
Hughes ! ' ' Hughes is the man ! ' ' Hughes 
would soon settle their hash ! " I gathered some 
high-placed alien had to do with court-martials. 
This seemed infuriating to the boys in blue. ' Just 
you wait till the boys come home ; they'll soon 
hoof out the Hun and the men who have kept 
him in office ! ' One and all of the crowd spoke 
of brioery and corruption, and to hear them 
swear that oath proposed by the Mayor of Bury- 
St. Edmunds did one's heart good, and the women 
were as deep-throated as the men." 



REPLIES TO CORRESPONDENTS. 

Correspondent, Wimbledon. — The names of lady 
chemists who take pupils in dispensing can be 
obtained from the Secretary of the Pharmaceutical 
Society, 17, Bloomsbury Square, W.C. At the close 
of a three years' apprenticeship the student can 
enter for the " Minor " examination of the Phar- 
maceutical Society, the passing of which gives the 
legal right to dispense and sell poisons, and to use 
the title of " Chemist and Druggist " or " Phar- 
macist." 



OUR PRIZE COMPETITIONS. 

July Z']th. — What are the chief racial poisons ? 
What steps should be taken to prevent and 
counteract their effects ? 

August yd. — How may the play of children be 
directed so as to be a means of education ? 



5^ ^be :Britt0b 3ournal of Burelnc Supplement. My ^o, 1918 



THe Midwife. 



THE MmWIVES ACT AMENDMENT 
BILL. 

On July 9th, in the House of Ijords, the Report 
of Amendments to the Midwives Bill was received. 
The district councils are evidently still struggling 
to retain the right to act as Local Supervising 
Authorities. It will be remembered that in Com- 
mittee the following Amendment was inserted at 
the instance of the Marquess of Salisbury as 
" Clause 12 ":— 

" Section nine of the principal Act (which enables 
county councils to delegate their powers and duties 
to district councils) shall be repealed." An amend- 
ment to this Clause, moved by Lord Salisbury, has 
now been adopted which materially weakens it : — 
" Provided that where, at the commencement of 
this Act, any powers or duties have been delegated, 
such delegation shall not be afifected. " To this 
amendment, on the third reading of the Bill on 
July i6th. Viscount Peel moved a further one :^ 
" Unless, on the representation of the County 
Council concerned, the Local Government Board 
otherwise direct." 

The existing cases of delegation affected by this 
amendment are four. 

The Bill was read a third time and passed. 

THE MATERNITY AND CHILD 
WELFARE BILL. 

The Maternity and Child Welfare Bill was 
debated at length in Committee in the House of 
Commons on July gth, and read a third time and 
passed in that House on July 12th. The long dis- 
cussion in Committee centred mainly round the 
question whether the powers given under the Act 
should be conferred on both large and small 
authorities, or whether it was desired to limit the 
use of these powers to boroughs of more than 
50,000 population. Eventually it was decided that 
the County Councils in England and Wales exer- 
cising powers under this Act or under Section two 
of the Notification of Births (Extension) Act, 1915, 
should establish maternity and child welfare com- 
mittees, and may delegate to such committees, with 
or without restrictions or conditions, as they think 
fit, any of the powers under either Act, except the 
power of raising a rate, or borrowing money. 

EUGENICS. 

A selection of striking posters shown at the recent 
Baby Week Exhibition at Westminster were illus- 
trative of inheritance of ability, inheritance of 
defect, causes of infant deaths, insanity in the 
relation to heredity ; also of the various aspects of 
syphilis^as the result of heredity, of infection, &c. 
^and a study of worthy parentage. 



BABIES OF THE EMPIRE. 

On Tuesday in last week the Right Honble. 
W F. Massey, P.O. (Prime Minister of New 
Zealand), presided at the opening of the Babies 
of the Empire Mothercraft Training Centre, 
29 and 31, Trebovir Road, Eail's Court, S.W. The 
Babies of the Empire Society, of whicli Lord 
Plunket is Chairman, and Dr. F. Truby King, 
C.M.G., Medical Director, has its headquarters in 
the General Buildings, Aldwych, W.C. 2. Its 
objects are (i) To uphold the Sacredness of the 
Body and the Duty of Health ; (2) To acquire 
accurate information and knowledge on matters 
affecting the health of Women and Children , and 
to disseminate such knowledge ; and (3) To train 
specially, and to employ qualified nurses, whose 
duty it will be to give sound, reliable instruction, 
advice and assistance on matters affecting the 
health and well-being of women, especially during 
pregnancy and while nursing infants . . . with 
a view to conserving the health and strength of the 
rising generation, and rendering both mother and 
offspring hardy, healthy, and resistive to disease ; 
(4) To cc-operate with any present or future 
organisations which are working lor any of the 
foregoing or cognate objects. 

At the Mothercraft Training Centre the main 
idea is to give a sound, simple, thorough grounding 
in the every-day needs of home and nursing. The 
desire is to make the course practical, helpful, 
and domestic, to encourage and stimulate 
commonsense and resourcefulness, and to render 
the knowledge conveyed as interesting and as 
widely applicable and adaptable as possible. The 
Matron is Miss A. Pattrick, and the Staff Sister 
Mrs. Cowey. 

The Care of Mother and Child. 
Under the auspices of the London County 
Council, which is the Local Supervising Authority 
for midwives in the county, Dr. Truby King ir, 
giving two courses of lectures on the Care of Mother 
and Child vnth special reference to the work of 
midwives, one at Birkbeck College, Bream's 
Buildings, Fetter Lane, E.C., the next lecture being 
given on July 22nd at 4 o'clock., and the other at 
Morley College, Waterloo Road, S.E. i, where 
lectures will be given on July i8th and 24th at 
4 o'clock. They will be illustrated by Lantern 
Slides and Practical Demonstrations. 



A report compiled by the Local Government 
Board on information derived from German sources 
shows that the fall in the birth-rate in Germany 
during the three years, 1915-17, was equivalent to 
the loss of 2,000,000 babies. 




THE 



OPiiMi 





No. 1,582. 



SATURDAY, JULY 27, 1918. 



Vol. LXI 



EDITORIAL. 



THE ARMY SCHOOL OF NURSINQ IN THE 
UNITED STATES. 

Immediately America came into the War 
the leading nursing experts were on the 
qui vive to evolve a plan which would meet 
the needs of the stricken troops and provide 
tbem with trained skilled nursing. These 
ladies had watched with intelligent interest 
the progress of military nursing in Europe, 
and in its disorganised methods found little 
to emulate outside the Imperial and Terri- 
torial Nursing Services. Beyond these well- 
disciplined Services — our amateur Red Cross 
nursing system — placing the skilled work of 
the professional worker under the direction 
of the untrained commandant — was con- 
demned in toto. The Nursing Department 
of the American Red Cross is superintended 
at Washington by an experienced Matron, 
Miss Jane A. Delano, R.N., who has had 
the very best medical and nursing support 
in the further organization of her depart- 
ment, and after the appointment of Miss 
Annie Goodrich, R.N., as Chief Inspecting 
Nurse of the Army Hospitals in the Surgeon- 
General's Office, Washington, D.C , Miss 
Delano and Miss D. E. Thompson, R.N., of 
the Army Nurse Corps, U.S.A., have worked 
to evolve a complete system of nursing for 
the Army in the field. 

At the recent Convention at Cleveland, 
two important Papers were presented — 
one by Colonel W. H. Smith, which repre- 
sents Miss Goodrich's plan, the other, 
entitled " A Nursing Crisis," by Dr. Gold- 
water, which advocated the employment 
of nurses' aides as they have been trained 
for the past three or four years through the 
educational committees of the Red Cross. 
Great satisfaction has been given through- 
out the American nursing world by the 
authorization, by the Secretary of War 
upon the recommendation by the Surgeon- 



General of the Army, of the establishment 
of the Army School of Nursing, evolved 
by the leading Nursing Superintendents and 
supported by Colonel W. H. Sniith. 

This School will put into operation a 
plan whereby the sick and wounded men in 
military hospitals will receive care through 
the method that has been found most 
effective in the civil hospitals. The course 
is to extend over a period of three years. 

The military hospitals will provide experi- 
ence in surgical nursing, including ortho- 
pedic, eye, ear, nose, and throat ; medical^ 
including communicable, nervous, and 
mental disease. Experience in the dis- 
eases of children, gynecology, obstetrics, 
and public health nursing will be provided 
through affiliations in the second or third 
year course. 

Lectures, recitations, and laboratory 
work, will be given in the required subjects, 
each hospital assigned as a training camp 
having its staff of lecturers, instructors, and 
supervisors, and teaching equipment. To 
be eligible for the Army School of Nursing 
candidates must be between 2i and 35 
years of age, in good physical condition, 
and of good moral character. They must 
be graduates of recognised high schools or 
present evidence of an educational equip- 
ment. Credit of nine months, or approxi- 
mately an academic year, will be given to 
graduates of accredited colleges. No tuition 
fee is required. 

In many of the military hospitals are to 
be found men and women prominent in the 
medical and nursing world through whom 
the School is assured of a strong faculty, 
and the following advisory council appointed 
to advise concerning the general policy 
assures its success :— 

Colonel W. H. Smith, chairman ; Colonel 
C. L. Furbush ; Colonel W. T. Longcope ; 
Miss M. Adelaide Nutting; Miss Lilian D. 
Wald ; Miss Anna C. Maxwell ; Miss Dora 



58 



Zbc Brlttab 3ournal of •Rurelng. 



July 2j, 1918 



E. Thompson, the Superintendent of the 
Army Nurse Corps ; Miss Lenah S. Higbee, 
the Superintendent of the Navy Nurse 
Corps ; Miss Jane A. Delano, the Director 
of the Department of Nursing, American 
Red Cross ; the President of the American 
Nurses' Association ; the President of the 
National League of Nursing Education ; 
the President of the National Organization 
of Public Health Nursing; and the Dean of 
the Army School of Nursing. 

We congratulate the Surgeon-General on 
calling to his aid the representatives of all 
the leading Nurses' Organizations in the 
United States. Brains and Patriotism count 
some in America ! 

FOR DAUNTLESS FRANCE.* 

(Concluded from page 43.) 



THE RECORD. 

" Tne Record " (Part II of Mr Laurence 
Biuyon's book) deals with the Convoys, the 
Hospitals, the Canteens, and Relief Work in the 
Devastated Zones. 

The Convoys. 

It became known in England in the early months 
of the war that more ambulances for the wounded 
were urgently required for the French Army's 
unprecedented needs. The Automobile Associa- 
tion at once appealed to their members to provide 
touring cars which might be converted into 
ambulance cars. As a result 250 cars were ofEered 
and about 200 were found suitable for conversion 
and shipped to France, and a large number who 
could not provide cars subscribed over ;^6,ooo. 
Of one mobile unit we read : ' ' The devoted work 
of the unit was warmly appreciated, not only tor 
the ' swiftness and comfort,' with which the 
wounded were carried, but for the ' spontaneity 
and warmth ' of the English offers of aid. A 
French Army doctor wrote to thank the unit's 
commander for the ' precious help ' it had given. 
The British ambulances had transported more 
than one hundred and fifty wounded to Amiens 
and to Doullens in three days. ' By this action,' 
the doctor wrote, ' you have greatly relieved our 
own convoys and secured a very swift and con- 
tinuous evacuation for the severely wounded, 
some of whom, I do not scruple tc say,^ will owe 
their recovery to you.' " 

Amongst the ambulances which have done 
excellent work are those sent out by members of 
the Society of Friends, who were determined to 
serve their fellowmen in the struggle though 
resolved also not to be combatants. Tne pioneers 

• By Laurence Binyon. Hodder & Stoughton, 
St. Paul's House, Warwick Square, London, E.C.4. 
los. 6d. net. 



of the unit chose tor their motto " Search for the 
work that no one is doing ; take it, and regularise 
it later if you can." 

Section 3 of the British Ambulance Committee 
has always been attached to a division in the 
Vosges. " The Germans were continually trying 
to block the mountain road by which supplies 
came up, and by which Section 3 carried down the 
wounded, by bursting huge shells upon it. . . . At 
one of the corners on the zigzag bends, directly 
under the fire of the German snipers, one man of 
Section 3 was killed and several mere were 
wounded. To prevent repair the Germans con- 
stantly burst shrapnel over the road. But in spite 
of everything the wounded were all brought down 
safely. And when one remembers how they were 
formerly carried in springless carts, taking thirty 
hours to do what a motor ambulance accomplished 
in two or less, it is easy to imagine the incalculable 
value of an efficient service of automobiles. The 
protracted anguish of the long ride, with the 
constant result of septic poisoning, ended fre- 
quently in the loss of lives which are now saved bx 
speed." 

A service of motor-cycle side cars used for trans- 
porting the wounded over tracks where the 
ambulances could net run have, we are told, 
perhaps saved more lives than even the motor 
ambulances. They are able to gi over the steepest 
and roughest roads, and the Alpine posts or field 
hospitals on the Vosges front are now all served by 
them. 

In transporting wounded from Verdun, Section 
17 found that for men in a state of exhaustion, as 
they often were when they came down from the 
trenches, to travel some tharty miles in the lorries 
over rough roads without any food was to run the 
risk of an utter collapse. It therefore started a 
soup kitchen which, until it was no longer required, 
was kept going night and day. Seventeen thou- 
sand bowls of soup were given out, and the timely 
refreshment made a great difference to the 
wounded and worn-out soldiers — in some cases, 
perhaps, the difference between life and death. 

In the battle before the Cote de Poivre, Section i 
won the Croix de Guerre for the convoy, and 
Section 2 (which had had four of its men wounded 
at Verdun) received eight Croix de Guerre for 
individual members, and one M^daille Militaire. 

We can only mention the convoy work of two 
groups of Englishwomen — the First Aid Nursing 
Yeomanry Corps (members of whict have recently 
won distinction for courage and sang Jroid under 
fire), and the Hackett-Lowther Unit who draw 
soldiers' rations, and form a military unit like the 
sections which have been described. 

The Hospitals. 
A Section is devoted to the hospitals and the 
supply depots, for the Comite Britannique — 
besides sending supplies on its own account — 
forwards every day consignments cf supplies of 
all kinds needed by the hospitals — ^the purely 
French as well as the Anglo-French. These 
supplies come to the Comit6, not only from all parts 



July 27, 1918 



Zbc Britieb 3ournal of IRurstng. 



59 



of the United Kingdom, but from Canada, Aus- 
tralia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Ceylon, 
Singapore, Trinidad, Mauritius, Newfoundland, 
Malta, Gibraltar, and elsewhere. 

Tiie French War Em:>rgency Fund, the head- 
quarters of which are at 44, Lowndes Square, 
London, has an admirable system of ascertaining 
the needs of the hospitals. A group of ladies 
in the provinces of France, with a supply of 
motor cars at their disposal and chosen for their 
knowledge of the French language and French 
ways, have a headquarters at some central point 
cf the region they serve. Each of these delegates 
visits all the hospitals in her region, interviews 
the Medecin-chef, the heads of the Pharmacie 
and tne Lingerie, and talks to the nurses ; she 
is thus able not only to bring away a precise 
list of what each hospital requires, but to form 
an independent opinion of its merits as well as 
its needs. The lists of requirements are sub- 
mitted to a special committee at Lowndes Square ; 
and if the committee is satisfied that the need 
is real and urgent, precisely those things are 
packed and despatched forthwith. 

For " Tne Story of the Hospitals " in detail 
we must refer our readers to the book itself. 
We would fain quote from it, but pressure on our 
space forbids, and many of the details have from 
time to time been already related in this Journal 

The Day of an Orderly. 

A most interesting chapter is that on " The 
Day of an Orderly." We commend it to Matrons 
and Sisters. They may, perhaps, see the vocation 
of ordeilyfroma different view point henceforth. 

One of the duties of the orderlies is to take 
stretchers to the wards and carry the patients 
to the operating theatre. The orderly writes : 

" Forty-eight hours ago, perhaps, or less, 
this man was lying out on the churned and shat- 
tered slopes of the Mort Homme or Cote 304. . . . 
I marvel at their fortitude and elasticity. . . . 
The men we are getting now are mostly Terri- 
torials, between thirty and forty in age, who 
have been flung into the furnace of Verdun. 
And splendidly have they quitted themselves. 
These solid, sunburnt, quiet men — no light weight 
on a stretcher — seem to belong to the very core of 
the nation which so indomitably and tenaciously 
is holding the gate of Fiance against the colossal 
blows of the German armies. They are taciturn, 
with gentle voices ; but they will stand to the 
last for ' all they have and are ' ; they will flinch 
from nj suffering or calamity to save their beloved 
country. It is for them mere matter of course ; 
yet they hate the war. . . . 

" Almost all, as soon as they are under the 
anaesthetic, go back to the battlefield ; and you 
will hear sometimes the yell of the charge — 
' Courage, les gars ! En avant, la baionette ! ' — 
and the soldiers, hearing the cry ring out through 
the window, will listen with 2 kind of fascination. 
' That's just how it is when we attack.'j they 
will say.' " 



The orderly thus concludes a modest and most 
interesting record : " Having set down these 
common tasks which make up the crdorly's day, 
I feel half ashamed at proffering so trivial a 
recoid, when the real work of the hospital, the 
work of the doctors ana nurses, who have not only 
hard labcurs to perform with their trained skill, 
but endless anxious responsibilities, is the story 
that ought to be t'jld. Alas ! I have not the 
knowledge for the telling of it ; I have only 
boundless honour and admiration for them and 
their wonderful work. We ordeilies have glimpses 
only of what that work means, what lives it saves, 
what suffering it alleviates. We see rather the 
human side ; yet that is my excuse for these 
pages, since I hope they may reflect something 
of the qualities of the Poilu whom we love, as we 
have learnt to know him in his hour of trial and 
suffering ; gentle in speech, courteous in bearing, 
constant in fortitude, fervent in the faith of his 
country's cause." 

The Canteens. 

A very important and valuable branch of the 
Red Cross work done by the Bn'tish for the trench 
wounded is that of the canteens. Qiite eaily 
in the war, we are told, ap organization for 
providing canteens for the refreshment of the 
sick and tired soldiers was set on foot in Paris 
by a patriotic Frenchman, called ' L'OEuvre de la 
Goutte de Cafe.' It was on a small scale on 
account of the limited funds available ; but the 
first canteens which it started were so greatly 
appreciated and so obviously needed that the 
founder of the CEuvre and his wife, whose hearts 
were very much in the work- — looked about for 
means to extend it." The Preside nte of the Comite 
Britannique was appealed to. She had a great 
desire to further the work and it occurred to her 
that here was at once an outlet for the enterprise 
and enthusiasm of Englishwomen who wanted 
to serve France in some way and yet had no 
sptcific training or qualification, and a golden 
occasion for furthering the friendship of the two 
countries. So it came to be arranged, by mutual 
consent, that the Comite Britannique should 
undertake the setting up of additional canteens, 
and should provide their personnel. The work 
they have done has been invaluable. 

The Algerian Arabs, we are -told, especially 
appreciate the coffee, as most of them keep strictly 
to their religion and never drink the wine which 
is served out in the barrack rations. The most 
pathetic men are the Senegalese, as they under- 
stand very little French, and seem to be like little 
children, drawn into a vortex which they do not 
understand. Like children, though, they are 
made very happy by veiy small things. 

Elsewhere in the book the story is recalled of a 
Senegalese found wandering stark naked by a 
corporal, who proceeded to arrest him. " But it 
is all right, said the Senegalese, " we have had 
leave to go out in mufti." 



6o 



Zrbc Britleb 3ournal of IRurstn^. 



July 2j, jgiS 



■i*i*ii.S^rf Relief Work. 
! The chapter on " Relief Work in the Devastated 
Zones " is concerned chiefly with the labours of 
the Society of Friends. As part of the schemes 
for providing employment, sewing and embroidery 
classes have been started and materials provided. 
One mother told how she heard her daughters, as 
they sat over their new found occupation, singing 
for the first time since the war began. And a 
child of seven confided gravely : " Pour les 
6raigr6s, vous savez, c'est d6solant ; mais, avec 
la broderie, on s'ennuiera moins." 

Impressions. 

Part III gives us a series of impressions from 
a variety of points of view, all interesting. In 
" A Thought for the Future " we read : " France, 
like other nations, has experienced what the 
sinister phrase-makers of Prussia call ' peaceful 
penetration.' She has experienced a foreign 
infiltration, professedly friendly, the extent and 
volume of which she never suspected till suddenly, 
in a night, she wok© to find those myriad dwellers 
in her cities and country towns, industrious and 
ingratiating, useful and well-behaved, were smiling 
thieves of her secrets, priers into her resources 
and her weaknesses — ^returning in helmet and 
uniform as swaggering conqueiors to the h^mes 
where they had been trusted and subservient, 
the implements of a patient and laborious 
perfidy." 

Part IV contains a statistical index, a list 
of war hospital supply depots, and a list of over 
7,000 British subjects who have gone abroad on 
Red Cross and kindred war work for the French 
up to December 31st, 1917. An admirable 
arrangement is that names are not mentioned in 
the text, but in the statistical index at the end 
of the book full credit is given to the workers. 

The literary skill, the painstaking research, 
and the sympathy with dauntless France, which 
go to the making of this book, command our whole- 
hearted admiration ; and we offer our sincere 
congratulations to Mr. Laurence Binyon on his 
work. The charming illustrations add to its 
interest. It is a book to buy and treasure. 

E. G. F. 



THE ROYAL RED CROSS, 



The following ladies were decorated by the 
King at Buckingham Palace, on July 17th : — 

THE ROYAL RED CROSS. 

First Class. 

Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service. 
— Acting Matron Helena Hartigan. 

Queen Alexandra's Military Nursing Service for India. 
— Lady Superintendent Clara Cusins. 

Second Class. 
Q.A.I.M.N.S.R. — Sister Hilda Connell, Sister Anne 
Dawe, Sister Rosina Hook, Sister Helen Paterson, and 
Staff Nurse Christina Gunn. 



T.F.N. S. — Matron Alexandra Connon, Sister Elsie 
Blackburn, and Sister Anne Musson. 

Civil Nursing Service. — Matron Mary Cort, Matroo 
Helen Crockwell, Matron Catherine Davies, Matron 
Elizabeth Davies, Matron Edith Williams, Assistant 
Matron Annie Cottrell, and Sister Ellen Dean. 

British Red Cross Society. — Matron Anne Campbell, 
Matron Lottie Darley, Matron Kate Jones, and Sister 
Alicia Cullinan. 

V.A.D. — Miss Gwendolyn Crawford, Lady Cros- 
FiELD, Miss Ethel Crump, Miss Maud Heathcote, Miss 
Agnes McDermott, and Mrs. Edith Marsden. 

Almeric Paget Military Massage Corps. — Sister 
Margery Cook. 

Canadian Army Nursing Service.— -Sister Mary All- 
wood, Sister Anna Bruce, Sister Elizabeth Campbell, 
Sister Katherine De Vellefeuille, Sister Margaret 
Fearon, Sister Lillie Galbraith, Sister Cicely Galt, 
Sister Alice Grindlay, Sister Phylis Guilbride, Sister 
Alice Hogarth, Sister Isabel Holden, Sister Mary 
Hubbs, Sister Edith Lumsden, Sister Jean Lyall, Sister 
Helena MacCallum, Sister Mary MacLeod, Sister 
Theodora McKiel, Sister Annie McNicoL, Sister Martha 
Morton, Sister Mina Mowat, Sister Cecil Oatman, 
Sister Mae Prichard, and Sister Mary Quigley. 

Queen Alexandra received the Matrons and 
Sisters at Marlborough House after the Investiture. 



'^' The King has been pleased to award the Royal 
Red Cross to the undermention^ed ladies, in 
recognition of their valuable nursing services in 
connection with the war. 

Se,cond Class. 

Grimbly, Miss K. A., Staff Sister, Coulsdon and 
Parley Mil. Hospl., Purley ; Grindlay, Miss A. M., 
Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing Service, West Cliff Can. 
Eye and Ear Hospl., Folkestone; Guilbride, Mrs. P., 
Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing Service, No. 11 Can. Gen. 
Hospl., Moore Barracks, Shorncliffe; Gunn, Miss J., 
Sister i/c, Handsworth Aux. Hospl., Birmingham. 

Hacgar, Miss L., Nurse, Broadwater Hospl., Belstead 
Road, Ipswich; Hall-Houghton, Miss M., Sister, 
T.F.N. S., Bishop's Knoll Sec, 2nd Southern Gen. 
Hospl., Stoke Bishop, Bristol; Harrower, Miss M. I., 
Asst. Matron, Q.A.I.M.N.S.R., University War Hospl., 
Southampton; Hatton, Miss K., Sister, Weir Red Cross 
Hospl., Balham, London ; Hayhurst, Miss A., Nursing 
Sister, Can. Nursing Service, No. 10 Canadian Gen. 
Hospl., Brighton ; Heberden, Miss I. M., Asst. Matron, 
Great Northern Central Hospl., Holloway Road, N. ; 
Hemmens, Miss A. A., Sister, T.F.N.S., 3rd Western 
Gen. Hospl., Cardiff; Henderson, Miss F. E., Sister, 
T.F.N. S., sth Lond. Gen. Hospl. (St. Thomas's), 
Lambeth, S.E. i ; Henrici, Miss M. L., Matron, The 
Cottage, Fleetwood Road, Southport ; Henstock, Miss 
H., Sister, T.F.N. S., 3rd Northern Gen. Hospl., Shef- 
field; Hepherd, Miss M. I., Nurse, White Cross Mil. 
Hospl., Warrington; Heyde, Mrs. E., Matron, Bal- 
gowan V.A.D. Hospl., Beckenham ; Hickling, Miss 
C. J., Matron, Red Cross Hospl., Long Eaton; Hill, 
Miss L., Asst. Matron, Q.A.I.M.N.S.R., Belmont 
Prisoners of War Hospl., Sutton ; Hocknell, Miss E., 
Sister, Q.A.I.M.N.S.R., Military Isolation Hospl., 
Aldershot ; Hodge, Mrs. E. C, Matron, Passmore 
Edwards Hospl., Middlesex; Hodges, Miss F. M., Lady 
Supt., Baptist School Red Cross Hospl., Yeovil; 
Hogarth, Miss A. G. , Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing 
Service, No. 16 Can. Gen. Hospl., Orpington, Kent; 
Holden, Miss 1., Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing Service, 
No. 13 Can. Gen. Hospl., Hastings; Howard, Miss S., 



July z'j, 1918 



Cbe British 3ournaI of iRurstna. 



6x 



Sister, Northern War Hospl., Duston, Northampton; 
HuiJBS, Miss M. B., Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing 
Service, Granville Can. Spec. Haspl., Buxton; Hughes, 
Mrs. E., Sister, Red Cross Hospl., Winchester ; Hughes, 
Miss F. G., Staff Nurse (A. /Sister), Mil. Hospl., Endell 
Street, Long Acre, W.C. 2 ; Hunt, Miss M., Matron, 
Welbeck Abbey Aux. Hospl., Worksop, Notts; Huson, 
Miss A. R., Sister i/c, St. John's Relief Hospl., 
Harrow; Huston, Miss A., Nursing Sister, Can. 
Nursing Service, No. 4 Can. Gen. Hospital, Basingstoke, 
Hants. 

Iffland, Mrs. M., Matron, City and County Infirmary, 
Londonderry; Ind, Miss H. P., Matron, Gen. Hospl., 
Stratford-on-Avon ; Ingles, Miss A. C, Sister i/c, 
N.Z.A.N.S., No. I N.Z. Gen. Hospl. (Forest Park Sec- 
tion), Brockenhurst, Hants ; Inman, Miss G., Sister, 
Huddersfield War Hospl. ; Irwin, Miss K. F., Matron, 
Red Cross Hospl. for Officers, 4, Percival Terrace, 
Brighton. 

Jack, Miss C, Sister, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., ist Birming- 
ham War Hospl., Rednall ; Jackson, Miss K. P., Sister, 
Naunton Park, Cheltenham; James, Mrs. A., Joint 
Commdt., Aberdare and Merthyr Red Cross Hospl., 
Merthyr ; Johnson, Miss M., Matron, Standswood Aux. 
Hospl., Fawley, Hants; Johnston {n&e Walker), Mrs. 
L., Sister, T.F.N.S., E. Leeds War Hospl., 2nd Northern 
Gen. Hospl. ; Jones, Miss E. C, Matron, Kingston, 
Surbiton, and District Red Cross Hospl., London; 
Jones, Mrs. E. R. G., Commdt., Y.M.C.A. Hospl., 
Swansea ; Jones, Miss M. A., Sister, Bethnal Green Mil. 
Hospl. 

Kaye, Miss A., Matron, Loughborough Gen. Hospl., 
Leic ; Kennedy, Miss M. C, Nursing Sister, Can. 
Nursing Service, No. 15 Can. Gen. Hospl., Taplow, 
Bucks; KiDSON, Miss S. E. A., Matron, St. Luke's War 
Hospl., Halifax; Knapton, Miss E. B., Matron, School 
Hill Aux. Hospl., Lewes. 

i^o be continued.) 



FRENCH FUQ NURSING CORPS. 



We congratulate the Corps on the honour- 
able recognition of the Sisters attached to 
Ambulance 12/2. 

Mentioned in Despatches. 
The following Sisters have been mentioned in 
Despatches " for courage and devotion " during 
the retreat : — Sister EUen Bennett, Sistei Annie 
Mackinnon, Sister Dora T. Simpson, Sister Mary 
Richard, Sister Lucy B. Giles, Sister Annie B. 
Banks, and Sister Gladys Hawthorne. 

Croix de Guerre. 
Sister Annie Mackinnon has been decorated 
with the Croix de Guerre — which makes the third 
Croix awarded to members of the Corps — Sister 
Hilda Gill and Sister Madeleine JafEray having 
been decorated in 19 17. 



A member of 12/2 Ambulance writes : — " I 
know you will be pleased to hear that one of our 
Unit, Sister Mackinnon, has this afternoon been 
decorated with the Croix de Guerre. We are all 
delighted that one of our number hcis received so 
great an honour. 

" It was a great surprise to all of us, as we had 
heard nothing about it till this afternoon, when 
we were called to the hospital where the Med. 



Principal is, and learned on arrival what was to 
take place. First our Med. Chef was decorated 
with the Croix de Guerre, then Sister Mackinnon, 
for our Unit, a.nd two infirmi^res, a Dame de France 
and an American, and all our names were men- 
tioned to the General." 

THE CITATIONS. 

Mrs. Bedford Fenwick, as Hon. Superintendent 
of the Corps, has received the following official 
notification from Le M^decin Inspecteur Lasnet, 
Medecin de I'Arm^e, approved by le General 
Commandant en Chef, notifying the award of the 
Croix de Guerre to Sister Mackinnon, together 
with a copy of the Citation. 

Secteur 178. Q. G. le i4ljuillet,l 1918. 

Madame la Pr6sidente, — 

Je me permets de vous addresser ci-joint~le 
releve des citations a I'ordre du Service de Sante 
qui viennent d'Stres accordees aux Dames Infir- 
mi^res de votre Societe a I'occasion de leur d^voue- 
ment et de leur energie pendant les penibles 
operations du repli de I'Aisne du 27 Mai au 5 Juin. 

Leur attitude a ete tr6s belle et je vous suis 
reconnaissant de vouloir bien me donner des co'la- 
boratnces, de pareille valeur. 

Avec les felicitations que je vous presente en 
cette occasion, je vous prie de vouloir bien agreer, 
Madame la Pr6sidenfe, I'assurance de mes senti- 
ments respectueux et tout devoues. 

Lasnet. 

Citations 
A I'ordre du Service de Sante de I'Armee accordees 
au personnel des Dames InfirmiSres de la Society 
" French Flag Nursing Corps." 

Miss Mackinnon Annie (Ambulance- 12/2). — 
" Infirmi^re qui, dans les circonstances difficiles 
du repli de I'ambulance, sous la fusillade ennemie, 
a continue a soigner malades et blesses jusqu'4 
la derni^re minute, avec un courage et un sang- 
froid reraarquables, conformant ainsi les qualit6s 
que tous ses chefs lui ont reconnues depuis trois 
annees qu'elle se d6voue aux soldats frangais (27- 
28 Mai)." 



Le Medecin Inspecteur Lasnet also sends a 
copy of the Citation of Miss Marion Pill, who has 
also been decorated with the Croix de Guerre : 

Miss Pill Marion (Equipe Chirurgicale 299/A). 
— " L'^quipe chirurgicale 299/A compos^e de . . . 



" Miss Pill Marion — 

" A eu le 27 Mai, au poste chirurgical avanc6 de 

X oii elle fitait detach6e, une attitude 

digne des plus grands eloges prodiguant ses soins 
aux blesses sous un tir de barrage extrSmement 
violent, se refusant k chercher un abri et contri- 
buant pas sa belle tenue a maintenir le calme 
parmi le personnel et les blesses." 



the British Journal of Nursing ofEers warm 
congratulations to both ladies. 



62 



^be British 3ournal of IRurstng. 



July 27, 1918 



CARE OF THE WOUNDED. 



The MACKINNON Hospital. 

When Captain Mackinnon, of the London 
Scottish, went on active service in the early days 
of the war his wife opened their house at 46, 
Queen's Gate Terrace, S.W., for the reception of 
woimded officers. In a few weeks' time Captain 
Mackinnon was amongst those who fell in defence 
of King and Empire, and of the freedom of the 
world, and, ever since, Mrs. Mackinnon has main- 
tained their house as an* officers' hospital of 
twenty beds. 1^ 

The Sister-in-Charge is\ Sister Jones-Evans, 
trained at the Salop 
Royal Infirmary, 
Shrewsbury, who shares 
the day duty w^ith Sister 
Holland, trained in the 
same institution. Sister 
Dixon is on night duty, 
and seven V.A.D.'s, in- 
cluding two of Mrs 
Mackinnon's sisters, 
complete the staff. ^ f"- < 

Most comfortable and 
restful the hospital 
seems to be. On the 
ground floor is a ward 
wliich opens into a 
lounge. The walls, grey 
in colour, tone admir- 
ably with the pretty 
flowered curtains, and 
each white bed has an 
eider-down covered with 
bright pink silk, the 
effect of which is char- 
ming, and this colour 
scheme is carried out 
throughout the house. 
On the floor above the 
French windows of the 
ward open on to a wde 
balcony, where are com- 
fortable chairs in which 
the more convalescent patients can 
enjoying the fresh air. 
officers' dining-room, with 
has been arranged beyond 




SISTER JONES-EVANS. 



rest while 
On this floor, also, is the 
service room, which 
A gas stove has been 



installed, and a sink for washing up, and other 
conveniences added to make tbe service of food 
as easy and perfect as possible. 

On the floor above is the operating theatre, 
which is fitted very completely with up-to-date 
fixtures, appliances, and instruments. 

There are also two single wards used for cases 
requiring special attention and quiet, or for such 
potentates as colonels, who like a room to them- 
selves. 

On the ground floor, at the back of the house, is a 
room used by the nursing staff ; all the rest are 
given up to the patients. It has French windows 



opening on to a small garden, a fact fully appre- 
ciated by the three months' old puppy — a Clumber 
spaniel — whose handsome ears dip, to their 
detriment, into the saucer of tea which he so 
appreciates. 

That the hospital serves the purpose for which it 
is designed is amply evinced by the way in which 
departing convalescents express the hope that if 
they are again returned to " Blighty " for treat- 
ment they may find themselves once more within 
its hospitable doors. It must be a satisfaction 
to their hostess that its work is so appreciated. 

Food for the mind as well as care of the body 
is a great need of our wounded and convalescent 
soldiers, and the excel- 
lent example set by the 
Great Northern Central 
Hospital, in organizing 
a series of lectures for 
soldiers warded there, 
might well be followed 
by many other hospitals. 

" Liberty." 

The lecture of this 
series for Friday, July 
1 2th, was given by Mr. 
Shadrach Hicks, Prin- 
cipal of the Shoreditch 
Technical Institute. Mr. 
Hicks said that liberty 
was orie of the spiritual 
forces which had moved 
men to noble and useful 
deeds through all ages. 
He said that it was a 
ver3'^sti ongquality inthe 
character of the very 
earliest inhabitants of 
these islands, and traced 
its influence upon the 
history and develop- 
ment of the . British 
people from the early 
days of the Witan to 
the present. He rightly 
drew attention to the great Charter of 1215, and 
said that on that reck had been built not only 
British liberty, but also that of the Great 
American Republic, as well as of our Dominions 
beyond the Seas. 

The future of the country was in the balance, 
and liberty in its widest and best sense would 
enable the people to produce a better standard 
of living and to develop personal character 
and the material resources of the Empire to their 
fullest extent. The men expressed their grateful 
thanks to Mr. Hicks, who promised to deal on a 
subsequent date with a similar subject. 

Mr. F. Hammond, F.R.I.B.A., delivered the 
usual weekly lecture in the Military Annexe, 
on Friday, July 19th. His subject, wnich was 
illustrated by slides kindly lent by the Ministry 



July 27, igi8 



Zbc Brtti9b 3ournal of flureing. 



63 



of Pensions, was " The After-Care of Dischaiged 
Disabled Soldiers and Sailors " — a national ques- 
tion of first importance. 



IN A RUSSIAN DISPENSARY. 



The time is 8 a.m., the day Friday, the market 
day of the large Russian \illage where the Enghsh 
doctor and nurse are in sole charge of a district of 
60,000 people ; in area about the size of Wales. 
The season is Avdnter, consequently the outside 
temperature is well below zero, and inside, thanks 
to the splendid Russian stoves, of a warmth and 
comfort utterly unknown in England, where we 
still live under the delusion that our climate is a 
mild one. 

The nurse looks out through the living-room 
■window and notices that already a long string of 
sledges drawn by small, shaggy horses, whose 
coats are white with hoar-frost, are waiting outside 
the dispensary. IVIarket day is our busiest time. 
Everyone, sick or well, who comes in to buy and 
sell makes it a point of etiquette to go and see the 
English doctor and try and wheedle from him 
some much-coveted " mas " (ointment) or " kaple " 
(drops), while we shrewdly suspect that our 
waiting room is made the dumping ground for the 
old grannies and grandpas whose relatives want 
to get rid of them while they do their business 
elsewhere. We live in a wooden house, sur- 
rounded by blocks of buildings, one of which is 
our hospital, another the Aptek or dispensary. 
They are all about 100 yards from the house, and 
it is necessary to put on high felt boots, a sheep- 
skin coat, and a thick shawl over one's, cap to run 
even that short distance in the icy cold. 

In the dispensary there is already a crowd of 
moujiks similarly clad. The Austrian dispenser 
has been giving out tickets in rotation, with a 
sharp eye on the bright boys of the village, who 
are shrewd enough to arrive very early for tickets 
and then sell their places to late-comers at a 
handsome profit ! 

The doctor and nurse by now have picked up 
sufficient Russian to cope with the patients with- 
out an interpreter, and enough experience to tell, 
as they survey the crowd, that, as usual, they fall 
into three classes — the chronics, the certificate 
hunters and the really ill. The last-named are the 
smallest, and, in the eyes of the other patients, the 
most negligible class. The Russian peasants 
firmly boheve that a headache of 30 years' standing 
(and they will tell you quite seriously that they 
have had one continuously for that period) is far 
more worthy of attention than a hieh fever of only 
three days' duration. 

But let us begin work, and see some typical 
instances of the thoree classes for ourselves. A 
little Polish refugee girl named Dunia is our door- 
keeper, a by no means easy post. Directly she 
unbolts the portal that separates the doctor's 
little room from the waiting-room a noise rather 
like a menagerie assails our ears, and the call of 



" Number One " is a signal for Nos.' 8, 19 and 40 
to try and push their way in. Dunia valiantly 
forces them back, and repeats the call for " No. i." 
This time No. 10 " comes forward triumphantly, 
certain that he will be entirely acceptable. 
" Where is No. i ? " repeats our handmaid firmly. 
" She has gone out to the market, but I am her 
uncle, I will do as well ; I can tell you all about 
her," remarks a peasant hopefully. Much surprised 
is he when his helpful ofEer is refused and No. 2 is 
called. Enter No. 2 supporting an aged grandma 
on one arm and in the other carrying a stout 
infant, two children clinging to the skirts of her 
sheepskin coat. With a quick sleight-of-hand 
movement she drops one ticket into the bowl placed 
for the purpose and faces us with a guileless smile. 
" Four more tickets, please," says the doctor, weU 
versed by now in the wiles by which many a 
woman has endeavoured, under only one ticket, 
to obtain advice and medicine for an entire family, 
some of whom were not even present ! "I don't 
understand," replies the culprit innocently. But 
this excuse will not wash. " Well thou under- 
standest, thou," retorts the stern Dunia, and the 
protesting family retires to obtain the needful 
tickets from the Austrian dispenser. g T W. ! 



OUR ROLL OF HONOUR. 

Djed. 
Ross, S:ster A. J-, Can. Nursing .Service. 



STAR OF MONS. 

Some of those entitled to the Star of Mons have 
now received it, as well as the ribbon which has 
already been widely distributed, so we may hope, 
shortly, to see nurses wearing this much-coveted 
emblem. 



A TRUE TALE WITH A MORAL. 

" I Could 111 Spare It." 

District Nurse visiting house oj very poor patient. 

Patient (cheerfully) : " Oh ! nurse, I've given 
a shilling to your Fund." 

Nurse (puzzled) : "My Fund ! WTiat do you 
mean, ^frs. Smith ?". 

Patient : " Why the Fund that they are collect- 
ing for the nurses, wot you will have some of." 

Nurse : " Oh ! you mean the Nation's Fund 
for Nurses, I expect. No ; I don't approve of the 
way that it is raised at all. I shall have none 
of it, and I am quite sure you have many other 
things to do with your money." 

Patient (crestfallen) : " Oh ! nuise, I would 
never have given to it if I'd 'ave known. I could 
do very well with that shilling. But you've been 
rare and good to me, and you would never have 
anything off of me, and I thought it was a chanst 
to give you somethin*. But I'd never have 
given it if I hadn't have ;thought you'd get some 
of it, for I could ill spare it." 



64 



Jlbc British Journal of TRureina. 



July 2j, 1918 



Ropal Brltisl) nurses' Hssoclatlott* 



(Incorporated Dp 




Ropal Charter) 



THIS SUPPLEMENT BEING THE OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE CORPORATION. 



LETTER ACKNOWLEDGING THE CON= 
GRATULATIONS OF THE MEMBERS 
OF THE ROYAL BRITISH NURSES' 
ASSOCIATION ON THE OCCASION OF 
THEIR MAJESTIES' SILVER WEDDING. 



Buckingham Palace, 

July 6th, 1918. 
Madam, — I am commanded to beg Your 
Royal Highness to be so good as to convey to 
the Members of the Royal British Nurses' 
Association, of which Your Royal Highness is 
President, the expression of the sincere thanks 
of the King and Queen for the kind message 
of congratulation and good wishes on Their 
Majesties' Silver Wedding, communicated 
through Your Royal Highness on behalf of the 
Members and also in the name of the Honorary 
Officers of the Council. 

I have the honour to be. Madam, 

Your Royal Highness' humble and 
obedifent servant, 

Stamfordham. 
H.R.H. the Princess Christian. 

A PROPOSED CONFERENCE ON 
PRESENT-DAY NURSING PROBLEMS. 



The Council of the Corporation have under 
consideration arrangements for holding a Confer- 
ence in the autumn, which will deal chiefly with 
the problems of the day in so far as they affect 
fully qualified nurses. 

ROYAL BRITISH NURSES' ASSOCIATION. 



It has been suggested that, in one of the early 
issues of the new ofl&cial organ of the Association, 
a very brief account should be given of 
the oidinary work of the Corporation, apart 
from the other business — lectures, meetings, &c. 



which it 'undertakes from'time tc time. Repeat- 
edly it has been stated by the promoters of the 
College of Nursing, Ltd., that, until this company 
wa; founded, there was no organisation of nurses 
and we hear references frequently to the 
" inspiration " which led to its foundation. A 
short scrutiny of its activities up to the present 
will serve to show that, apart from its form of 
incorporation and the methods adopted to finance 
it, its founders ought to have offered their " grate- 
ful acknowledgments " to those of the R.B.N. A. 
so far a? any " inspiration " or imagination is 
concerned. As a matter of fact, however, the 
College cannot claim to be one of the nurses' 
organisations, for its Council is representative 
only of the employers of the nurses, so that 
the independent working nurses have no voice 
in the management of the company. Under the 
by-laws of the R.B.N. A. equal representation is 
given, on the governing body, to medical men, 
to matrons and to the working nurses, and 
therefore it is the fault of the, nurr^e? themselves 
if they do not take their share in the management 
of their own affairs and make gocd use of the 
powers placed in their hands by Royal Charter. 
In the Council and Executive Committee no 
expression of opinion is given more courteous 
consideration or receives more ready sympathy 
than when it comes from ore of the elected nurses. 
The Register. 
The Association has kept a Register of Nurses 
since 1890, ?nd on this are entered full particulars 
of the training and qualifications of those whose 
name-: are, for the time being, irscribed thereon. 
The fee for registration has been temporarily 
reduced to five shillings in order to make it easily 
possible for all fully-qualified nurses to belong to 
the Association and to use the Royal Charter for 
their own benefit, and that of their lellow workers. 

Membership. 
Duly qualified medical men, matrons and 
".uperintendents of nurses and those nurses whose 
names have been placed on the Register of the 
Corporation are eligible for election as members 
of the Corporation. In accordance with By-law 
VIII, the annua) subscription is five shillings. 
For life membership a single payment of two 
guineas is necessary. 



July 27, 1918 



^be British 3ournal of IRurstUG. 



65 



Badge. 
We give, in the present issue, a reproduction 
of the pretty badge worn by the members of the 
Roj^al British Nurses' Association. That of 
H.R.H. the President is of gold, while past and 
present members of the General Council wear a 
silver badge ; the ordinary member's badge is of 
bronze. In each case the design is the same. 

Diploma in Nursing. 

The Corporation grants a Diploma in Nursmg 
to such fully qualified nurses as pas? a higher 
examination in nursing. ' The Royal British 
Nurses' Association is the only organisation 
which grants this honour, and, therefore, it takes 
precedence, in the nursing world, as an educational 
and academic body at the present time. 
State Registration. 

The Association is a constituent part of the 
Central Committee for the State Registra- 
tion of Nurses and is therefore one of 
those societies which for years have been pro- 
moting the Bill for State Registration. Through 
its representation on that Committee the powers 




THE BADGE. 

and prestige, given by the Royal Charter, are used 
in support of a Bill in every way just both to the 
public and the nurses. 

Co-operation between the Members. 

There are two Private Nurses' Co-operations in 
London which are maintained solely for Registeied 
Members cf the Royal British Nurses' Association ; 
the Members of those societies receive the full fees 
charged for their services less a small commission 
for working expenses. The Association also finds 
a considerable number of permanent appointments 
for its members throughout the yeai , and in regard 
to this it often has the co-operation of the members 
themselves, as nurses who are giving up their 
posts frequently put those responsible for appoint- 
ing their successors into communication with the 
Secietary. The Australian Branch of the Asso- 
ciation also has a flourishing private staff, and 
Members goirg out from the parent Association 
frequently find employment through this. 
Benevolence. 

The Helena Benevolent Fund is maintained by 
the nurses for their fellow-members in times of 



sickness and distress, as also is the Princess 
Christian Settlement Home for Aged Members of 
the Corporation. Each nurse theie has a pretty 
room of her own for the nominal rent of 4s. 4d. 
annually. 

ROYAL RED CROSS. 

We learn with pleasure that the Royal Red 
Cross has been awarded to Sister Sarah Ellen 
Howard and that she has beer commanded to 
attend at Buckingham Palace on the 31st inst. in 
order to receive this. Miss Howard, in addition 
to her certificate in Gereral Training, holds one 
in Midwifery, and has been a Member since 1910. 
She has always been enthusiastic in her efforts to 
attain to the highest possible standard in her 
professional work and we congratulate her warmly 
upon this well-earned award. j . 

AN APPRECIATION.3 

We note with pleasure that, in its report for 
1917, the Middlesex Hospital pays a well-earned 
tribute to Miss Langridge, an early Member of the 
Royal British Nurses' Association. The report, 
in placing on record an appreciation of her twenty 
years' work, states that this was " marked by 
intense devotion to the patients under her care 
and all her actions were influenced by a sincerity 
of purpose and a true spirit of helpfulness which 
brought bodily comfort and ease of mind to many 
who turned to her in their hour of trial. She 
was," adds the report, " an ideal Sister m every 
sense of the word." 

NOTICES TO THE MEMBERS. 

Members are requested to return all books 
borrowed from the Library not later than 31st 
inst., and, as is customary, the Library will be 
closed during the month of August. 

The Club Room at 10, Orchard Street is open to 
Members from 10 a.m. until 4 p.m. Various 
nursing, medical and lay periodicals are available 
for the use of Members there, but they cannot be 
circulated from the ofl&ce by post. 

Members are requested to send at once to the 
OfiS.ce of the Corporation notices of new appoint- 
ments, changes of address, &c., in order that those 
may be inserted on the Register and Membership 
Roll. 

Members may arrange to have their letters 
addressed to the office and forwarded to them, and 
those residing abroad may, by special arrange- 
ment with the Secretary, use the telegraphic 
address for communicating with their friends. 

Application forms for Registration and Member- 
ship can be obtained from the Secretary, 10, 
Orchard Street, Portman Square, W. i. 

DONATIONS RECEIVED. 

The Honorary Treasurer acknowledges with 
thanks donations from the following : — S. W. 
Harrison, Esq. (per Mrs. Reikes), £5 5s. ; Mrs. 
Charles Hughes. £5 ; Mrs. Martin, £1 is. ; Mrs. 
Raikes, £1 is. ; Miss Hutton (perM'ss Cattell), £l. 
(Signed) Isabel Macdonald, 

Secretary to the Corporation. 



66 



^bc Britieb 3ournal of 'Wureing. 



July 27, 1918 



THE SOCIETY FOR THE STATE REGIS- 
TRATION OF TRAINED NURSES. 



A Meeting cf the Executive Committee of the 
Society took place on July 2nd at 431, Oxford 
Street, W. Mrs. Bedford Fenwick presided. 

The Sixth and Seventh Drafts of the Nurses' 
Registration Bill drafted by the College of Nursing, 
Ltd., were considered clause by clause. 

The Committee recognised that the firm attitude 
of the Central Committee in maintaining the vital 
principles of just legislation in the Nurses' Regis- 
tration Bill drafted by it in 19 10, has apparently 
convinced the College of Nursing, Ltd., that no 
agreement between the two Bills was possible 
until it recognised the determination of the State 
Registrationists to oppose any attempt to govern 
the Nursing Profession without adequate repre- 
sentation. 

'.Ihus, the College Council (the Nurses have 
never been consulted in meeting assembled) has 
inserted provisions in the recent drafts of its 
Bill ; 

(i) P'or the direct representation of the organised 
Nurses' Societies on the Provisional Council to 
frame the rules. 

(2) For the security of representation of the 
Registered Nurses on the Permanent Council. 

(3) For a term of three years' trainmg and 
examination under a definite curriculum prescribed 
by the Council after the three years' term of grace. 

(i.) 'f he Committee objected to the College of 
Nursing, Ltd., being incorporated in the Bill under 
its existing Memorandum and Articles of Associa- 
tion and empowered to govern the whole Nursing 
Profession in the United Kingdom, as it is a lay 
Corporation, and gives undue power of control 
to the Nurse- Training Schools over registeied 
Nurses, for whom they are not financiallj^ respon- 
sible. The Committee cla'ms for the Profession 
of Nursing an independent governing Body in the 
General Nursing Council, with no ultimate power 
and control behind it, such as the Bill secures for 
the College of Js'ursing, Ltd. 

(2) The Committee also strongly deprecates 
the undermining of the status of the General 
Register of three-years' trained general nurses 
by the Clause in the College Bill, providing for 
the institution of Supplementary Registe^js of 
Specialists — such as Children's Nurses, Fever 
Nurses, Tuberculosis Nurses, Maternity Nurses, 
tS:c. — as such registers would be compiled for 
the benefit of institutions and employers, and not 
of nurses themselves, who, semi-trained, would 
be ii^eligible for promotion to the best work and 
pay. 

(3) The Committee also took exception to 
preferential treatment for nurses on the register 
of the College of Nursing when a Bill becomes 
law. It agreed that all trained Nurses should 
have equal rights to registration during the 
term of grace. 



The Committee intends to uphold these vital 
principles. 

The Committee received A\ith deep regret the 
resignation of Miss Elinor Pell-Smith, who had 
been the delegate of the Roya.l Infirmary Leicester 
Nurses' League far a number of years. 

It was proposed from the Chair that a sincere 
vote of thanks be sei;t to Miss Pell -Smith, thanking 
her for her very valuable services during the long 
time she had been on the Committee, and ex- 
pressing the regret of the Committee in losing 
her most kind help. Triis was unai;imously 
agreed to. 

Miss Irene Sunmer, who had been appointed 
to represent the Royal Infirmary Leicester 
Nurses' League, was present, and received a 
cordial welcome. 

New members were elected. 

Margaret Breay, 

Hon. Secretary. 



LONDON HOSPITAL NURSES. 



Major Chappie, M.P., has given notice in the 
House of Commons of the following motion : — 

" That the system carried on at the London 
Hospital, under which nurses are taken from 
their training in the wards at the end of their 
second year, sent out to attend private cases, 
paid at the rate of 13s. per week while they 
receive £2 2s., the hospital appropriating the 
difference of 29s. per week earned by them, is 
adopted by no other great hospital in Britain, 
gravely interferes with the professional training 
in the wards of such nurses during their third 
and most important year, and is a cruel 
exploitation of women for the sake of pecuniary 
gain, and this House calls upon the Govern- 
ment to introduce legislation to remedy the 
abuse." 

Lord Knutsford has again written to the 
Times denying the truth of Major Chappie's 
statements, and Sir Henry Burdett has cast his 
sucking dove attitude, and now states that 
Lord Knutsford's reply to his letter ** is mere 
camouflage." 

But whilst these well-known exploiters of the 
nursing profession fly at one another's throats, 
the nurses themselves either remain dumb, or 
their opinions are excluded from the discussion 
as usual. 

The nursing profession at large are some- 
what out of patience with London Hospital 
nurses. They are not children, and it is time 
they realised that, by accepting unjust con- 
ditions, they injure their colleagues as a whole : 
(i) by undermining the recognised nursing 
standard of three years' training; and (2) by 



July 27, 1918 



ZTbe Biitisb 3ournal of IRursing. 



67 



themselves, insufficiently trained, competing 
with their efficiently trained colleagues in 
private nursing for the same fees, and thus sap- 
ping their economic status. To be plain, this 
conduct, in trade-union parlance, constitutes the 
"blackleg," and it is high time conscientious 
and courageous members of the nursing staff 
at the London Hospital made it plain to the 
Matron and Committee that they can no longer 
tolerate being placed in such an invidious posi- 
tion. It is now upwards of a quarter of a 
century since the redoubtable Miss Yatman 
exposed this commercial system of exploiting 
the nurses' training and earnings at the London 
Hospital before a Select Committee of the 
House of Lords, and although the late Lord 
Kimberley described it as " almost fraudulent," 
social influence has been p>ermitted by Parlia- 
ment to continue it till this day. London Hos- 
pital Sisters and Nurses, we your colleagues 
call upon you to come out and purge the pro- 
fession of the abuses to which you have so long 
submitted — to our injury as well as your own. 

The medical staff also might give a helping 
hand. 



APPOINTMENTS. 



THE COLLEGE OF NURSING LTD , AND 
LONDON HOSPITAL STANDARDS. 

It should be of interest to nurse members of 
the College to realise that in defining standards 
for the College ** Register," a special clause 
was inserted to include London Hospital 
nurses, " with two years^ training and two 
years' service." Thus the College Council 
protects the commercial interest of the Hospital, 
as against that of its exploited probationers. 
As the whole Council is comp>osed of hospital 
officials (including employers), the danger of 
their policy in this instance is apparent. 

This is why the indep>endent Nurses' 
Organizations demand an independent and 
representative Governing Body, and mean to 
work for it. 

Many of their members feel that the Matrons 
on the Council have failed to protect their 
professional interests. 

THE SHEFFIELD CENTRE. 

A Centre of the College of Nursing is beirg 
formed in Sheffield, and iMiss Hancox, of tte 
Queen Victoria Nursing Association, Glossop Road, 
Sheffield, and Miss Bolton, of the Jessop Hospital, 
have consented to act as Hon. Secretaries. 

We hope these ladies have read the Memorandum 
and Articles of Association of the College, and are 
prepared to have them eliminated from the Bill. 
We make this remark because we have never yet 
met a nurse member who has seen the consti- 
tution to whJoh she has subscribed. 



NIGHT SISTER. 

Bridge of Weir Consumption Sanatoria, Scotland. 

— ^liss Eleanor Harvey has been appointed 
Nignt Sister. She was trained at the Leeds 
Township Infirmary, and has held the position of 
StafE Nurse in that institution, and at the Leeds 
Sanatoiium, Gateforth. 

SISTER. 

Tlie Sanatorium, Middlesborougb. — Miss A. 
Lilley has been appointed Sister. She was trained 
at the South Shields Borough Hospital, and has 
beenvStaff Nurse at Deans Hospital in the same 
place, and Night Charge Nurse at the West Lane 
Hospital, Middlesborough. 

General Hospital, Nottingham. — ^Miss J. Morgan 
has been appointed Oatpatient Sister. She was 
trained at the General Hospital, Wolverhampton, 
and has been Night Sister at the General Hospital, 
Weston-super-Mare, and Ward Sister and Sister 
in the X-Ray Department at the Hospital, 
Rugby. 

HOUSEKEEPING SISTER. 

General Hospital, Nottingham. — Miss Edith 
Gethinghas been appointed Housekeeping Sister. 
She was trained at the East Suffolk Hospital, 
Ips^\'ich, where she has held the position cf Out- 
patient Sister. She has also been Night Sister 
at the Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport ; and had 
housekeeping training at the Norfolk and Norwich 
Hospital. 

QUEEN VICTORIA'S JUBILEE INSTITUT^. 
Transfers and Appointments. 

Miss Helena Mathieson is appointed to Norfolk 
N.F. as Assist. Co. Superintendent ; Miss Ethel 
Daniells to High Wycombe ; Miss Constance M. 
Deering to Hampstead Garden Suburb ; Miss 
Margaret Heritage to Chatham ; Miss Edith 
Matthews to Hampstead ; Miss Edith A. Richard- 
son to Brixton. ' 



"THE MECCA OF THE THRIFTY." 

The establishment of Thomas Wallis & Co., Ltd., 
Holborn Circus, London, E.C, is a well-krown 
landmark to Londoners, for there are few busses 
plying on the main route from the City tc the 
West End which do not draw up in front of it. 
The firm have for many years been contractors 
for hospital furnishing, and recently they were 
selected to furnish the Edith Cavell Home for 
Nurses at the London Hospital. It has also an 
extensive clientele in connection with its 
department for Nurses' Uniforms and Oatfits ; 
and the reasonable prices which prevail have 
earned for it the sobriquet, " The Mecca of the 
Thrifty." 

■ • « 

Among the gifts at Queen Mary's Royal Naval 
Hospital, Southend, was a cheque for ^loo from 
Queen Mary. 



68 



CDC 3Sritt6h 3ournal of Bursiufl. 



July 27, 1 9*1 8 



NURSING ECH0ES. 



ihe Council of yueen Victorias jubilee 
Institute for Aurses, in their Report lor the 
year 191 7 to the l^atron, iner iviajesty Queen 
Alexandra, report " satisfactory progress, not- 
withstanding- the extremely airacult conditions 
caused by the war. 1 ne chief oevelopments 
have again been in connection with the work in 
country districts and with the County iNursing 
Associations in particular; but a considerable 
increase has been shown in the number of 
Associations affiliating with the desire to 
employ Queen's Nurses; and no doubt the 
number would have been larger had it not been 
for the shortage of nurses. At the end of the 
year, 592 Queen's Nurses were on leave for 
service in connection with the war, and the 
supply of candidates for training shows no 
improvement. Every effort is Deing made 
to secure the services of nurses who are 
not required for war nursing, but the number 
of these available is small, and it is not antici- 
pated that there will be any great increase until 
the war ceases. Steps are under consideration 
to organize the training of more Queen's 
Nurses, so that the machinery may be in order 
when nurses are set free from War Service. 

" The Local Government Board has again 
co-operated with the Nursing Associations, by 
means of the grants given for midwifery work, 
with the object of securing the provision of a 
satisfactory service of midwives for country 
districts. It is essential that there should be 
an adequate supply of well-trained and efficient, 
midwives to check the wastage of infant life. 
. . . These nurses can also act as school nurses 
and health visitors." 



The supply of efficient midwives is most 
essential, but unless they are trained as nurses, 
and conform to the standard for Queen's 
Nurses, i.e., three years' general and six 
months' district training, they should not, in 
our opinion, be enrolled in Nursing Associa- 
tions with the prestige of the Queen Victoria's 
Jubilee Institute for Nurses. Their work is 
sufficiently extensive and important to be 
organized in County Midwifery Associations, 
whether under the authority of the " Queen's " 
or otherwise. " Village nurse-mid wives " have 
their status under the Midwives' Act, but their 
nursing is an amateur and unknown quantity, 
and the suggestion that these midwives can act 
as school nurses is not one which can be 
supported. 

It is disquieting to find that the number of 
" Village Nurses " employed by County Nurs- 



ing Associations affiliated to the Institute is 
1,327, while the total number of Queen's 
Nurses in England on December 31st, 1917, 
was 1,357, including Queen's Nurses who are 
undertaking duty in connection with the war, 
of whom there were 592 in the United King- 
dom. The total number of Queen's Nurses in 
the United Kingdom on December 31st, 1917, 
was 2,056. 

There have been two new features in the 
constitution of the Council appointed by Queen 
Alexandra during the year. For the first time 
the Superintendents of the Training Homes, 
and the Superintendents of the County Nursing 
Associations have each been allowed to appoint 
a representative. 



Her Royal Highness Princess Louise visited 
the Kensington Infirmary on Friday last, and 
expressed her warm admiration at all she saw. 
The Princess was received by the Chairman, 
the Chaplain, and the Matron. After visiting 
the beautiful Church of St. Elizabeth, Her 
Royal Highness passed through the wards, and 
chatted with the patients. 



The " At Home " to meet the Colonial 
Matrons-in-Chief, held by the Society of 
Women Journalists at 3-4, Tudor Street, E.C., 
on July i8th, was a great success. Mrs. Baines 
and Miss Imandt were the hostesses, and 
together with the President, Miss Billington, 
welcomed the guests. Australia, Canada, New 
Zealand, South Africa, and the United States 
of America were represented, and we noticed 
all sorts of interesting people present, including 
leading wx>men journalists, all apparently 
warmly interested in cementing friendship with 
our overseas nurses, whilst the Matrons-in- 
Chief expressed the opinion that " it does us 
a lot of good to come into touch with all these 
bright women — whose sphere of w^rk is dif- 
ferent to our own. We are apt to get a bit 
narrow in the nursing world." We are bound 
to admit we found nothing narrow in the views 
of our overseas Matrons, who one and all 
appear inspired not only with professional zeal, 
but with a liberal outlook on life. 



The Asylums and Mental Deficiency Com- 
mittee of the London County Council reported 
at its meeting on Tuesday that as a war 
measure it has been necessary to employ 
women on agricultural and farm work at the 
mental hospitals. Some nurses have been so 
employed, and have received a special rate of 
pay while doing farm work. As there is such 
difficulty in obtaining nurses, and as it now 



July 27, 1918 



^be Xritiab 3ournal ot Durema. 



69 



seems possible to obtain from other sources 
the services of women for work on the land, the 
committee think it undesirable to second nurses 
wholly for farm work, and have directed that 
they shall no longer be so employed. 



THE PAPAL SCHOOL OF NURSING. 



The Committee have gfanted extra duty pay 
to a large number of members of the nursing 
staff at the Banstead mental hospital. 



The Hon. Albinia Brodrick's pamphlet, "Pro- 
fessional Development and Organization," is 
on sale, price 2d., at the office of the National 
Union of Trained Nurses, 46, Marsham Street, 
London, S.W. i, the keynotes of which are 
Democracy, Comradeship, Organization. Every 
nurse should own it, study it, and live up to it. 



Miss Grace Ross Cadell, L.R.C.P., 
L.R.C.S., late of Edinburgh, left ;^i,C)Oo to 
the Queen's Nurses in Scotland, and ;^3oo to 
the Leith Branch of the Queen's Nurses — a 
legacy which will bring comfort to many a sick 
body. 

■ m ■ 

LEGAL MATTERS. 

A case involving important prmciples was 
recently brought by the Norfolk Nursing 
I'ederation, in regara to a broken agreement, 
the defenaant bemg Miss Kose Snellmg, of 
20, Junction Road, Aorwich. 

Mr. F. A. bainbndge said the Federation 
was a charitable institution, to obtain suitable 
candidates and train them as village nurses. 
The vice-presidents were ladies and gentlemen 
of leading position and standing in Norfolk. 
There were two agreements, one for training 
at Plaistow, under which ;£2^ os. iid. was 
claimed for non-fulfilment. Under the second 
the defendant was " to become a trained nurse 
at the Norwich Isolation Hospital," but left 
before completing her training. 

The judge held that the first agreement could 
not stand. It was superseded by the second. 
In this he gave judgment for 30s. 

The necessity for the statutory definition of 
a standard of what constitutes a trained nurse 
is manifest in this case. Certainly training at 
Plaistow — for the most part in district mid- 
wifery — and in a fever hospital, does not do so. 
*^ Ladies and gentlemen of leading position " 
would do well to refrain from interfering with 
the economic and professional standards of 
■candidates for a skilled profession, unless 
they are prepared to enforce a just standard of 
training, which qualifies the nurses for their 
resp>onsible duties, and enables them to com- 
pete with others in the open market. 



VVe quote the following interesting article 
on the Papal Nursing School from The 
Universe of a recent issue. 1 he training of nuns 
in the science, in conjunction with the practice, 
of nursing, is one of the most progressive and 
necessary reforms amongst Religious Orders. 
We know how in the past the good Sisters in 
hospitals have excelled in the care of the 
cuisine and the linen ; for the future every 
facility should be provided for them to care 
intelligently for the body in health and disease. 

" Ihe autumn and winter course of training 
for outside pupils at the Papal School of 
Nursing, our Rome correspondent writes, has 
come to its conclusion with the examinations 
at the end of Lent, and after Holy Week the 
Spring course opens. The existence of this 
school is still unknown to the majority of 
Catholics, yet its institution ranks easily among 
the greatest works of Pius X's Pontificate. As 
the founder and organiser of the school said 
to me on the morning when she was kind 
enough to take me over it : ' How many people 
are aware of the fact that His Holiness Pius X 
collected the Statutes and Constitutions of 
every^ religious nursing Order in the Church, in 
order to study the best means of providing 
facilities for their members to follow a modern 
training and pass up-to-date examinations 
while yet living in accordance with their rule, 
and that the record of this research is filed in 
the secret archives of the Congregation of 
Religious? ' 

This is briefly the history of the school. In 
1904 (during the first year of Pius X Pontifi- 
cate) a certain French lady, who had devoted 
her life to hospital organisation in her own 
country and had just completed the foundation 
and equipment of the Hopital St. Joseph in 
Paris, was paying her annual visit to Rome. 
In a private audience she asked a blessing on 
her work, of which she gave an account to His 
Holiness. The Holy Father, after enquiring 
into every detail, asked her to stay in Rome 
and take charge of a training school he wished 
to organise, in which members of religious 
Orders could obtain an up-to-date training in 
the right spiritual conditions. This she was 
unable to do, but she promised to return the 
following year, when she would have finished 
the work she was engaged on in France. She 
was true to her word, and in 1906 the school 
was opened on a very modest scale in tem- 
porary quarters in the PratL It grew and 
prospered, and in 1912, funds being assured, 
its own building was begun under the shadow 



70 



JLbc Xritt0D 3ourtuil of Vlurdina* 



July 27, 1918 



of St. Peter's next to but independent of the 
Hospital of Sta. Marta. The outbreak of the 
war has temporarily suspended the progress of 
fitting up the building, as the quarters which 
were destined to the ' in patients ' have been 
handed over to the * Cross of Malta ' for 
wounded soldiers, but the work of the dis- 
pensary is in full swing. There is a resident 
staff of trained nurses in charge, working 
under some of the best doctors here, and 
already representatives of twenty-seven dif- 
ferent nursing Orders have gone through their 
training there. The dispensary is always 
crowded with * out patients ' of every age and 
sex, and suffering from every variety of human 
complaint. The operating-rooms, sterilisation 
plant, bandage department, sanitation, &c., 
are irreproachable, and the names of the 
doctors in attendance warrant the excellence of 
the surgery. After the war there will be accom- 
modation for in-patients under medical and 
surgical treatment, with a larger operating 
theatre and more extensive accommodation for 
the subjects under training. It will then be 
possible to receive at least two members of 
any given Order to ensure the maintenance of 
their religious life. The chapel is already in 
use, and on its wall hangs the autograph 
blessing and approval of the present Holy 
Father. There is also a course of training in 
dispensing and first aid for ladies and girls. 
The course, theoretical and practical, is con- 
ducted by excellent doctors and lasts four 
months ; it is concluded by an examination, on 
passing which a certificate is granted. 

The attention of His Holiness Pope Pius X 
was first drawn to the need of a reform In the 
practical training of the older nursing Orders 
by the fact that while he was still Patriarch of 
Venice, a surgeon In one of the hospitals there 
protested against the removal of one of the 
nuns assisting in the operating theatre, for the 
reason that no one of the other sisters was 
capable of replacing her In the theatre." 



OUTSIDE ITHE GATES. 

|THE f ENEMYlfALIEN DANGER. 

• Now that the people are beginning to realise the 
fine mesh of the financial net in which 
Hun bankers and millionaires in this country are 
strangling our national life and liberties — and 
what the " Hidden Hand " really means— they 
are becoming inspired witt a deep and smouldering 
fury against the political system which has placed 
the Empire in such danger, and are slowly but 
surely rousing themselves to action. The Prime 
Minister has refused to receive a deputation on 
the enemy alien question, proposed by Mrs. Dacre 
Fox ; and on Sunday, this valiant lady, speaking 



to a great meeting in Hyde Park, said, " for the 
first time since the war broke out there was an 
open fight between the British public and German 
influence at work in this country. We had to 
make a clean sweep of all persons of German blood, 
without distinction of sex, birth-place or nation- 
ality. Any person in this country, who was 
suspected of protecting German influence, should 
be tried as a traitor and, if necessary, shot. The 
Home Office was impregnated with German 
influence and the Foreign Office used men pro- 
tected by the Hom^ Office." Mrs. Dacre Fox 
announced she had booked the Royal Albert Hall 
for a national demonstration on the subject 
on Tuesday, July 30th, at 7.30 p.m., and a 
sympathiser present offered ;^ioo towards the 
expenses. Mr. R. Wilson, Secretary of the British 
Empire Union, said that Sir George Cave (the 
Home Secretary), raust be made to understand 
that unless he applied drastic legislation he would 

be impeached. -* 

We learn that there is a type of enemy blood 
against whom strong precautions are needed. 
Tnis is the British-born son of German parents. 
It may have been only by accident that his 
birth took place in this country. He has not to 
be registered with the police or submit to any of 
the restrictions imposed on his parents ; and there 
are men of this sort doing confidential Government 
work and manning the Labour battalions — safe 
from the bombs and bullets of their blood com- 
patriots. Recently we heard of one of these 
insolent Huns wearing the King's uniform, 
during leave, boasting of what " they intended to 
do after the war. We are not going to have 
Germany isolated," he boasted^ — " we hissed 
the King's portrait on the cinema screen " — and 
" you English ran at Cambrai and now have to be 
stiffened up with Frenchmen at the front " — 
and more of such blasphemy. A lady present 
wrote down the sayings of this young traitor in 
khaki, and has handed them to the right quarter. 
But is there a right quarter, that is the question ? 

The proposed legislation in the Naturalisation 
of Aliens Bill is weak and wobbling. Not to our 
taste. We want a few women in Parliament to 

tone it up. 

WOMEN IN PARLIAMENT. 

It is stated that the Labour Party are determined 
to force a decision on the eligibility of women for 
membership of the House of Commons before the 
General Election. The Executive, by endorsing 
the candidatures of several Labour women for 
industrial constituencies, have staked out their 
claim. They have decided to have a qualifying 
Bill ready, in case the Law Officers should advise 
the Government that, under the present law, 
women are not eligible for membership of the House 
of Commons. 

The National Labour Party have officially 
endorsed the prospective candidature of Miss 
Macarthur for the Stourbridge Division at the 
next election. 



tf 



The Brtttah Journal <^ Numng, July 27, 1918. 



" Science is, I beliere, 
nothing but trained and 
organized common-sense, 
differing from the latter 
only as a veteran may 
differ from a raw recruit : 
and its methods diffe' 
from those of common- 
sense only so far as the 
Guardsman's cut and 
thrust differ from the 
manner in which a savage 
wields his club." 

Professor Huxlty. 



The Basis 
of 
Science 




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^^ 



ITbc Brltlsb 3ournal of *Wur0lna. 



July 27, #918 



BOOK OP THE WEEK. 



"TOWARDS MORNING."* 

This book may be compaiod to a film — a 
terrible, realistic series of moving pictures, which 
is marshalled before our fascinated eyes with 
r..lentloss force. 

It may awaken, perchance, for the first t^rae, 
our pity for the unfortunate victims of the German 
military systeAi, as page after page depicts for us 
the remorseless crushing of the individual into the 
powder that is destined to cement the nation, or, 
to use the simile of the author, " the cog mattered 
only so long as it served its purpose — it was the 
machine, the machine that mattered always." 

To illustrate this system, this amazingly strong 
book has been produced, which follows from the 
cradle to the grave, nay even while the child was 
yet in its mother's womb, one unit of that vast 
army which, after long years of hke preparation, 
have been ruthlessly sacrificed to satisfy the 
insolent claims of the War God. 

The Herr Amtshreiber is awaiting with nervous 
expectation the advent of his first born. He 
himself had never been a success. How this is 
he doesn't know. " My Bureau Chief doesn't like 
me. I don't know why. I have always done my 
best." "" 

On the other hand his brother-in-law was a 
great man- He had no sympathy with the 
expectant parents at the supreme crisis. 

," Women have to go through with it. It's their 
duty. They were made for it. Mustn't make a 
fuss. We fight — they bear children. Na gut, it 
must be a boy, then. You kn-^w the good ola 
custom, the first child to the Kaiser. A fine boy. 
See to it, my dear fellow." 

The young Helmut was ten when he first went 
to the Gymnasium, and the sufferings of the 
unhappy, nervous child on the first day there and 
the cynical callousness which was meted out to 
him could not fail to raise the compassion of the 
hardest heart. His return home to his mother in 
the evening is told with a brevity and force 
that is a good example of the fine work of the 
writer. 

" Well, Helmut." 

He did not answer, and she took off the bright 
yellow cap of the Lower Fifth and ran her hand 
with a caress over the close -cropped head. " Why, 
you're going to be a real man, Helmut" She 
helped him to unstrap his books. There were ten 
of them. He had got to take everything that was 
in those dull covers and squeeze them in^o his 
head. And his head ached now, as if it were full 
to overflowing. 

Suddenly he turned, and there was a note of 
quivering hysteria in the boy's voice. 

" And shall I never play again, mother ? " 

For a moment they stared at each other. 
There was an aghast look on the woman's dull, 

♦ By I. A. R. Wylie. (Cassell & Co., London.) 



pale face. She turned away, as though there were 
something in his eyes she could not meet. 

" You must be a man, Helmut," she said 
quietly. " Life isn't a game." 

He was ten years old when he found out that 
life wasn't a game. 

And the end of it all was that he failed to pass 
the necessary examiration and was compelled to 
enlist as an ordinary soldier. We suppose one 
must be a German lad of the better class to 
appreciate what the humiliation of that would 
mean. 

We cannot give, for want of space, the descrip- 
tion of the cruel twenty-four hours' march, to 
satisfy the ambition of rival divisions whose 
officers had laid a bet on the endurance of their 
respective men. 

It was Viet Thomas who told them — 

" If we don't play up it will cost our little ofi&cers 
fifty bottles oi fizz. You'll see how they'll houn d 
us along. Of course you know it's all uhofi&cial ; 
but you know what that means. If we win, the 
Herr Oberst can begin thinking about himself as 
brigadier. If we don't, he'll wake up one morning 
with a top-hat on." 

It was the little Herr Leutnant MulJer that 
first spoke words of kindness and encouragement 
to Helmut, which for one brief evening lifted him 
out of liis sullen despair. The little Leutnant was 
killed in a duel next morning at dawn. Helmut 
recalled a voice he had heard say, " We'll get our 
little Muller out poon — freeze him out, or kick him 
out ; somehow. You'll see ! " 

So they drove the body of ^ the httle Leutnant 
home. 

Johan cried. The tears splashed on to his tunic, 
and made big stains on the blue cloth. 

But Helmut did not cry. His eyes were empty 
— stupid-looking. 

That night he succumbed for the fir.^t time to the 
bestial pleasures of his companions, because his 
loneliness and isolation were more than he could 
bear. After his rapid descent into brutality it is 
said of him, " There were .-tains on the field grey 
uniform, grotesque stains on the peaceful face half 
hidden on the curve of his arm. It was as though 
while he slept, an enemy had wilfully besmeared 
him." 

And the end of it all was — 

" Helmut Fclde, at dawn, for disobedience in 
the face of the enemy." 

But Helmut by this very disobedience made 
, good, and the incidents connected with it are 
stirring and pathetic beyond description. 

The relating of the grinding to powder of this 
human sou! is no mere figment of the imaginat'on, 
it is rather the play of the imagination around 
facts ; but it is an embodiment of the sy.^tem which 
no fiction can over-estimate— the relentless Jugger- 
naut wnich, please God, we, in our turn, are out to 
crush. 

This book should be read with sympathy and 
understanding. 

H. H. 



July 27, 1918 



^be 3Br(tt0b 3onrnal of IRuretno. 



73 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects Jor these columns, we wish tt to bt 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 

RENDER TO C/ESAR, &c. 

To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing- 
Dear Madam, — I have to thank one of your 
correspondents for a most gratifying reference 
to the work done at the North IsHngton Maternity 
Centre, in your issue of July 6th. 

In justice to the founder and other pioneer 
workers to whom the credit of the success is really 
due, I feel ccrapelled to rectify the mis-statement 
in connection with the Infant Welfare Ward, 
wliich is not under my charge. The whole 
department, which is re-opening on the 24th 
on an enlarged scale, will have a complete resi- 
dential staff, and the late Superintendent of the 
North Islington Maternity Centre has been 
appointed Matron of the American Infant Welfare 
Wards, by which title it will be known in future. 
The work of the wards wiH be of immense 
benefit to the residents of this district who attend 
our Centre, and we workers hope to co-operate 
most cordially for the general good of Welfare 
Work. , y^ Yours sincerely, 
-V ■ • • ' ' ■' I G. Le Geyt, 

6, Manor Gardens, Superintendent. 

HoUoway Road, N. i. 



WANT OF CONSIDERATION. 

To the Editor oj The British Journal ofNursing. 

Dear Ma dam,- — A couple of weeks ago The 
British Journal of Nursing reported that Major 
Chappie recently asked in the House of Commons 
whether any advance had been made in the mess 
allowance to nurses to meet the increased cost of 
food. To this it was possible to answer truthfully 
in the affirmative, but is it not time that the 
Government increased their nurses' uniform 
allowance, which remains still at the pre-war 
figure of ;^8 per annuni„ in spite of the fact that 
all materials and also dressmaking cost almost 
twice as much as at the beginning of the war ? 
And does there exist anywhere in this country 
a class of employment where salaries have not 
been largely advanced to moet the enormous 
increase in the cost of living ? Yet the Govern- 
ment has not raised by one penny the salaries of 
its nurses, except to those who sign a contract for 
the duration of war, and the many women who, 
on account of home and other responsibilities, are 
unable to agree to such a contract must continue 
to struggle along with an income which in pre-war 
days was hardly sufficient. 

I shall be grateful if you will give publicity to 
this letter, as I know there are many members of 
the Army Nursing Service who feel strongly the 
want of consideration shown to them in these 
matters. I enclose my card and remain. 

An Army Sister. 



A VEXATIOUS ARRANGEMENT. 

To the Editor oj The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — I should be very glad if any of 
your readers could enlighten me as to the following 
point. AH nurses who have joined the Royal 
National Pension Fund for Nurses, and getting an 
annuity, have, as you know, every month to send 
a doctor's certificate and a clergyman's certificate. 
This, surely, especially for nurses living in a 
country district, is a little humiliating as it means 
that their business is more or less known. Is 
there any obscure reason for the multiplication of 
these signatures, for it surely is a waste of time for 
the clergyman and doctor — though that is not my 
point. My point is, that surely every nurse 
getting a pension naturally feels she would like to 
keep her affairs private, and the getting signatures 
every month seems to me an unnecessary bringing 
to light of her own business. 

If you could find space in your valuable paper 
for my letter I should be very gratof ul. 
Yours truly, 

M. Shepherd, 
Trained Nurse, C.M.B. Cert. 

[This system is surely annoying, especially as 
nurses insured in the N.P.F.N. have paid in full 
for their annuities, which are not pensions. — Ed.] 



KERNELS FROM CORRESPONDENCE, 

From a Sister in France : — ■" For the first time 
I have seen ' A History of Nursing ' (Nutting & 
Dock). What a mine of wealth to explore ! Why 
did I never hear of this greatest of educational 
works in my training school (Guys) ? " 

[Because our tfaining-schools have hitherto been 
too narrow in their outlook to teach nursing 
history, and, incidentally, because you have'not 
read a professional Journal — ^The B.J.N. ! — which 
keeps you in touch with professional affairs. — Ed.] 

From a Sister in Savoy.—" We follow with 
interest the professional struggle in the B.J.N. 
... It seems incredible that outsiders should 
consider themselves capable of directing our 
profession. What would some of our interfering 
friends think if we offered to stage manage some 
of their productions. Our profession is indeed 
fortunate in having you at its head to fight its 
battles, otherwise without your leadership T do not 
, now where we should be landed." 



OUR PRIZE COMPETITION. 

We regret that no prize competition has this 
week been received which comes up to the standard 
which justifies us in awarding a prize. No doubt 
all nurses are just now very busy, and those who 
are not working at full pressure are taking a well- 
earned rest. 

QUESTIONS. 

August 10th. — What have you learnt of new 
nursing methods in a Military Hospital ? 

August ijth. — What is pernicious anaemia ? 
How have you seen it treated ? 



74 (Tbe 3Britl0b 3ournal of Buretnc Supplement. My 27, 19^^ 



The Midwife. 



THE MIDWIVES' ACT AMENDMENT BILL. 



I ■■':: '{Concluded from page 38) 

I When the Midwives Act Amendment Bill 
(|pmes on in the House of Commons, two points 
in particular will need careful watching, (i) As 
we have already pointed out that " to bring the 
English Act into line with those in other parts 
01 the United Kingdom," which is the intention 
of the Bill as declared in its memorandum, 
provision must be made for adding midwives to 
the Central Midwives Board. (2) The final form 
of Clause 12. It wiir be remembered that the 
Marquess of Salisbury, when the Bill was before 
the House of Lords, secured an Amendment 
providing that " Section nine of the principal 
Act (which enables county councils to delegate 
their powers and duties to district councils) 
shall be repealed." This was quaUfied later by 
the addition of the words " Provided that where 
at the commencement of this Act any powers or 
duties have been delegated, such delegation shall 
not be affected, unless, on the representation of 
the County Council concerned, the Local Govern- 
ment Board otherwise direct." This provision 
affects four district councils. Any further attempt 
at weakening Lord SaUsbury's mendment in 
the House of Commons must be strenuously 
resisted. 

TIffi MATERNITY AND CHILD WELFARE 
BILL. 



The committee stage of the Maternity and Child 
Welfare Bill in the House of Loids is down for 
Thursday, July 25th. 



NATIONAL BABY WEEK. 



A meeting of the Council was held at the 
Armitage Hall, 224, Great Portland Street, on 
Tuesday, July 23rd. The chair was occupied by 
Dr. Eric Pritchard, Chairman of the Executive 
Committee, in the regretable absence of Major the 
Hon. Waldorf Astor, Whose duties as Parlia- 
mentary Secretary to the Ministry of Food, to 
which office he has j ust been appo inted, were too 
pressing to admit of his being present. It was 
quite obvious that those present in the body of the 
hall were animated by a spirit of enthusiasm and 
hope, which augurs well for the future welfare of 
mothers and babies in particular and for the health 
of the nation in general. They were not merely 
lookers-on, but social workers taking a deep 
interest in this work of great national importance, 
which was shown by the lively discussion which 
followed upon speeches recommending a Ministry 



of Public Health. The following reports were 
submitted .-—That of the Executive Committee 
by Mrs. H. B. Irving (Hon. Sec.) That of the Hon. 
Treasurer, by Dr. Eric Pritchard, in the absence 
of Sir Edward Pen ton. -That of the Jewel Fund 
Administrative Committee, by Miss Halford. 



The National Baby Week Council is doing good 
service in publishing a series of pamphlets bearing 
upon its work. Included in these are four lectures 
to which reference has already been made in this 
journal. " National Baby Week, from the Work- 
ing-class Mother's Point of View," by Mrs. H. B. 
Ii-ving ; " The Factors of Infant Mortality," by 
Dr. C. W. Saleeby, F.R.S.E., F.Z.S. ; " Civic Re- 
sponsibility with regard to Child Welfare," by Di. 
Harold Scurfield, D.P.H., and " Baby Week : its 
Objects and its Future," by Miss Alice Elliott. 
" The Nation's Wealth " is a Composite Message 
from the Well Wishers of the Campaign, incluaing 
General F. Foch. The most vital message is from 
a working woman in St. Pancras, and most nurses 
and midwives will agree- with her when she says, 
" People that do not know much about children 
should not be allowed to give advice." The 
message sent two months ago by the late Lord 
Rhondda has a special interest. He wrote : " The 
care of the children is a sacred duty we owe to 
those who are giving their lives for us at the Front, 
and we can best help our country in these critical 
times by helping the children. . . . 

" The estabhshment of a Ministry of Health, 
which would do much for the nation's children and 
coming generations is an object for whicn all well- 
wishers of the Empire should work, and one for 
which I hope we shall not have long to wait." 

Alas, Lord Rhondda did not live to see the reform 
he so earnestly desired. We agree with the 
National Baby Week Council that the best 
memorial to his memory would be the immediate 
establishment of a Ministry of Health. 



WORD FOR THE WEEK. 

" To those who say that an abundant supply 
of cheap juvenile labour is necessary to industry 
we answer ' Hands off the children ! ' They are 
the nation of the future. They ought to be 
regarded as potential parents and potential 
citizens, not to be sacrificed— as they have been 
in the past — to the temporary convenience of 
industry and to considerations of private profit. 
Industry exists for human beings, not human 
beings for industry and if the exigencies of 
employers and the welfare of the children conflict, 
then the former must give way to the latter, not 
the latter to the former. "^ — Mr. Arthur Henderson, 
M.P. 



WITH WHICH IS INCORPORATED 

HI irailEXlI€ MBCOl 

EDITED BY MRS BEDFORD FENWICK 



No 1,583. 



SATURDAY, AUGUST 3, 1918. 



Vol. LXI 



EDITORIAL. 



REMEMBRANCE DAY. 

The Lord Mayor of London rightly inter- 
preted the national feeling when he pro- 
posed " that Great Britain should pause for 
a moment in the midst of the great struggle 
to turn to the past four years, and reconse- 
crate itself in the memory of those high 
traditions, to the demands of the future." 

So it comes to pass that, throughout the 
Empire, Sunday, August 4th, will be kept 
as " Remembrance Day." We shall have 
in remembrance our fighting men, our sick 
and wounded, our prisoners of war, and 
surely our nurses, and our women's army. 

The Roll of Honour of members of our 
profession who bravely and simply have 
laid down their lives in the cause of the 
world's freedom, is a long and growing one. 
We will have them in remembrance proudly 
and gracefully on Sunday next, and year by 
year ns " Remembrance Day " comes round. 

At the instance of the Prime Minister a 
solemn service of intercession will be held 
on Sunday morning at St. Margaret's, 
Westminster, the parish church of the 
Royal Palace of Westminster. Apart from 
its special intention, it will be of historical 
interest, as the King, accompanied by the 
Queen, will attend, and it will be the first 
occasion in English history on which the 
Sovereign has officially attended Divine 
Service at the head of His Lords and 
Commons. 

In the afternoon there will be a service 
in Hyde Park, where a Floral Shrine will 
be erected, which it is hoped may be visited 
by Their Majesties. These War Shrines will 
be a feature of the day, and will be erected 
in the market places, or at the town halls 
in provincial towns, so that floral offerings 
may be made in honour of the dead. These 
will afterwards be collected by volunteers, 
and boy scouts, and taken to the local 



military hospitals. A short service, at 
which the Bishop of London will be the 
preacher, and a mass meeting will be held, 
when the following resolution will be pro- 
posed, and subsequently despatched to the 
Prime Minister :^ 

" That the citizens of London here assembled on 
Remembrance Day, August 4th, 1918, silently 
paying tribute to the Empire's sons who have 
fallen in the fight for freedom on the scattered 
battlefields of the woi Id-war, whether on sea or 
shore, and mindful also of the loyalty and courage 
of our sailors, soldiers, airmen, and men of the 
Mercantile Marine every day and everywhere, and 
those who are working on the munitions of war 
and helping in other ways for the preservation of 
civilisation, unanimously resolve to do all that in 
their power lies to achieve the ideals on behalf of 
which so great a sacrifice has already been made." 

Of those who most need our thoughts, 
our sympathy, and our practical help, the 
prisoners of war surely come first, and the 
suggestion of the Duke of Connaught that 
the collections made in the churches on 
Sunday next should be given in whole, or in 
part, to our prisoners of war in enemy hands 
will be widely approved. 

PANSIES FOR THOUGHTS. 

The simple heartsease is by common 
consent the flower of remembrance. Why 
should we not adopt it as the flower of 
Remembrance Day, and wear " Pansies for 
Thoughts " on Sunday next, and every year 
when the Day comes round in honour of our 
heroes and heroines, living and departed ? 

There is no flower more appealing than 
the heartsease, and in its manifold variety 
it presents a diversity of colour and form 
to suit all tastes. Far and wide let us wear 
the emblem, and, more important still, let 
us cultivate and cherish the attribute of the 
heartsease. The world never needed those 
who possess it, and the power of communi- 
cating its secret to others more than at the 
present time. 



76 



(Lbe Bruisb 3ournal of iRurstng. 



August 3, 1918 



OUR PRIZE COMPETITION. 



now MAY THE PLAY OF CHILDREN BE DIRECTED 
50 A5 TO BE A MEAN5 OF EDUCATION? 

We have pleasure in awarding the prize this 
week to Miss Emilie Mona Clay, Colwyn 
Crescent, Rhos-on-Sea, North Wales. 

PRIZE PAPER. 

In the year 1837, Friedrich Froebel opened 
his first Kindergarten at Blankenburgh. The 
idea of using play for educational ends was 
carried out by him in that early infants' school. 

It was Friedrich Froebel who first thought 
of educational play, that is, of so using the 
natural characteristic of the child in loving 
play, to teach the child what it is good for him 
to know. 

Froebel's explanation of why he thought it 
important to use play educationally would be 
something like this : — 

It is the child's nature to play ; it will be easiest 
to teach a child through play because the 
child loves to play. 

By using nature and natural means, the child 
will learn unconsciously. 

Play is a means of expression. This is import- 
ant, because at an early age the child 
expresses himself more through actions than 
words. 

Play is the child's world. 

For these and other reasons, having regard 
to child psychology, -it is important to use 
nature and what is natural to meet our ends 
educationally. 

Thus, if we want a child to realise some of 
life's activities — the work of the baker, the 
shoemaker, the blacksmith, and so forth — we 
do not take a book and read to the child a dis- 
course on the work of the baker, the shoemaker, 
the blacksmith, we follow nature, and we pic- 
ture out through play the activities of these 
tradesmen. Or, again, we may be wishing to 
draw a child to close realisation of the beauties 
of nature, as in the life of the butterfly, the 
squirrel, the bee, the daffodil. To do this we 
may dramatise simply through play the simple 
facts of nature : the butterfly's beautiful trans- 
formation, the life of the squirrel in saving 
food, the wonders of bee life, the daffodil with 
other bulbs, and the future of that brown- 
looking object. 

Through nature play the child sees his own 
life reflected in some life outside his own, and 
the plays or simple dramatisations make sure 
his knowledge about the animal life so near 
him. This kind of acquisition is the " learn 
by doing " which does not merely apply to 



children's play, but is the great fundamental 
principle in all teaching. 

The child who has pictured out the activities 
of the baker, the shoemaker, the blacksmith — 
or represented through play some of Nature's 
wondrous lore — will not forget the knowledge 
gained in this way. Such knowledge will be 
the child's very own in a more far-reaching 
sense than it could possibly be were the child 
only told about the baker, the shoemaker, the 
blacksmith, or about the butterfly, the bee, or 
the daffodil, the squirrel, and soon. 

Educational play is learning by doing ; it is 
using something so natural to the child, the 
love of play and activity and dramatisation, to 
impart that knowledge which in after years 
will be added to and glorified. 

Froebel says in connection with hand plays : 
If your child's to understand 

Things which other people do. 
You must let his tiny hand 

Carry out the same thing too. 

The hand plays were instituted as the earliest 
form of educational play. In these the child 
imitated the actions of the " other people " and 
of Nature's phenomena, as the turning round 
of a weather vane through the action of the 
wind, an unseen force which the child cannot 
see, but an early indication of the law of cause 
and eff'ect, though not clear to the child at the 
moment. 

Some have been heard to say that '•' educa- 
tional play " is over-directed. It should not 
be this in the hands of a skilful teacher. She 
should tell the children in simple words the 
facts that need representing, and leave the 
representation to them. She should simply 
change the centre of interest for the children 
if the play is degenerating into uselessness, but 
she should not be the director of the play. 

As cannot be too often said, " educational 
play ' ' is only really successful when the teacher 
simply remains the inspirer, but not the 
manager of a game. 

Educational play is a great factor in educa- 
tion of an all-round character, more than merely 
the imparting of facts and giving knowledge, 
it may be a means of moral training untold. It 
may well, help to make citizens as well as 
professors ! 

HONOURABLE MENTION. 

The following competitors receive honourable 
mention : — Miss M. M. G. Bielby, Miss 
R. E. S. Cox, Miss O. M. Balderton, Miss C. 
Wright, Mrs. Farthing. 

QUESTION FOR NEXT WEEK. 

What have you learnt of new nursing 
methods in a military hospital ? 



August 3, 1918 



^be Britisb 3ournal of fluraino. 



77 



MEDICAL MATTERS. 



FEBRIS WOLHYNICA. 

A perfect maze of publications, long ana 
short, with this heaaing has appearea in the 
Grerman and Austrian meciical press, says tne 
British Medical Journal, which has been 
drenched with a sort of printer's drum fire on 
this subject. Out of tnis tangle, Dr. Oluf 
Ihomsen, of the Serum Institute of Copen- 
hagen, has picked out the most salient features 
of a disease which was practically unknown 
before the war, except to Polish physicians, 
who seem to have regarded it as a form of 
malaria. Early in 1916 the disease was 
observed in soldiers on the German Eastern 
front. Its geographical name, Febris wolhy^ 
nica, was as misleading as its symptomatic 
name, Febris quintana, which suggested a 
variety of malaria, for it was observed also on 
the Western front, and no bodies resembling 
the malarial parasite have been found in the 
blood, and laborious searches for them have 
been made. It presents many of the charac- 
teristics of trench fever. They may, indeed, 
prove to be identical, though Wolhynian fever, 
as referred to by certain German writers, would 
appear to be a very definite fever, with a far 
more uniform clinical picture than that of 
trench fever. According to Dr. Thomsen, the 
first symptom is lassitude, followed in a day or 
two by a sudden rise of temperature to about 
40° C. The early symptoms, which may be 
preceded by rigors, are a sense of great heat 
and profuse sweating. The patient is giddy, 
and his muscles feel bruised. A very charac- 
teristic and most unpleasant symptom is pain 
in the legs, especially the shins. This pain — 
gaiter pain — is often worst in the evening or at 
night, and is stabbing, boring, or burning. 
After lasting about forty-eight hours the tem- 
perature falls almost to normal, and this may 
be the end of the attack. It may, however, 
recur as often as ten or twelve times, at 
intervals of five to six days. These intervals 
may last only two to three days, or may be as 
long as seven to eight. The prognosis is good, 
and the disease is seldom if ever fatal. Slight 
jaundice, great pallor, herpes, a scarlatiniform 
or small papular rash, and slight enlargement 
of liver and spleen have all been observed. 
There is an absolute and a relative increase in 
the number of the polymorphonuclear neutro- 
phil leucocytes, and, after two or three attacks 
of fever, the red cells may show slight poly- 
chromasla. The disease can be experimentally 
transmitted to man by lice, which, it is thought, 
are probably always responsible for the de- 
velopment of the disease in man. Various 



bodies have been found in the digestive system 
of the louse and in the blood of man, but the 
evidence on these points is still conflicting. Xo 
satisfactory treatment has yet been found. 

LICE AND DISEASE. 

In connection with a correspondence on the 
above subject apf>earing recently in the Times, 
the Local Government Board has contributed 
an interesting note : — 

Ihe relation between trench fever — and, it 
may be added, typhus fever — and body-louse 
infection has been recognized from an early 
period in the war, and active and extensive pre- 
cautions have been adopted to combat pedicu- 
losis (lousiness) in camps in this country and 
abroad. The difficulties of " delousing " have 
been extremely great, especially in the earlier 
days of rapid mobilization, when arrangements 
for personal cleansing and disinfection had to 
be rapidly improvised. At present such 
arrangements are fairly complete and adequate 
for military needs. It is noteworthy in this con- 
nection that few if any cases of trench fever 
have originated amongst soldiers in home 
camps or billets. The same holds good for 
civilians. In view of the medical publicity given 
to this disease, there is little doubt that cases 
would have been reported had they occurred. 

In Parasitology for April and May of this 
year. Professor Nuttall, F.R.S., the Quick 
Professor of Biology at the University of Cam- 
bridge, has published the results of investiga- 
tions in which he has been engaged, partially 
on behalf of the Local Government Board, 
during the last three years, on the whole ques- 
tion of pediculosis. In this publication he has 
added considerably to our previous knowledge 
of the subject, and has incorporated a full 
account of the mass of work which has been 
done by various expert workers for the Armv 
Medical Department. The practical methods 
for destroying lice and their eggs, which have 
been adopted on a large scale, with excellent 
results, in military camps are also described. . . 
A question somewhat similar to that of trench 
fever has been under consideration by the 
Local Government Board in connection with 
complaints from different parts of the country 
as to the unusual prevalence of scabies (itch). 
In some areas in which scabies has been particu- 
larly prevalent, the Board have consented to its 
being made temporarily notifiable as part of the 
systematic measures proposed to be undertaken 
to control its spread. In the same connection 
the Board have in preparation a circular letter 
to all local authorities, embodying practical 
suggestions for the control of the parasites of 
scabies and pediculosis.' 



78 



Cbc Britieb 3ournal ot IRurstng. 



August 3, 1918 



THE ROYAL RED CROSS, 



The King conferred decorations as follows 
at Buckingham Palace, on July 26th : — 

THE ROYAL RED CROSS. 

First Class. 

Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service. 
— Sister Margaret Percival. 

Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service 
Reserve. — Assistant Matron Mary Chapman, and Sister 
Annie MacLeod. 

Second Class. 

Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service. 
Sister Jane Galloway and Sister Frederica Roche. 

Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service 
Reserve. — Matron Margaret Mullally, Sister Aggie 
DuRWARD, and Sister Elizabeth Wellkr. 

Civil Nursing Service. — Matron Louisa Denton, 
Matron Jessie Elms, Matron Elsie Gale, Matron Lilian 
Gibbon, Assistant Matron Edith Draper, Sister Frances 
Eager, Sister Phoebe Ell wood. Sister Clara Evans, 
Sister Anne Farmer, Sister Jean Gordon, Sister Ida 
Gould, Sister Lavinia Green, Staff Nurse Norah Fitz- 
gerald, Miss Esther Edwards, and Miss Beatrice 
Evans. 

British Red Cross Society. — Matron Ethel Graham, 
and Sister Ruby Cockburn. 

Voluntary Aid Detachment. — Mrs. Marguerite Carra- 
BiNE, Miss Grace Dodgson, Mrs. Margaret Douglas, 
Mrs. Annie Dowson, Mrs. Ethel Dugdale, Mrs. 
Henrietta Edwards, Mrs. Cecilia Ferguson, Mrs. Lilian 
Gibson, Miss Theodora Marsh, Miss Elsie Rigby- 
Murray, and Miss Millicent Graham-Smith. 

Queen ^Alexandra received at Marlborough 
House the Members of the Civil and Military- 
Nursing Services who have been awarded the 
Royal Red Cross, subsequent to the Investiture 
at Buckingham Palace. 

NURSING SERVICES IN EAST AFRICA. 

The King has been, pleased to award the Royal 
Red Cross to the following ladies of the Nursing 
Services in recognition of their valuable services 
with the British Forces in East Africa : — 



Miss R. 
E.A.N.S. 



First Class. 
Paul, A.R.R.C, Sen. 

Second Class. 



Nursing Sister, 



Miss M. Arnold, Sister, S.A.M.N.S. ; Miss J. E. 
Brodie, Sister, North 'n Rhod'n Med. Serv. ; Miss E. M. 
Campbell, Staff Nurse, Q.A.LM.N.S.R. ; Miss T. A. 
Clavin, Sister, S.A.N.S. ; Miss R. Davy, Staff Nurse, 
Q.A.LM.N.S.R. ; Miss V. Donkin, Sen. Nursing Sister, 
E.A.N. S. ; Miss K. F. Duff, Sister, Q.A.LM.N.S.R. ; 
Miss A. M. Fletcher, Staff Nurse, Q.A.LM.N.S.R. ; 
Miss H. Franklin, Staff Nurse, Q.A.LM.N.S.R. ; Miss 
D. M. Graves, Staff Nurse, S.A.M.N.S. ; Miss B. 
Hooper, Sister, S.A.M.N.S. ; Miss A. N. Martin, Sister, 
S.A.N.S. ; Miss A. M. Sargent, Actg. Matron, 
Q.A.LM.N.S.R. 



The King has been pleased to award the Royal 
Red Cross to the undermentioned ladies, in 



recognition of their valuable nursing services in 
connection with the war : — 

Second Class. 
Laing, Miss H., Matron, Princess Patricia's Hospl., 
Bray, co. Wicklow ; Lawson, Miss C. A., Matron, 
'* Sutherlands," Aux. Hospl., Reading, Berks; Lawton, 
Miss E., Sister, Mil. Hospl., Endell Street, Long Acre, 
W.C. 2 ; Learmouth, Miss E. F., Nurse, Ryecroft Hall, 
Audenshaw; Leavesley, Miss S., Staff Nurse, T.F.N.S., 
4th North. Gen. Hospl., Lincoln; Lindsay, Miss M. O., 
Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing Service, No. 16, Can. Gen. 
Hospl., Orpington, Kent; Lindsay, Miss R., Sister i/c 
St. John's V.A. Hospl., Kingswood School, Bath; 
LiNTALL, Miss M., Anstie Grange, Dorking; Llewellyn, 
Mrs. H., Commndt., Coytrahen Park Red Cross Hospl., 
Tondu, Glam. ; Lloyd, Miss S., Nurse, 3rd Lond. Gen. 
Hospl., Wandsworth, S.W. ; Lovell, Mrs. A. L. S., 
Matron, and Officer i/c, Aux. Mil. Red Cross Hospl., 
Llanelly ; Lovell, Miss L. A., Sister, T.F.N.S., 
2nd Eastern Gen. Hospl., Division i, Brighton; Lowe, 
Miss A. M., Sister, T.F.JN.S., ist Eastern Gen. Hospl., 
Cambridge; Lumsden, Miss E. E., Nursing Sister, Can. 
Nursing Service, No. 5 Can. Gen. Hospl., Kirkdale, 
Liverpool ; Lyall, Mrs. J. D., Sister, Can. Nursing 
Service, Can. Red Cross Spec. Hospl., Buxton, Derby- 
shire. 

Maccallum, Miss H. B., Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing 
Service, West Cliff Can. Eye and Ear Hospl., 
Folkestone; MacDermott, Miss A., Sister, Beech House 
Aux. Hospl., 16 and 18, The Avenue, N.W. 6; Mac- 
gregor. Miss J. K., Matron, Dalmeny House Hospl., 
Edinburgh; MacIntyre, Miss M. F., Sister, T.F.N. S., 
3rd Lond. Gen. Hospl., Wandsworth, S.W. ; Macleod, 
Miss M. E., Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing Service, No. 9 
Can. Gen. Hospl., Shorncliffe ; Marr, Miss E., Sister, 
R. Infirmary, Sunderland; Marsden, Mrs. E. , Matron, 
Beech House Aux. Hospl., 16 and 18, The Avenue; 
Matthews, Miss O., Staff Nurse, Q.A.LM.N.S.R., S. 
African Mil. Hospl., Richmond; Mayne, Mrs. C, 
Matron and Theatre Sister, Flanders and Brooklands ; 
McDowell, Miss A., Sister, Q.A.LM.N.S.R., Mil. 
Hospl., York; McGlashan, Mrs. M. H., Sister-in- 
Charge, Mil. Hospl., Newhaven, Sussex; McKiel, Miss 
T. , Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing Service, No. 13 Can. 
Gen. Hospl., Hastings; McNicol, Miss A. H., Nursing 
Sister, Can. Nursing Service, No. 11 Can. Gen. Hospl., 
Moore Bks., Shorncliffe; Merriott, Miss N., Asst. 
Matron, Q.A.LM.N.S.R., Mil. Hospl., Frees Heath, 
Salop; Messum, Miss A. M., Matron, Kent and Canter- 
bury Hospl. (Civil); Michelmore, Mrs. E., Masseuse, 
Alton Red Cross Hospl., Hants; Miller, Miss E. A., 
Asst. Matron, T.F.N. S., ist Lond. Gen. Hospl., Camber- 
well ; Milnes, Miss M., Nurse, V.A. Hospl., Torquay; 
Moffat, Miss A., Hermitage Aux. Hospl., Lucan, 
Dublin; Money, Miss G., Matron, Field House, Daisy 
Hill, Bradford ; Mooney, Miss L. (Sister Alphonsus), 
Head Sister and Theatre Sister, Mapperley Hall V.A.D. 
Hospl., Nottingham; MoOre, Miss E. M., Sister, 
T.F.N.S., 5th Northern Gen. Hospl., Leicester; Morris, 
Miss J. G., Asst. Matron, Mil. Orthopaedic Hospl., 
Shepherd's Bush, W. ; Morton, Mrs. F. A., Matron and 
Lady Supt., Mil. Hospl., Scarborough; Morton, Miss 
H., Sister, Edinburgh War Hospl., Bangor, W. Lothian ; 
Morton, Miss M. Y. E., Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing 
Service. No. 16 Can. Gen, Hospl., Orpington, Kent; 
MosELEY, Miss E., Matron, T.F.N.S., Oakbank War 
Hospl., 3rd Sco. Gen. Hospl., Glasgow; Mowat, Miss 
M., Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing Service, No. 11 Can. 
Gen. Hospl., Moore Bks., Shorncliffe; Mullally, Miss 
M., Matron, Q.A.LM.N.S.R., Mil. Hospl., Buttevant, 
Co. Cork; Murray, Miss C, Sister-in-Charge, Cuerden 
Hall Hospl., Bamber Bridge. 



August 3, 1918 



{[be Britidb 3ournal of 'nuremo. 



79 



NURSING AND THE WAR. 



The Go vendors of St. Bartholcmjw's Hospital 
have decided, vnth many other general hospitals, 
to admit for training a limited number of nursing 
members of voluntary aid detachments and special 
military probationers who have satisfactorily 
completed not less than two consecutive years' 
work in a military or an auxiliary hospital. The 
hospital certificate of training will be granted 
after the passing of the final examination on the 
completion of three years' training, the fourth 
year of the usual course being excused. Regular 
probationers are now received at St. Bartholo- 
mew's Hospital at the age of 21. 

An Injustice to Regular Probationers. 

As the fourth year's work exacted by the 
training schools is one of service and not of training, 
this is a fair arrangement ; but where regular 
probationers will suffer is that those who train in 
hope of making military nursing their career, 
will, in the future, be exclu^ded from the Imperial 
Kursing Service, as the new Instruction 678, 
recently adopted by the Army Council, promoted 
by the British Red Cross Society and the Nursing 
Board, provides for priority of promotion to the 
Service for members of voluntary aid detachments 
and special military probationers, who are to be 
admitted to our large training schools on the 
privileged three yeaas' term. This is specially 
unjust to those regular probationers who have 
entered for four yeais' training and service this 
year. 

But throughout this war, members of the 
Nursing Profession have, by the unfortunate 
influence of the Matron-io-Chief of the Joint War 
Committee, been treated with a lack of recognition, 
to which it is surpiising that they should have 
submitted. 

Instruction 678 is the latest evidence of the 
danger of the control of our professional standards 
by lay persons of social influence, the leisured 
wealthy, and their subservient of&cials. 

What next ? First the " serf clause " ; now the 
most honourable service under the State closed 
to open competition. As we trained nurses are 
compelled to pay the taxes to support the War 
Office, we must place our opinion on record con- 
cerning this class job. 



The Ulster Nurses' Unit, since their hospital at 
Lyons was closed, have been working with an 
American ambulance on the Western front, but 
they are anxious not to lose their identity, and 
an appeal for funds is being made This Unit has 
had a strenuous time. They were close to the 
battle for an important point, and their hospital 
drew the usual attention from the Germans. 
Finally, they got orders to evacuate in the night, 
packed all, and arrived safely at the next point, 
where they are now in charge, after almost 



miraculous escapes. Every window broken and 
roofs moved by injuries to the walls, yet the only 
building completely destroyed was their goods 
store and the only lives lost by bombardment were 
seven horses close outside the nurses' quarters. 
The Germans fired on them while removing the 
stretcher cases, and on the doctors, and again on 
the orderlies finally clearing off. Ulster nurses 
who would like to j oin the unit should apply to the 
Matron, Samaritan Hospital, Belfast. They must 
speak French fluently, and n'ot object to hard work 
and some discomforts. 



Miss Dora E. Thompson, Chief of the American 
Army Nurse Caravan Corps, whose hospitals are 
mounted on motor trucks and trailers, is organising 
staffs of fifty nurses for each unit, who will go up 
within five miles of the fighting lines when their 
caravans respond to emergency calls. Each unit 
is planned to be equivalent to an evacuation 
hospital, and the nurses are each given the field 
Idt of an officer, prepared to camp where night 
finds them. 

Real Good Work. 

Sister Mary Walker, holder of the Serbian Croix 
de Charit6, a former student of the Keighley Girls' 
Grammar School, gave an address at the Keighley 
Temperance Institute recently on the- work 
of the Scottish Women's Hospital in Serbia and 
Corsica. Sii- John Clough (chairman of the 
Governors) presided over a large audience, and 
Serbian national soDgs were sung by girls of the 
Grammar School. Sister Walker, who expressed 
her pleasure at being able to come back to Keighley 
again, outUned the work of the Scottish Women's 
Hospitals with the Belgian and French armies, 
and subsequently with the Serbians. After the 
retreat from Serbia she and another nurse attached 
themselves to the women's hospital wnich went 
out with the Salonika Expeditionary Force. 
\Vhite aprons and caps were synonyrnous with 
nursing in England, but not so in Serbia, where 
they had no water to wash in, snow up to the hips, 
and blocks of ice over the only well in the village. 
In the hospita' itself they hed no means of obteiin- 
ing heat, and the hot- water bottles put in bed at 
5 o'clock at night were frozen at 10. Around the 
compound wolves gathered at night. 

Sister Walker spoke of the removal of the hos- 
pital to Salonika, and subsequently to Corsica, 
where they bad 10,000 refugees under their care. 
In Corsica 100 babies were born, and only three 
died. Here mothers were getting the ideas of 
Western and particularly British civilisation on 
the rearing of children, sanitation, and personal 
hygiene, so that when the Serbian nation was 
rebuilt its sai itary systems would be founded upon 
British and French examples. The Serbian people 
generally were greatly interested in Britain, and 
when they got back to tneir own land there would 
be an opening for British trade provided our 
manufacturers offered to Serbia the goods she 
wanted. 



8o 



Zbc British 3oiirnal of IRurstn^. 



August 3, 1918 



FRENCH FUQ NURSING CORPS. 



CORDIAL CONGRATULATIONS FROM HIS 
EXCELLENCY THE FRENCH AMBASSADOR. 

Madame la Vicorritesse de la Panouse, the 
Pr6sidente of the Comit6 Britannique de la 
Croix Rouge Fran9aise, has, on behalf of His 
Excellency M. Paul Cambon, French Ambassa- 
dor to the Court of St. James', and the whole 
Comit^ conveyed to the Sisters of the French 
Flag Nursing Corps attached to Ambu- 
lance 12/2, very hearty congratulations both 
upon the honour which the French Government 
has conferred upon them, and upon their 



former, when Matron of Ambulance Mobile No. i, 
earned the affection of every member of the Corps 
with whom she came in contact, and is a shining 
example of what a military nurse should be. 
She is back in her old place and everyone 
delighted to have her there. A Sister writes : — 
" When our nice General, whom we have known 
for so many years, recently asked us to a theatrical 
performance, and particularly asked as many of 
us as possible to come, it was a wonderful sight to 
see all our ' Poilus ' in their azure blues and 
various uniforms in this pretty theatre ; the coup 
d'ceil would have made a wonderful , painting. 
The General had Miss Warner in his box, and he 
tcld her he was glad to see us all back with them, 
and hoped we should never leave them again. It 




MI5S MITCHELL. AND MIS5 WARNER, 5ISTERS HANNINQ, JONES AND QILL, F.F.N.C, 

AMBULANCE. 16/21. 



admirable devotion to duty which has earned 
distinction for them, for the Corps, for the 
Comit6, and for their country, and has wished 
them Godspeed in their beneficent service. 

The seven Sisters will, we feel sure, value 
deeply this expression of appreciation upon the 
part of the French Ambassador and the Comit6 
Britannique. 



Miss Martha Oakley- Williams, R.N.S., has 
joined the Corps and has been posted to Lisieux, 
which is now in the war zone. 



Miss Warner and Miss McMurrich have rejoined 
Ambulance 16/21, and with the three F.F.N.C. 
Sisters ^re happily reunited in, their work. The 



is so nice to be amongst old friends and to be 
appre. iated. 

" Oil July 4th Miss Warner gave a party to the 
patients, which was a great success, a very nice 
dejeuner, and surprise bags for all, which they 
greatly enjoyed. Our surprise came later when 
one of the patients came forward and presented 
the American and English nurses each with 
wonderful bouquets of crimson ramblers, lupins 
and Easter lilies tied with " Entente "ribbon. He 
made a most charming speech. He said he 
wished to present the flowers to each of us in the 
name of the patients, on this great day of Inde- 
pendence, and said how much tliey all appreciated 
their English and Ameiican brothers having come 
to fight by their side for the great cause of 
Humanity, and for Libeity, and Justice and 
Right, and that he also wished to thank ' les 



August 3, 1 91 8 



ZTbe 3Brtti6b 3onrnal of IRurstuG. 



az 



bonnes Damps Infixraidres Auglaises et Americaines 
pour tout leurs grands d^vouements et soins 
minuteuses qu'elles donneut k nous tous,' a 
most beautiful and touching speech. They gave 
a sounding ' Vive TAngleterre ' and ' Vive 
TAmerique ' to end up with. They really are 
wonderlu], our Poilus. 1 don't think anyone 
knows how truly wonderful they are apait from 
then splendid gallantry ori the battlefield." 



"As you have shown, since the very beginning of 
the war, so much understanding and real sympathy 
with Fra^nce, I only wish you could see the joy of 
these dear people since the push back began," 
writes a Sister in the war zone. " Young men 
a.nd old go rollicking by, .l?.ughing and singing, 
with garlands of flowers round tfteir necks, their 
camions decorated, an'd the horses — flower-decked 
too — prance along as proud as can be, entirely in 
the know. 

With what marvellous courage the French have 
borne their burden in these black years ! Is it any 
wonder, now that they know that the tide has 
turned — for indeed the beginning of the end is here 
and now — ^that their spirits rise, and after super- 
human restraint they let themselves go ? 

To see these flower-decked warriors on the war- 
path fills one with exultation. We know victory 
will be their rewajd. 

We have heard much of supermen. The real 
supermen in this war are not the brutes who ha.ve 
wallowed in carnage, but the wonderful patriots 
who, in resisting them, have all these yea.rs kept 
their coura.ge, and their faith, and their spirits, and 
their souls — all alive, red hot, in spite of hell let 
loose, the murder of their dear ones, the dbvasta- 
tion of their homes, and the ruin of their glorious 
mctouments. ^ ^ ■ 

'We British Nurses rejoice to serve men of such 
mettle." 



CARE OF THE WOUNDED. 



Mr. Laurence PhiUpps, brother of Lord St. 
Davids, has given ^15,000 towards homes for 
paralysed Welsh Service men. 

Sir William Osier, Regius Professor of Medicine 
at Oxford University, unfuiled the American 
flag at the new hospital for United Stales soldiers 
at Portsmouth. 



In an inspiring speech at the annual meeting 
of the Order of St. John, the Viceroy referred 
to the magnificent result of " Our Day " appeal — 
122 lakhs {;^8i3,333). The attacks by the Germans 
on hospitals provided an additional reason for 
ungrudging help to the Red Cross. If the need 
arose, he would not hesitate to make another 
appeal to India, confident that she would again 
rise to the height of her opportunities. 

The Vicomtesse de la Panouse writes to the 
press to express to the generous people of Great 



and Greater Britain her heartfelt thanks for their 
splendid response to the appeal for help on France's 
Day. We are pleased to learn that the gifts aro 
likely to exceed those of last year. 



The largest purely American hospital near 
London will be located in the grounds of Richmond 
Park, on land given for this purpose by the King. 
The hospital itself is to be a g^ ft from the British 
Red Cross. It will stand in one of the finest 
sylvan sites in this country, situated on high 
ground and commanding an unequalled view of the 
Thames Valley and the historic countryside. 
It is intended tha c the institution shall be the finest 
example of a hut hospital which can be built in 
the light of the experience gained since the war 
broke out. Wounded Americans in hospital in 
Great Britain are visited weekly by American 
women, more than 600 of whom in all parts of 
England are now enrolled in the " Care Com- 
mittee " of the American Red Cross. For, con- 
valescent soldiers, the " Care Committee " co- 
operates with the British Hospitality Committee 
in organizing excursions, teas, thea.tre parties, 
and similar entertainments. 



M. Clemenceau has awarded the Legion of 
Honour and the Croix de Guerre to Miss Fraser, 
a British motor-driver, who was wourded while 
in the exercise of her duties. The award was 
a.ccompanied by the following glowing tribute to 
the act of gaJlantry which earned her these 
decora.tions : " Ordered to transport wounded, 
she accomplished her mission under a violent 
bombardment, and though sustaining two very 
serious wounds during the journey she had the 
superb courage to run 200 yards. On collapsing 
from wea,kness, she was transported to hospital 
to undergo an operation, but insisted upon not 
being, attended to before the wounded for whom 
she was responsible." 



Steel traps, equipped with spiings of bone- 
crushing strength and j agged teeth two inches long, 
are being used by the Germans to catch patrols in 
" no man's land." Corporal Leonard Manser, 
U.S. Army, relates how he discovered one at 
night -in an unnamed American -held sector and 
brought the tiap to their trenches. The con- 
trivance is three feet long, and ha.s ja.ws eighteen 
inches wide, with teeth two inches long. It is 
designed to give the victim great pain and make 
liim call for help. This a.ttracts bis comrades, 
who become targets for a German macMne-gun 
fusillade, which results in the anrihilatioc of the 
entire party. 

When wc were young we were greatly interested 
in the pictures of Chinese tortures which vsed 
to Hne the wa.lls in descending to the dark and 
gruesome Chamber of Horrors a.t Madame Tous- 
saud's. But why go so far afield as China to seek 
for hideous cruelty ? Germany is comparatively 
close aivd could evidently give points to the 
heathen Chinee. 



82 



Zbc Sritt0t) 3ourtuil of flurdina. 



August 3, 1918 



NIGHTINGALE NURSING IN FRANCE. 



PROGRESS AT THE MAISON DE SANTE 
PROTESTANTE, BORDEAUX. 

Of all the world's nursing pioneers since the 
days of Florence Nightingale, none has perhaps 
had a harder fight than Dr. Anna Hamilton of 
Bordeaux. Of her truly it can be said, " a prophet 
is not without honour," &c., and the reputation 
of the work she has been doing for 18 years is now 
returning to France via the U.S.A. As the U.S. 
delegates land in Bordeaux and visit the one school 
of nursing run nn Nightingale lines, they are all 
astonished that such a splendid work has not had 
better recognition, and the French are astonished 
that a work which has been quietly (and almost 
unnoticed in their midst) establishing itself should 
be so well known in the States. 



example. After visiting the School Major Cabot 
asked Dr. Hamilton how much it cost to train a 
nurse. He was told £1 10, and he has sent her that 
amount and the following charming expression of 
appreciation : — 

" ' 1 believe your training school is not only the 
best in Fiance, but one of the best in the world. 
With more money and a better hospital it could 
become, under your management, the best. I 
congratulate you. Richard C. Cabot.' " 

The scholarship so graciously bestowed by 
Major Cabot has been won by Mdlle. Guelfucci of 
Card. 

Miss Emily Kemp, who has been such an 
indefatigable worker for the French wounded 
since the beginning of the war, has sent Miss Grace 
Ellison .^100 to train a nurse tor three years at 
Dr. Hamilton's hospital at Bordeaux. Miss Kemp 




NEW DIPLOMEES OP THE MAISON DE SANTE PROTESTANTE. 



We have received an interesting account of the 
recent examinations for the Nursing Diploma at 
this school, when all the senior pupils weru 
eminently successful. 

New Diplom^es of the Maison de Sante 
protestante, bordeaux. 

Mdlle. Long (Nice), Mdlle. Casalis (Paris), Mdlle. 
Harrioo (Port Menois, Finisterre), Mdlle. S61zer 
(Jonina, Algeria), Mdlle. Midas (Royau), Mdlle. 
Coste (St. Etienne), Mdlle. Laverniez (Clermont 
Ferrand), Mdlle. Chareusol (St. Croix Voltee 
Frangais), Mdlle. Bravois (Bonforitz, Algeria), 
Mdlle. Mentello (Nice). 

The examinations in which Major Richard 
Cabot (Massachusetts Hospital, Boston), Med. 
Chef of the great American Hospital at Talence, 
took part, were held in public, and the day ended 
with a deUghtful dinner and concert. Miss Grace 
Ellison, who was present, writes : — 

" I have so often, in the ' B.J.N.' spoken of the 
Americans as a practical people. Here is an 



is much in sympathy with this plan for training 
nurses, especially when the candidates are what 
we in Great Britain call " the right sort." So 
many daughters of French Protestant pastors 
wish to take up nursing as a profession, but their 
parents have not been able to pay the fees ; it is 
for women like these that Miss Kemp's money will 
be used in memory of Miss Lydia Kemp, her 
sister, who has just died and who worked inde- 
fatigably for the sick and poor and blind. 

By and bye it is hoped to build and endow 
a beautiful hospital and Nursing School at Baga- 
telle, the property left by INIdlle. Bosc to the 
Maison de Sante Protestante at Bordeaux. 
Under the direction of Dr. Anna Hamilton this 
school has always been organised on the Nightin- 
gale principles of nursing, and we hear that 
it is probable that the now school will be 
known as the Florence Nightingale College of 
Nursing. ;^ioo,ooo could accomplish magnificent 
results if only it was to hand. We have great 
hopes for the future. 



August 3, igi8 



(Tbe ©ritteb 3ournal of TFluretno. 



83 



LONDON HOSPITAL SYSTEM. 



How It Injures the Profession. 

In the House of Commons, on Thursday, 
July i8th, Major Chappie aiked the Under- 
Secretary of State for War (i) whether, in appoint- 
ing nurses to the nursing staff of the Army, any 
discrimination is made against- nurses trained in 
hospitals that farm out their nur-cs after the 
end of their second yeai's training, taking them 
away from their training in the wards and paying 
them 13s. per week while they are earning £2 2s. 
for the hospital. (2) whether the certificate 
given to nurses at the end of their second year's 
training in the London Hospital is accepted 
by the Army nursing authorities as qualifying for 
appointment to the Army nursing staff ? 

Mr. Macpherson, in replying, said : The regula- 
tions regarding the qualifications for appointment 
to the Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military 
Nursing Service provide that a candidate must 
possess a certificate of not less than three years' 
training and service in medical and surgical 
nursing in a civil hospital having not less than 
100 beds. Time spent in private nursing is not 
allowed to count towards the qualifying period of 
three years' training. The answer to the second 
question is in the negative. 

Major Chappie, on July 25th, asked the Under- 
Secretary of State for War whether the certificate 
of training given by the London Hospital is 
accepted as qualif^nng for appointment to the 
Army Nursing Service ; whether the certificate 
states that the nurse has had not less than three 
years' training in the hospital ; whether he is 
aware that nurses in the hospital are taken from 
their training in the wards and are sent out at the 
end of their second year to nurse private cases 
for the purpose of appropriation by the hospital 
of not less than 29s. per week of their earnings 
and not for professional training ; and whether 
if time spent in private nursing is not allowed 
to count towards the qualifying period of three 
years' training, any steps are taken to discover 
what period of the years of training in the case 
of a London Hospital nurse applying for a post 
in the Army Nursing Service have been spent in 
private nursing ? 

Mr. Macpherson said : In reply to questions 
by my hon. and gallant friend, on Thursday last, 
I stated what certificate of trainirfg must be 
possessed by candidates for appointment to 
Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing 
Service. Steps are always taken to ascertain 
thata nurse has completed the ileCessary training. 

And so the principle at issue — of justice to the 
worker — is befogged every time. 

The fact is that Miss Liickes, the Matron of the 
London Hospital, is permtited to use the nurses 
as she chooses — as one does the lint and the 
bandages I If she elects to send thf m out private 
nursing to make money for the hospital, she may 
do so, and thus disqualify them for aU the higher 



positions in the profession for which a three years' 
certificate of training is obligatory. 

But as the London Hospital has always had so 
much influential representation on the Nursing 
Board of Queen Alexandra's Imperial IVliUtary 
Nursing Service the rules continue to provide 
a loophole for the admission of London Hospital 
nurses with a two years' certificate and service. 

It is high time all these iriegularities and privi- 
leges for the London Hospital were abolished. 

The London should train a.nd certificate its 
nrrses after a three years' systematic training in 
the wards ; it should shut down its " nurse farm " 
or work it on the co-operative plan for the benefit 
of members of the nursing staff who have gained 
a thiee years' certificate. Thousands of pounds 
would be thus paid to the workers instead of in 
support of the charity, and to provide huge 
salaries for senior officials. 

The Nursing Board of Q.A.I.M.N.S. should 
cease to pander to the commercial regime of the 
London Hospital, establish the standard of the 
three years' certificate, c.nd cease to recognise 
" service," whatever that may mean. Incident- 
ally, the senior and best paid pests in the service 
should not, in the future, be reserved for London 
Hospital trainees, who carry on the obsolete 
traditions of their Alma Mater. 



GIVING DIRECTIONS TO PARLIAMENT. 

In discussing the Maternity and Child Welfare 
Bill recently in Committee in the House of Com- 
mons, the Chairman ruled out of order, on the 
ground that it would be giving directions to 
Parliament in regard to future legislation, a new 
clause, which Sir W. Cheyne and Major Hills had 
given notice of their intention to propose, pro- 
viding that on the appointment of a Minister of 
Public Health, the powers and duties conferred and 
imposed by the Bill on the Local Government 
Board or on the President thereof should be tians- 
ferred forthwith to the Minister of Public Health. 

We have pointed out the unparUamentary 
proceeding of the Council of th'^ College of Nursing 
in pledging Parliament in their prospectus to 
nurses as an inducement to register with the 
College— 

(i) "If, therefore" (the prospectus states), "you 
are on the College Register you will, automatically, 
and without further fee, be placed upon the State 
Register, when the ' Nurses Registration Bill ' is 
passed." 

Thousands of nurses have been induced to join 
the College on this printed promise, which is 
" giving directions to Parliament in regard to 
future legislation " concerning which it has never 
been consulted, and which it may very naturally 
repudiate. 

Miss Matheson, the Secretary of the Irish College 
Board, in her pamphlet, is even more unconstitu- 
tional in her pie-crust pledges. 

Parliament is very jealous of its prerogatives, as 
people presuming to deal with legislation shojuld 
be well aware. 



84 



TLl)c Britisb 3ournal of "Wursino. 



August 3, 1 91 8 



THE BANNER OF QUEEN ALEXANDRA'S 
IMPERIAL MILITARY NURSING SERVICE 

Queen Alexandra, accompanied by the Princess 
Victoria, was present on Monday at a service for 
the dedication of the banner of Queen Alexandra's 
Imperial Military Nursing Service, which was 
hung in the Royal Albert Hall on the occasion of 
the commemoration of the First Seven Divisions, 
which was held in the Chapel of the Queen 
Alexandra Military Hospital, Millbank. 

The banner was handed over to the custody of 
Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing 
Service. 

The service was conducted by the Archdeacon of 
London (the Venerable E. E. Holmes), the Rev. R. 
Bartlett (Chaplain to Queen Alexandra Hospital 
for the Nursing Service), and the Rev. J. C. 
Knapp (Chaplain to the Queen Alexandra Military 
Hospital). 

Queen Alexandra afterwards visited the sick and 
invalid nurses who are patients in the hospital. 



OUR ROLL OF HONOUR. 

NURSING SERVICE. 
Wounded. 
Wright, Sister M., B.R.C.S. 



THE MILITARY MEDAL. 

The London Gazette of July 30th publishes the 
names of 38 ladies (mostly trained nurses) who 
have been awarded the Military Medal for dis- 
tinguished services in the field, in connection 
with the bombin,!^ of hospitals in France. 



APPOINTMENTS. 

MATRON. 

General Hospital, Cheltenham. — ^Miss L. C. Fox- 
Da.vies ha.s been appointed Matron. She was 
trained at the General Hospital, Birmingham, and 
has held the positions of W?jd Sister, Thea,tre 
Sister, Xight Sister, and Home Sister at the 
General Hospital, Cheltenham. 

Home of Recovery, Allerton Tower, Liverpool. 
— IVIiss Grace C. May wood has been appointed 
Matror. She was trained at ^he Manchester 
Royal Infiirna.ry, and has been Assistant Matron, 
British Red Cross Hospital, Xetley ; Matron, Ufra- 
combe Private Nursing Home ; and was for three 
years previous to taking up wa.r work, on the Staff 
of the London Association of Nurses. 

THEATRE SISTER. 

Royal Albert Edward Infirmary, Wigan. — Miss 
Henrietta Follevaag has been appointed Theatre 
Sister. She was trained at the Royal Albert 
Edward Infirmary, and has done private nursing. 

SISTER. 

Royal Albert Edward Infirmary, Wigan. — Miss S. A- 
Eddy has been appointed Sister. She was trained 
at the Royal Infirmary, Shefl&cld. 



" BRITISH NURSES AND THEIR FIGHT 
FOR FREEDOM." 

Under the above heading the American Journal 
of Nursing just to hand publishes an admirable 
letter by Miss Beatrice Kent, placing clearly before 
our American colleagues the situation in this 
country in regard to the College of Nursing, Ltd., 
and British nurses. Trained nurses in this country 
owe a debt of gratitude to the editor of our con- 
temporary for the space she has devoted to making 
the position plain to our American colleagues, and 
to Miss L. L. Dock and Miss Beatrice Kent, most 
forceful of advocates, for their articles. 



NOCTURNE. 

{In a Nursing Home.) 

Grey scudding clouds and a sodden sky, 
The distant sound of the rolling sea. 

And on my back in ray bed I lie, 
Counting the hours to early tea. 

The trees outside fling back and fro, 
Whipt by the early morning wind ; 

And Time is moving remarkably slow, 
And night is long and far from kind. 

And all the ghosts of long ago. 

They gather around with much to say ; 

They gather around and bother me so. 
And the bed feels hard — I wish it were day. 

The stars grow faint and the sky grows light, 
The first tram rumbles along its way ; 

Past and gone is the weary night, . 

And — surely that is nurse with the tray. 

^M. MOLLETT. 

NO FLOWERS BUT A CROWN. 

{Lines beneath a picture of our Lord ; quoted in a 
recent sermon by the Rt. Rev. the Bishop oj Edinburgh.) 

I said, " let me walk in the fields " ; 
He said, " nay, walk in the town " ; 
I said, " there are no flowers there " ; 
- He said, " no flowers but a crown " ; 
I said, " but the skies cire black, 
There is nothing but noise and din " ; 
Biit He wept as He sent me back, 
"There is more," He said, "there is sin." 

I said, " but the air is. thick. 

And fogs are veiling the sun " ; 

He answered, " yet hearts are sick, 

And souls in the dark undone." 

I said, " I shall miss the light, 

And. friends will miss me, they say " : 

He answered me, " choose to-night. 

If / am to miss you, or they." 

I pleaded for time to be given ; 

He said, "is it hard to decide ? 

It will not seem hard in Heaven 

To have followed the steps of your Guide." 

Then into His hand slipped mine 
And into my heart came He. 
And I walked in the light Divine 
The path I had feared to see. 

{From "Nurses Near and Far.'')] 



August 3, 1918 



Ebe Britlsb 3ournal of iRursinQ. 



85 



NUkSiNG ECHOES. 

The Report of Lady Minto's Indian Nursing 
Association for 191 7 records the retirement in 
May of Mrs. Davies, Chief Lady Superinten- 
dent of the Association since its earliest days, 
and the appointment of Miss R. E. Darbyshire, 
R.R.C., as her successor. It places on record 
that Mrs. Davies' zeal and devotion have 
proved of the greatest service, and the perfect 
order in which she left the affairs of the head 
office is an eloquent testimony to her business 
capacity and years of hard work. 

A scheme has been inaugurated for maintain- 
ing small nursing homes, principally for 
maternity cases, in Simla and Delhi. It is 
anticipated that these Homes will meet a real 
need. 

The Chief Lady Superintendent states in her 
report that the greatest difficulty encountered 
during the year has been the serious depletion 
of the nursing staff, and the impossibility of 
supplying the needs of the Association from 
England. Though short-handed the branches 
have done a great deal of good work, and seven 
members of the staff loyally remained on after 
the expiration of their contract, in spite of the 
attractions of other branches of their profes- 
sion. 

The fees charged to patients have been raised 
by I rupee per diem, and the salaries of the 
nursing staff raised. The Lady Superinten- 
dents of the Provincial branches receive an 
additional 30 rupees per month, Sisters an 
increase of 10 rupees per month in the third and 
fourth year, and a further increase of 10 rupees 
a month in the fifth year of service. 

The commencing salaries of Nursing Sisters 
have also been increased to 90 rupees a month, 
increasing annually till 135 rupees a month is 
reached in the tenth year. 

The rules relating to the engagement and 
employment of Nursing Sisters have been 
revised, and those relating to agreement, dis- 
cipline, and refunds made somewhat more 
stringent. 

The value of . the skilled help of trained 
Sisters cannot be too highly estimated, and 
there is evidence that they are appreciated. 
Thus in connection with the Rajputana Branch 
the reports of medical officers and patients are 
said to be invariably commendatory and fre- 
quently laudatory. " Anxiety disappears when 
your well-trained Sisters take charge of a case " 
is a typical instance. 

As usual, the report is admirably produced 
and illustrated. 



organized by Miss Charlotte M. Markwick, and 
sent to the Governors of the Victoria Infirmary, 
Glasgow, the scale of the salaries of the nursing 
-staff has been substantially raised : — 

In the I St year from ... £12 — ;£i6. 

In the 2nd year from ... £16 — £20. 

In the 3rd year from ... ;^2o — £2^. 

In the 4th year from ... £^0 — £^0. 

For the Sisters from ... ;,^45 — ;)^6o. 
There are other points which the nurses 
would like to bring before the Governors, but 
are hampered in their action for lack of legal 
advice. This is one of the things which they 
hope may be made available when their new 
Club is opened in Bath Street. 



We are glad to learn that, owing to a Petition 



We are always seeing nonsensical para- 
graphs in the quack nursing press and else- 
where, making statements about our views and 
opinions, which we have never expressed — • 
penny-a-line trash which presumably is good 
enough for the type of p>erson who reads these 
unprofessional publications. 

If anyone cares what we think, and wishes 
to know what we say, we advise them to sub- 
scribe to this Journal. They would then not 
be fobbed off with twaddle. 

LEAGUE NEWS. 

The second number of the League News of 
the Royal Infirmary, Bradford, just issued, 
contains many interesting items, including a 
Foreword by Major Phillips, Hon. Surgeon to 
the Infirmary, who, talking on Reconstruction, 
says that one feels quite sure that after the 
war, as before it, and during it, there will be 
reason to be proud of the work of nurses, and 
that any woman who takes up that work will 
•be employing herself in a profession in which 
she can find occupation for all that is in her. 
The fortunate people in the world are surely 
those whose work is also their hobby. The first 
essential of a hobby is that its possibilities can 
never be exhausted ; it must be an El Dorado 
which is unattainable. . . . The zest of the 
business lies in the fact that, however splendid 
the collection may be, it is always, will always 
continue always to be possible to improve it. 
And so with nursing. There are many nurses 
who know^ a tremendous lot about nursing. It 
has been my privilege to know not a few nurses 
whose work has been just splendid ; but there 
has never been a nurse who was a perfect nurse 
in the sense that she knew all there was to 
know about nursing. 

Amongst the letters from nurses that by Miss 
M. Wroe on A Visit to Seville is specially 
interesting. 



86 



^be Britieb 3ournal of flureinfi. 



August 3, 1918 



A MODERN INDUSTRY. 



THE PREPARATION OF CONDENSED MILKi 

Most people are familiar with the appearance of 
a tin of Kestl^'s milk, for this far-famed brand 
is used all over the world ; but probably compara- 
tively few people know precisely of what this milk 
consists or how it is prepared. ^ 

It was my good fortune to see the process under 
ideal conditions at the Aylesbury Condensery, 
one of the most important of the English factories 
of the Nestle and Anglo-Swiss Condensed Milk 
Company, St. George's House, 6 & 8, Eastcheap, 
London, E.C. 

An hour's run from London with only a stop at 
Harrow, with its far-famed hill and steeple- 
crowned church, brought us to Aylesbury, the 
courty town ot 
Buckingham- 
shiie, with its 
interesting mar- 
ket-place where 
stands conspic- 
uous the virile 
statxi'e,in bronze, 
of John Hamp- 
den, known to 
fame as ttie 
Buckingham- 
shire patriot 
who refused to 
pay the ' ship 
money ' levied 
by Charles 1, and 
whose honour- 
able public and 
private life was 
ended at Chal- 
grove Field 
where he fell 
mortally wound- 
ed in a skirmish 

with the King's troops under Prince Rupert. 
The verdure of the surrounding country and 
the luxuriance and beauty of the creepers on 
many of the houses of Aylesbury made one realize 
that the valley in which it is situated must be 
ideal for dairy purposes, and one was not surprised 
at its widespread reputation as a centre of dairy 
farming. 

Manifestly, the Anglo-Swiss Milk Company did 
wisely to plant a Condensery just here. 

Its object is, of course, to procure fresh, rich 
milk, and to preserve it under hygienic conditions 
in portable form, so that it can easily be trans- 
ported far and wide. 

Milk, as originally drawn from the cow, contains 
approximately 87.55 per cent, of water ; therefore, 
if you can eliminate a considerable proportion 
of that water, which can be replaced by the 
consumer before use, you have solved the problem 
of portability and easy distribution, and this is 
what is done so successfully at Aylesbury, The 




AYLESBURY CONDENSERY, FROM THE OFFICE GARDEN. 



full-cream condensed milk sert out from the 
factory contains only 24 per cent, water, the 
odd 63 per cent, being extracted in the process 
of condensation. 

Many things, however, must contribute to the 
perfection of the finished product ; and essentially 
the quality and purity of the milk condensed. 
Therefore, supervision by the management begins 
before the milk — drawn as by a magnet from the 
surrounding farms — enters the factory gates, 
and inspectors frequently visit the farms under 
contract to supply the factory with milk, so as to 
ensure that only milk of fine quality, dealt with 
under sanitary and hygienic conditions, is used. 

It is interesting to see the milk arriving at the 
Condensery in great cans, and, contrary to one's 
pre-conceived ideas, not measured, but weighed, 
in huge copper pans, so that the ?mount sent in 
by each farmer can be correctly estimated ; from 

these it passes 
on to a reservoir, 
from which it is 
pumped up into 
grea,t tanks. 

One next^saw 
the care with 
whichthe empty 
cans a,re treated 
before being re- 
turned to the 
farmers. First 
t h' e y are 
t hor o u g hly 
cleansed in hot 
water by brush- 
es, one of which 
rotates inside, 
and the other 
scrubs the out- 
side of the can, 
which is then 
turned upside 
down and a 
jet of steam 
sprayed into it. 

To return to the milk. On leaving the re- 
ceiving tanks it is raised to a temperature suffi- 
ciently hot to dissolve the sugar which is added to 
it as a preservative, although the " Ideal Milk," 
the brand supplied to the Navy and Army has no 
sugar or other preservative added. It is found in 
practice, however, that when used for infant 
feeding, the sweetened milk ordinarily gives the 
best results. In these days of the strict rationing 
of sugar, to pass through a room containing sack 
upon sack of glistening white sugar, is calculated 
to arouse feelings of envy, but the whole of the 
supplies to the Nestle's Factories are " controlled." 
After the addition of the sugar the milk is passed 
through a series of fine sieves, so that any fibre or 
other foreign body inadvertently introduced from 
the sugar bags is refmoved. 

Condensing. 
Then comes the all-important process of .con- 
densing. For this purpose the hot milk is drawn 



August 3, 1918 



(The British Sournal of IRurema. 



87 



into copper condensing pans from which the air is 
exhausted, and which contain a series of copper 
coils heated by steam, by which means the milk is 
raised to boiling point. But, it must be realised, 
for it is very important, that in a vacuum the milk 
boils at about half the temperature at which it 
would do so if ti eated in the ordinary way, and, 
therefore, is not heated sufficiently to destroy the 
vitamines which are so essential if it is to be relied 
upon as the sole food of the growing infant. In 
the condensing pans a considerable proportion of 
the water in the milk is converted into steam and 
removed in this form, to be later cooled and re- 
converted into water. It will be thus realised that 
Nestle's Milk is simply pure milk, sweetened and 
condensed, and that its thickness is due solely to 
the extraction of water, and not to the addition of 
any thickening. 

When the milk has been condensed it is trans- 
ferred from the condensing pans to large cans, and 
cooled down in large tanks of cold water, by a 
method which ensures that the cooling shall be 
uniform. The process is now complete, and it is 
put up in tins by deft-handed girls. 

The tins are made on the premises, and the 
process is an inteiesting one. First the sheets of 
tin are cut the required length by machinery, and 
each stiip soldered to form the bodj' of the can. 
The top and the bottom — ^with a small hole for 
filling the tin later — are also stamped out. These 
are then soldered together ard the can is ready for 
filling, but first i+ is tested to see if it is airtight, and 
any defect in the soldering is remedied by hand. 
The tins are then filled and soldered, labelled, 
wrapped in paper, and packed in wooden boxes, 
also made on the premises. 

Nurses travelling with patients by sea would 
be well advised to take with them a supply of 
Nestle's Milk, as it is often a very great difficulty 
to obtain fresh milk for invalids. 

In addition to Nestle's Milk, their Milkmaid 
Brand Cafe au Lait is made at the Aylesbury 
Factory, and we see the green coffee berries roasted 
to a deep brown over the glowing embers in a great 
furnace by giils who carefully watch and turn 
them. They are then ground, and the strong 
cofEee, when made, added in proper proportions to 
the milk, which is then condensed. Cocoa and 
milk is another " Milkmaid Brand." 

Is it now clear to our readers that Nestle's Milk 
is pure, rich milk from which nothing has been 
eliminated but water — so that it may be the more 
easily transported — under the most hygienic con- 
ditions, and to which nothing has been added 
except piure sugar ? It follows that it must be a 
boon indeed to those mothers who are unable to 
nurse their own children, and whose milk supply 
is of uncertain purity. 

If we consider the average milk supply of 
London, foi instance, the method of its transporta- 
tion for long distances in cans of uncertain cleanli- 
ness, in hot trains, audits subsequent exposure on 
the counters of shops and elsewhere, we must 
realise that Nestle's milk, prepared under such con- 
ditions as I have described, is an infinitely safer and 



more reliable preparation to use than a large pro- 
portion of the milk supply of the metropolis.* 

The firm, in " Nestle's Baby Book," issues 
anniaUy some very valuable information on the 
subject, with the testimony of thousands of 
mothers who have used Nestle's Milk for their 
children. In eight years 3,572 children were thus 
reported on. Investigation showed that of this 
number 73 had died from disease, 7 from accidents, 
25 were unwell at the time the report was made, 
and 3,467 children were in perfect health. To 
accurately appraise this most remarkable record 
is must be iememb6red that in a considerable 
proportion of these cases the children were given 
Nestl6's Milk practically as a last resort, when no 
other food could be tolerated, and that the average 
mortality of town-born children, between the ages 
of one and five yeais, is one in six. The pictures 
of the children with which the book is abundantly 
illustrated, also show how bonnie are many of the 
.children brought up on Nestle's Milk. 

A particularly interesting book at the present 
time published by the firm is " Heroes All." It 
must be remembered that Nestle's Milk has now 
been on the market for over fifty years, therefore 
many babies brought up upon it have long since 
grown to man's estate. " Heroes All " is a selec- 
tion of voluntary testimony from mothers of men 
fighting for their country in the Great "War. In 
addition to its valuable testimony to the virtue of 
Nestl6's Milk, the collection of so many portraits 
of our gallant soldiers and sailors must, in years 
to come, form a valuable historical record. 

A word of caution is necessary. When I speak of 
Nestl6's Milk as a valuable and reliable substitute 
for breast feeding when this is impossible, I mean 
Nestle's, and not any other brand of condensed 
milk. Nestl6's, as I have shown, is a full-cream 
milk scientifically condensed. But from some 
brands of condensed milk placed on the market 
the cream, or a large proportion of it, has been 
extracted before it has been condensed. A baby 
brought up on such milk would not thrive, any 
more than it would if fed with uncondensed skim 
milk. 

Of course, Nestle's Milk has a much wider sphere 
of usefulness than the feeding of infants, witness 
the fact that the " Ideal Milk " is supplied to the 
Services in large quantities, besides being greatly 
in demand by the general public. Lastly, I must 
mention that the Nestle's Anglo-S-wiss Condensed 
Milk Company were eight or nine years ago 
granted the Royal Warrant of Appointment, an 
honourable recognition which its services to the 
community have certJiinly merited. j^j g 



Mrs. Hayes Fisher opened Parkside Orthopaedic 
Hospital for Wounded Officers, Ravenscourt Park, 
Hammersmith, on July 25th. 



• According: to 77ie Times of July 31st, the Hammersmith Public 
Health Committee states that "there is evidence to prove that 
milk is deliberately and scientifically reduced to the lowest possible 
standard so far as fatty substances are concerned.' 



^be British 3ournal of TRursino, 



August 3, 1918 



OUTSIDE THE GATES. 



THE ENEMY ALIEN DANGER. 

There is no doubt in the minds of those who 
attended the Internment of Enemy Aliens Meeting 
in Hyde Park last Sunday that the Government is 
playing with fire, in not carrying into efifect the 
will of the people in the most drastic manner. 
The people has now made up its mind that for the 
safety of the Realm all enemy aliens of every class, 
rich and poor, should be placed behind barbed wire, 
and the uncontrolled rage of a mob of some 
hundreds of persons in the Park, from whom the 
police had to rescue a dissenting German, proves 
thai; its patience is used up, and that the devilish 
devices of barbarians are no longer to be tolerated. 
What with the torture of our defenceless prisoners, 
the wholesale violation of women and children, the 
murder of our seamen nurses, and doctors, man- 
traps and other villainy, the British public is now 
thoroughly roused, and all feeble fumblers— other: 
wise professional politicians— will rue the day d 
they continue their effete treatment of these 
insolent traitors. 



The House of Lords in its debate echoed public 
opinion. " Denaturalise them all, remove them 
from high places, from the Privy Council, Parlia- 
ment, and Government Departments "—that is the 
sound advice of Lord St. Davids, and many noble 
Lords supported him. 

An Insult to every Soldier and Officer in 

His Majesty's Service. 
In the Commons Mr. Swift MacNeill asked the 
Prime Minister whether Mr. Felix Cassel, K.C., 
had resigned or intimated his intention of resigning 
the position of Judge Advocate-General, to which 
he was appointed in 1916; and, if so, whether, 
regard being had to the fact that the Judge 
Advocate-General was the president of the judicial 
department of the Army and the sole representative 
of the Government in all military proceedings 
before general Courts-martial, maintaining the 
interests of the Crown and prosecuting, either in 
person or by deputy, in the Sovereign's name, and 
that all matters arising out of the administration 
of martial law, including the examination of the 
sentences of Courts-martial and the reporting 
thereon to the Crown, come under his supervision, 
the new occupant of the position of Judge-Advo- 
cate-General would not, whatever might be his 
qualifications, be a person of enemy alien birth or 
origin. 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer replied that 
Mr. Felix Cassel had not resigned. 

After which Mr. MacNeill very pertinently asked : 
Is the right hon. gentleman aware that having a 
gentleman of alien origin and birth in full com- 
mand of Courts-martial is an insult to every soldier 
and officer in His Majesty's Service? 

It is more than that — it is an insult to every 
patriotic person of British blood in the Empire. 



As the Aliens Advisory Committee set up by the 
Government is to sit in camera, and the public pre- 
vented from knowing the whole truth, it is pro- 
posed to form a new Parliamentary Watch Com- 
mittee, and also to .establish local vi'atch com- 
mittees. This is very significant. If we remember 
aright, it was the Committees of Public Safety 
which took the law into their own hands during 
the Terror. Well, we have had enough of the 
Terror, and we mean to protect ourselves from the 
crafty treachery of the thousands of Huns in our 
midst, especially from the result of their system of 
"peaceful penetration," which spells bribery and 
corruption. 

■ • ■ — 

BOOK OP THE WEEK. 



"ON THE EDGE OF THE WAR ZONE.".* 

Those of us who read with pleasure and gratifica- 
tion " A Hill -top on the Marne," will welcome 
the new volume by Miss Mildred Aldrich, in which 
she relates the continuance of her most interest- 
ing experiences within the war zone, in her 
little, hitherto, peaceful retreat, " The Crest " on 
the hill-top. 

This very talented lady has not only had almost 
a unique position, but is able to give her impres- 
sions of three years in a most attractive and yet 
quite natural way. This is, perhaps, explained 
because the book consists of letters written by 
her to a friend in America. It will be remembered 
that Miss Aldrich is herself of American birth. 
This volume has the advantage of a charming 
little drawing of " La Creste " on the title-page, 
and also a map of the surrounding neighbourhood, 
so that, with the aid of them, added to her graphic 
description, we are able in some measure to picture 
to ourselves the incidents so charmingly recorded. 
The period covered is from that immediately 
following the battle of the Marne to the entering 
in of the Stars and Stripes. 

Her little French friend, Mdlle. Henriette, 
proposes " that I should harness Ninette and go 
with her to the battle-field, where, she said, they 
were sadly in need of help. At first it seemed 
to me that there was nothing to do but go, and 
go quickly. But before she was out of the gate, 
I rushed after to tell her I knew they did not want 
an old lady like me, very unsteady on her feet, 
absolutely ignorant of the simplest rules of ' first 
aid,' that they needed tried and efficient people, 
and that we could not lend efficient ani, but 
should be a nuisance. 

" She argued that we could hunt for the 
dead and ' carry consolation to the dying.' I was 
afraid I was going to laugh at the wrong moment. 
The truth was I had a sudden vision of my chubby 
self — me, who cannot walk half-a-mile or bend 
over wdthout getting palpitation — stumbling in 
my h'gh-heeled shoes over fields ploughed by 
eavalry and shells, brearthlessly bent on carr^nngf 

* By Mildred Aldrich. London : Constable & 
Co. 



August 3, 1918 



Hbe British 3ournaI of iRursino. 



^89 



-consolation to the dying." This decision of hers 
was eminently right and she found much more 
suitable and efficacious means of ministering to 
the army in her own little house en the hill-crest. 

Here is a moving picture of a burying-ground 
at Chambry : — " First the graves a,re scattered, 
■for the boys lie buried just where they fell, cradled 
in che bosom of the mother country that had 
nourished them and for whose safety they had laid 
down their lives. As we advanced they became 
more numerous, until we reached a point where as 
iar as we could see in eveiy direction floated little 
tricolour flags, like fine flowers in the landscape. 
. . . Here and there was a haystack with one 
grave beside it and again there w^ould be one 
almost encircled with tiny flags which said : 
' Here sleep the heroes.' Xt was a disturbing and 
a thrilling sight. I give you my word, as I stood 
there I envied them. It seemed to me a fine 
thing to lie out there in the open in the soil of the 
field their death has made holy, the duty well 
^one, the dread over. You may know a finer 
way to go. I do not. Surely, since Death is, it 
is bettei than dying of age between clean sheets." 

Further on in the book she says : " The only 
other thing 1 have done this month which could 
-interest you was to have a little tea-party on the 
lawn for the convalescent boys of our ambulance, 
who were ' personally conducted ' by one of their 
nurses. 

" When I got them grouped round the table 
in the shade of the big clump of lilac bushes, 1 
was impressed, as I always am when I see numbers 
of common soldiers together, with the fact that 
no other race has such intelligent, such really 
well-modelled faces as the French. Tt is so rare to 
see a fat face among them. When the nurse 
looked at her watch and said it was time to return 
to the hospital, ss they must not be late for dinner, 
they all rose. The law student came, cap in hand, 
and thanked me for a pleasemt afternoon, and 
every man imitated his manners with varying 
degrees of success and made his little bow, turning 
back to wave their caps as they went round the 
corner." 

She has some charming young officers billeted 
on her from time to time, and she describes the 
manner in which she is requested to ofEer her 
hospitality. 

" It was just after lunch on Sunday — a grey, 
cold d^y, which had dawned on a world covered 
with frost — ^that there came a knock at the salon 
door. I opened it and there stood a soldier with 
his hand at salute, who said : ' Bon jour, madame, 
avez vous un lit poui un soldat ? ' 

" \\Tien you are to lodge a soldier in a house 
so intimately arranged as this one is, I defy anyone 
not to be curious as to what the lodger is to be 
Hke. 

" There stood a tall, straight lad, booted and 
spurred, with a crop in one gloved hand, and 
the other raised to hig fatigue cap in salute, and 
a smile on his bonny face. Of course, in twenty- 
four hours he became the child of the house. I 
feel Uke a grandmother to him. As for Amelie, 



she falls over herself trying to spoil him and 
before the second da-y he became ' Monsieur 
Andre ' to her. Catch her giving a boy Hke that 
his military title, though he takes his duties most 
seriously." 

This is really a charming volume and we hope 
that Miss Aldrich vdW be inspired to give her 
experiences of the fourth year of the war and that 
there may never be a fifth for her to experience. 

H. H. 

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects jor these columns, we wish it to bt 
distinctly understood that we d-o not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 



WE NIGHTINGALES KNOW BETTER. 

To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Editor,— -We nurses desire to thank you 
for youi speedy publicity concerning the 
Nightingale badge, and on reaching the proper 
authoiities, viz., Mr. Bonham Carter. 

Personally, I was roused to jealou.sy and indigna- 
tion (having been trained as a Nightingale proba- 
tioner) when first I noticed it worn by a midwife 
with a few months' training and passing as a 
qualified nurse here. We Nightingales know- 
better, nothing of the kind having ever been 
issued from the training school to its probationers. 

I can give a further instance of a village nurse 
half a mile from my district boundary, who w^as 
discharged by her committee for misconduct. The 
same always paraded the badge. AH qualified 
nurses here, and, universally, I venture to add, will 
be indebted to you for your exposure of the de- 
grading use to which our Lady of the Lamp's 
symbol has been subjected. 

Again, I thank you in the name of all the pro- 
fession around this district for sending that shaft 
home. 

I am, yours faithfully, 

Isabel Nicoll, 
Queen's Nurse, Member Society for 
State Registration of Nurses,' National 
Union of Nurses, &c. 

Hensingham, 

Nr. Whitehaven. 



WANT OF CONSIDERATION. 

To the Editor of Hhjl British Journal ofNursing. 

Dear Madam, — I was much interested in the 
letter which appeared in your last number on the 
subject of the pay of Aim^^ Nurses and signed " An 
Army Sister," and I can endorse every word she 
says. 

I should like particularly to draw attention to 
the salaries which the War Office pays the Matrons 
employed in the larger Territorial Hospitals at 
home, and which constitute a genuine hardship. 
Many of these ladies gave up good civil posts in 



90 



Zbc Brttieb 3ournal of IRurgfuG. 



August 3, 1918 



order to fulfil their engagements to the War Office 
when war broke out, an d have been working at 
high pressure for the last foui years. The majority 
of them are in charge of hospitals of anything 
between t.ooo and 2,000 bedi, and few, if any, even 
now receive as much as ;^i50 per annum. When 
it is remembered that these posts ave only tem- 
porary, that there is no pension attached to them, 
and no certainty of post-war employment, it will 
be seen how unfavourably they compare with civil 
matronships, even in small hospitals, where the 
work and responsibility are infinitely less and 
where the position is an assured and permanent 
one. 

I should like to add that so far the yearly bonus 
to which all members of the Territorial Force 
Nursing Service are entitled by the terms of their 
enrolment, has been paid only to those members 
who have been invalided from the service, and it 
now transpires that if from any cause, except ill- 
health, a member resigns before the end of the 
war she will forfeit every penny of it. 

If you can find room for this letter in your 
widely-read journal I shall feel grateful. 
Yours faithfully, 

A Civilian Matron. 



THE V.A.D. QUESTION. 

To the Editor 0/ The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — May I give a concrete instance 
in support of the view that cemi-trained nurses 
might be held to resemble, and possibly be tieated 
like. Territorial officers. In the second year of 
the war I had much to do with the practical 
training and the supervision of a band of enthusi- 
astic V.A.D.s. One of the best was the sister 
of the local draper, who himself enlisted in the 
Territorial battalion, and in less than six months 
earned a commission. He was a very gallant and 
efficient young officer and did valuable service 
before he gave his life for his country. Had he 
lived, he would, after the war, have re+urned to 
his business in the same simple spirit in which he 
left it (and practised it when on leave !). The 
sister yearned to serve hef country in the same 
way. Sjie could, by an effort, have been spaied 
from home for a year or so, or as we then hoped' 
for, the " duration of the war," and consulted me 
many times as to how she might at once get some 
real nursing to do. As far as she went she was 
very good, and had worked hard, but the three 
years' compulsory training was quite impossible 
for her ; . and if she eventually went as a special 
militaiy probationer (for I have now lost sight of 
hei), I suppose after one-and-a-half or two years 
she is still one I If all the nursing energies of the 
country were managed, as you suggest, by one 
cential authority, no doubt these piobkms would 
be solved and waste cf human material avoided ; 
but it would (shall we say it will ?) be a colossal 
task. I was much amused to find tnat one of 
my English-speaking friends, who has beer 



diligently reading^the back numbers of the B. J.N., 
now talks glibly about Vads (as one syllable) ! 
I am, yours faithfully, 

" Red Cross Worker." 
Lyceum, Floience. 



KERNELS FROM CORRESPONDENCE, 

" Soldiers' Friend " writes : " Can nothing be 
done to supply sick soldiers with more food ? 
In the hospital 1 visit men have a hght tea at 
4.30 and nothing more till breakfast at 7.30 next 
morning. Also convalescent soldiers I entertain 
are all hungry. How would our political man- 
darins get on without their substantial luncheon 
and good dinner at 8 p.m. ? " 



A Sister ol Thirty : — " A Sister of Sixty," is the 
right sort. Since reading her letter, as I am to 
have my holiday in August, I have offered to work 
on the land. I feel suie I could help with the 
harvest, and as I love all animals should like to 
keep them clean and feed them. I have nothing 
but contempt for all these young society women 
who pose as patriots, but take care never to do a 
bit of real hard work for our country at this crisis. 
' Meirry Mummers ' is a very good description of 
them, and our onct self-respecting profession is 
the sentimental peg and excuse for their silly 
' gambols.' We owe ' Beatrice Kent ' a vote of 
thanks for her out-spoken courage'. Let us hope 
Miss Asquith and her companions will take it to 
heart. Anyway we nurses have no respect for 
waste of time on social functions by young women 
able to work. Conscription of young unmarried 
women is what we approve." 



» * I 



OUR PRIZE COMPETITION. 

QUESTIONS. 

August 10th. — What have you learnt of new 
nursing methods in a Military Hospital ? 

August I'jth. — What is pernicious anaemia'? 
How have you seen it treated ? 



HOW TO HELP THE B.J.N. 

Get new subscribers. 

Send news and marked newspapers- 

Secure new advertisers. 

Read the advertisements. 

Patronise the advertisers. 

Tell the advertisers where you7saw the 



advertisement. 



OUR ADVERTISERS. 

' Do not omit to buy, as far as possible, every- 
thing you need from " Our Advertisers," and to 
recommend them to your fiiends. They are all 
first-class firms. 



August 3, 1918 (Tbe BrltlBb 3ottrnal of «ur«tno Supplement. 

The Midwife. 



>9i 






CENTRAL MIDWIVES' BOARD (ENGLAND) 



MONTHLY MEETING. 

The Monthly Meeting of the Central Midwives' 
Board was held at i, Queen Anne's Gate Buildings, 
Westminster, on Thursday, July 27th, Sir Francis 
Champneys presiding. 

A letter was received from the Secretary of the 
Association for Promoting-the Training and Supply 
of Midwives, enclosing for the information of the 
Board a copy of a revised edition of the Associa- 
tion's , proposals for a State Midwifery Service, a 
summary of which we give in this issue. 

In reference to the application of a candidate for 
the Board's Examination, it was resolved that she 
be required to satisfy the Board that she is not an 
enemy alien before admission to the examination. 

A letter was read from the Medical Officer of 
Health for the County of Durham, raising various 
points in connection with the relation of medical 
practitioners to both certified midwives and uncer- 
tified women in their practice. 

The letter concluded : 

" I am afraid that there is no doubt it is a 
common practice in many parts of the county for 
the doctors, especially in these times of stress, not 
to trouble to attend normal confinements if they 
know that an uncertified woman is present, though 
they attend later and sign the maternity benefit 
certificate. They thus tacitly encourage practice 
by uncertified women, and enable them to carry on 
a practice to the detriment and discouragement of 
any trained midwives in the district." 

PENAL CASES. 

A Special Meeting of the Central Midwives Board 
was held at i, Queen Anne's Gate Buildings, West- 
minster, on Wednesday, July 24th, at 10.30 a.m., 
when the charges against a number of midwives 
were considered, with the following results :■ — 

Struck Off the Roll and Certificate Cancelled. — 
Ellen Beesley (No*. 12400). Alice Jemima Burnett, 
L.O.S. Cert. (No. 17397), Sarah Ann Dean (No. 
18278), Hannah Hammond, C.M.B. Examination 
(No. 41 1 17), Mary Jane Hartley (No. 20537), 
Clarissa Lister (No. 15068), Sarah Moxon (No. 
2219), Rebecca Taylor (No. 7240), Gertrude Davies 
(No. 29355), '^^^ Rawlings (No. 9709). 

Severely Censured. — Henrietta Haycock, C.M.B. 
Exam. (No. 30190). 

Adjourned for Report in Three and Six Months. 
— Lucy Lake (No. 2519), Charlotte Major, C.M.B. 
Exam. (No. 41223). 

There were several defended cases. The charges 
against one midwife included her carrying in the 
bag containing her appliances a " pig's black 
pudding." 



PROPOSALS FOR A STATE-AfDED 
MIDWIFERY SERVICE. > ;.-> 



In September last we discussed at some length 
the Proposals for a State-aided Midwifery Service 
in England and Wales embodied in a Memoran- 
dum by the Association for Promoting the Training 
and Supply of Midwives as a basis for necessary 
legislation. This Memorandum has now been 
revised, and we publish below the Summary of tlie 
proposals. We hope later to discuss them. "* 
Summary. ' 

(i) The greatest need in maternity and infant 
welfare is to secure an efficient midwifery service 
in all parts of the country, so that the most con- 
gested areas, where the rate burden is most severely 
felt, shall not be left with a defective service.' 

(ii) At present, though there are enough mid- 
wives competent to give efficient midwifery 
services, the fees obtainable dre too small to enable 
them to earn an adequate livelihood. It is, there- 
fore, necessary that every midwife attending a, con- 
finement must be secured an adequate fee; this is 
put at 25s. . " 

(iii) In order that the areas most difficult to serve 
shall not be left without these services, it is neces- 
sary that the requisite sum for paying this fee shall 
be provided from the Exchequer, and not be met 
from local rates. 

(iv) The fee of the midwife must be guaranteed, 
and must not depend upon the ability or willinfg'ness 
of the patient to pay. 

(v) The Exchequer money should be disbursed 
through an efficient Local Body, which must super- 
vise the systematic provision of midwives for the 
area ; this body must be the same as that which is 
responsible for the inspection of midwives under 
the Act. 

(vi) The scheme must include, and be conditional 
upon, the provision of greatly improved arrange- 
ments for the inspection of midwives everywhere. 

(vii) The scheme must be accompanied by suffi- 
cient Exchequer money for the payment of requisite 
fees for doctors called in to abnormal cases by mid- 
wives under the C.M.B. rules. 

(viii) These various items point to a sum of about 
;£, 1,000,000 per annum being sufficient in England 
and Wales ; its provision is intended to secure 
efficient midwifery services for every confinement 
in England and Wales where the income is too 
small to meet the charges involved. 

(ix) The provision of Exchequer money for giving 
an increased maternity benefit in cash, or for 
giving cash allowances to the mother, would not 
meet the needs of the situation, since this does not 
secure that any efficient services are provided; but 
the present proposals, by securing efficient mid- 
wifery services in every case, guarantee that the 
whole of the money provided from the Exchequer 



9a Jliyc :Brltl6b Journal of 'Huretnc Supplement. ^"«^"^* 3, 1918 



is expended directly upon provision of services that 
immediately affect the w^elfare of mother and 
infant. 

VERDICT OF WILFUL MURDER. 

The adjourned inquiry as to the cause of the 
death of Kenneth Cedric Goodman at the'Syden- 
ham Infant Welfare Centre, on July 19th, was 
resumed by Mi", H. R. Oswald on Tuesday at 
Lewisham. 

Miss Payne, the Superintendent of the Centre, 
explained that the w^orst kind of wasting and 
prematurely-boru infants were taken, and those 
suffering from digestive disorders ; no other 
diseases were admitted. Had she received Nurse 
Thompson's references before engaging her she 
would not have done so. 

The medical officer at the Centre, Dr. Gladstone, 
said after his attention was called to Goodman's 
case he discovered the double fracture of the skull 
spoken of by Colonel Toogood in his evidence last 
week. 

Nurse Eva Grace Thompson, who was cautioned 
by the Coroner, stated that she had charge of 
Goodman and four other children during the night 
of June 4 th. She denied striking the child on the 
head. When she handed him over to the day staff 
on the morning of June 5th he was quite normal, 
and she could not account for the fractures of the 
skull and the three bruises. She denied that she 
took drugs or intoxicants. 

The Coroner informed the jury that in the early 
days of June six children were found injured at 
the Centre, and four had died — one from double 
pneumonia. Another, still alive, had a fractured 
skull, and the sixth, also alive, had a fracture of 
the arm and a dislocation of the collar-bone. 

The jury returned a verdict of wilful murder 
against Nurse Thompson, who was airrested in 
court and committed for trial. 

£300 DAMAGES FOR MIDWIFE. 

Damages were assessed by a Sheriff's jury at 
;^30o at Green Street Courthouse, Dublin, as 
reported in the General Advertiser, in a case in 
which Mary Anne Herbert a midwifery nurse of 
Rush, claimed ;^i,ooo damages from M. Sigman, 
40, Lower Clanbrassil Street, dairy proprietor, for 
injury to herself and her bicycle by the negligent 
driving of a horse and trap on January 20th. Mr. 
Gavan Duffy (instructed by Messrs. Corrigan & 
Corrigan), for the plaintiff, said the plaintiff's right 
arm was broken, and the defendant made no 
defence or offered no apology. Dr. M'Elhinney, 
Meath Hospital, said the plaintiff would not be 
able to do her duties for two years. 

LECTURES TO NURSES ON VENEREAL 

DISEASES. 

The course of free lectures to nurses on Venereal 
Diseases at St. Paul's Hospital, Red Lion Square, 
by Mr. Leonard Myer, F.R.C.S.. met a great need, 
judging by the large and increasing numbers of 
nurses who attended each week. 



NATIONAL BABY WEEK COUNCIL. 

In our last issue we drew attention to the fact 
that an interesting meeting of the National Baby 
Week Council took place at the Armitage Hall last 
week.' h: The point of greatest interest — ^to which, 
for lack of space, we were unable to refer at the 
time — was the follovidng resolution : — 

" That the National Baby Week Council, whilst 
a,pproving the objects of the Maternity and Child 
Welfare Bill, deplores the continued sacrifice of the 
nation's present health and future life, to Depart- 
mental Vested Interests, calls upon the Government 
to establish a Ministry of Health without further 
delay, and at no distant date ; and that the Council 
approach its affiliated organisations with a view to 
a free discussion of this important subject, and to 
carry on a co-ordinated propaganda and campaign 
in favour of a Ministry of Health during the coming 
autumr." 

The italics are ours. The important and signifi- 
cant point about it is, that although one member 
suggested as an amendment, that the words " De- 
partmental Vested Interests " should be deleted, 
as being too strong, and another seconded it, w^hen 
the Chairman put it to the vcte the meeting 
w^as solidly in favour of having the words 
retained. W( see in this the first fruits of the 
movement for social and political purity, and are 
ercouraged thereby. Those who are awakened 
have begun to " march breast Jorwdrd." 



AMERICAN HELP FOR MOTHERS. 

The American Red Cross has allocated the sum 
of ;^5,ooo to the National League for Health, 
Maternity, and Child Welfare, to promote the 
establishment of maternity centres and day 
nurseries in areas where much war wx)rk is being 
done. 



Mrs. Whitelaw Reid, chairman of the London 
Chapter of the American Red Cross, on July 24th, 
opened the new buildirgs for the crdche at the 
North Islington Maternity Centre, arranged by the 
Committee of the American Infant Welfare Centre. 
The buildings are at 9, Manor Gardens, Holloway 
Road, Islington. 



THE BEST. 

" We all hfve held in fee ore woman's heart : 
Have all been pillowed on one woman's 

bieast, 
Have knelt and worshipped at one woman's 

kneec — 
A mother's. If this be the only part 
We have learned of woman's lov-^^, it is the 
best." 

A G. Sherriff. 

From "A Sonnet to Mother-love." 



No. 1,584. 



SATURDAY, AUGUST 10, 1918. 



Vol. LXI. 



EDITORIAL. 



THE UNCHANGING RESOLVE OF THE 
BRITISH EMPIRE. 

Three messages stand out amongst those 
delivered on the fourth anniversary of the 
entrance of the British Empire into the War ; 
that of his Majesty the King to the Heads 
of AlHed countries, that of the Bishop of 
London, representative of the Church, 
deHvered at the morning service, on Sunday, 
at St. Paul's to the great congregation 
which filled the Cathedral to the doors, and 
that of the Prime Minister, representative 
of the State, delivered in sealed packets and 
read on Saturday evening to audiences in 
the theatres and elsewhere. 

The King's Message to the Heads of 
Allied Countries. 

On this the fourth anniversary of the day 
on which my country joined in the great 
conflict which still distracts the world it is 
my privilege to convey to you my greetings, 
and to emphasize once again the unchang- 
ing resolve of the British Empire to concen- 
trate its entire energy upon a victorious 
conclusion of the struggle. Thanks to the 
determination of our peoples and the 
splendid achievements of our brave sailors 
and soldiers, I feel confident that the dawn 
of a victorious peace is not far distant. 

" Go FoRWA*RD." 

The Bishop took for his text the words 
" Wherefore criest thou unto me ? Speak 
unto the children of Israel that they go 
forward." He spoke of the necessity and the 
power of prayer, and said : — 

" Prayer which is to move the world 
must be accompanied by the resolute action 
which attests its sincerity — back to the 
desk to-morrow or after the needed holiday ; 
out into the battlefield again after the pre^ 
cious days of leave ; on to the land to 



gather in the harvest. Away with all 
doubts and all fears, all croakers, and all 
those who weaken the knees of the valiant. 
Be strong and of good courage ; be not 
afraid and be not dismayed ; the Lord shall 
fight for you." 

"Hold Fast." 

The Prime Minister's Message to the 
Nation was " Hold Fast." He wrote in 
part : — 

" The message which I send to the people 
of the British Empire on the fourth anni- 
versary of their entry into the war is 
' HoW Fast.' 

" We are in this war for no selfish ends. 
We are in it to recover freedom for the 
nations which have been brutally attacked 
and despoiled, and to prove that no people, 
however powerful, can surrender itself to 
the lawless ambitions of militarism without 
meeting retribution, swift, certain, and 
disastrous, at the hands of the free nations 
of the world. To stop short of Victory for 
this cause would be to compromise the 
future of mankind." 

The War Shrine. 

Thousands of people who worshipped in 
the churches and chapels in the morning 
were present at the blessing by the Bishop 
of London of the War Shrine in Hyde Park 
in the afternoon, and placed there their floral 
offerings in remembrance of the valiant 
men and women with the Expeditionary 
Force, the sick and wounded, the prisoners 
and captives and the heroic dead. The 
shrine still remains, close to the Marble 
Arch and to Park Lane, that great highway 
of traffic where all may see, testifying to 
the affectionate remembrance of the Nation 
for those who in concert with our Allies are 
keeping the flag of freedom aloft on land, 
on sea, and in the air. 



94 



Q:be Brttlsb 3ournal of Burslnfl. 



August lo, 1918 



LABORATORY WORK FOR WOMEN. 



By A. Knyvett Gordon, M.B., B.C., 
B.A. Cantab. 

Some years ago, when in charge of a large 
hospital, it was my duty to examine candidates 
for the post of probationer nurse. The standard 
was high, because I did not accept anyone 
whom I thought would be likely to break down 
anywhere on training : consequently many, 
~ otherwise of excellent physique, were rejected 
on account of slightly deformed feet or varicose 
veins. 

I have often wondered what became of these 
girls, many of whom must have had a natural 
aptitude for medical work of one kind or 
another, and it is a pity that they should be 
lost altogether to the profession. Nowadays, 
however, they need not be, and I think that 
the opening that awaits them in the laboratory 
is perhaps insufficiently realised. Let me, then, 
briefly describe the position, and then put in a 
plea for the pathologist who requires their 
services. 

Until recently, pathology was a science of its 
own, and it got its facts mainly from the 
examination of tissues removed in the theatre 
and from the performance of post-mortem 
examinations ; the pathologist himself was 
often a man without very much clinical inclina- 
tion, and was, anyhow, concerned more with 
the advancement of science than with the treat- 
ment of the particular patient. 

Small blame to him ! The science he loved, 
however, gave him scarcely a living wage, and 
certainly led to no pecuniary or social advance- 
ment, and very seldom was he permitted to see 
the practical result of his work. So, many 
brilliant men were lost to science by being 
pitchforked into gieneral practice by the force 
of circumstances. 

Gradually, however, the barrier between the 
clinician and the pathologist was broken down, 
and a new department of clinical pathology 
'came into being. By this I mean that the 
pathologist was called in during the life of the 
patient to find out what he could from examina- 
tion of any material he could collect, instead 
of having simply to find out after death how 
the horse had been stolen ! Of the value of this 
co-operation, the diagnosis of diphtheria and of 
phthisis by the detection of the characteristic 
microbes in the throat and sputum are good 
examples. 

This child of the alliance grew apace, until 
the facilities for diagnosis afforded by the 
laboratory were demanded not only by the 
practising clinician, but even by his patient. 



This necessitated a considerable increase both 
in the number of laboratories and in the statl 
which each employed. 

Then came the war, and everybody knows 
how incalculable has been the value of labora- 
tory work, not only in the treatment of the 
wounded, but also in the prevention of sickness 
which in former campaigns was more deadly 
than the weapons of the foe. On their return 
to civil practice many medical men now serving 
will demand the laboratory facilities which they 
have enjoyed in the field for all classes of their 
patients, and it is evident also that in any 
schemes for improvement of the national health 
research must find a place. 

In the past, pathology has almost entirely 
been confined to men, though I have often 
thought — and taught — that this was unneces- 
sary. Women are eminently fitted for patho- 
logical work, and nowadays they are taking to 
it in increasing numbers. 

In a laboratory there are two classes of 
worker : the qualified pathologist, who has 
passed through the whole medical curriculum, 
and the technical assistant ; it is the latter which 
we will now consider. What sort of life will the 
worp.an aspirant lead, and what advantages 
does the career hold out? 

Well, in the first place she need not be 
physically robust ; the hours of duty are not 
excessive, and she can sit or stand at her work 
at will. Consequently her night's rest is not 
broken by the cry of the aching back or the 
incipient flat foot. 

Then she earns a living wage from the start, 
and at once begins to take a hand in the fasci- 
nating work of finding out what is wrong with 
the patient. 

If she can afford it, there is distinct advan- 
tage in taking a preliminary course of instruc- 
tion in Bacteriology and Chemistry at one of 
the teaching centres in London or elsewhere, 
but this is not essential, and she can start, if she 
prefers it, on the lowest rung of the ladder in 
the laboratory itself. 

Probably she begins by spreading films of 
pus, sputa, and so on, and later on perhaps 
staining them for the pathologist to examine. 
At this stage she also learns something about 
microscopy itself. 

Pathologists are often chatty souls, and in 
the intervals between one specimen, or batch, 
and the next, are usuallv keen on teaching. 
Generally they are also enthusiasts, and their 
reminiscences and day dreams are often 
fascinating. 

Then she learns the gentle art of glass-blow- 
ing, and it is extra,ordinarv how skilful many 
girls become at this in a very short time. It is 



August lo, 1918 



Zbc British 3ournal of IRumug. 



95 



important, for well-made apparatus tends to 
careful work. 

Then there is the department of chemical 
pathology, where she learns not only how to 
make up solutions, but also the elements of 
chemistry, beginning with simple urine-testing, 
and going on to the chemical part of the 
analysis of drinking-water and foods. Then 
she learns how to cut and stain sections of 
tumours and of organs removed post-mortem, 
and also the details of bacteriology, such as the 
sowing of culture media with discharges from 
wounds, &c., and observing what comes up. 
Incidentally, this is a type of gardening quite 
as fascinating as the tending of the fashionable 
allotment. And so she 
goes on in a daily task 
that is never dull because 
it is always lit up by 
flashes of light from the 
pathological elysium 
where the answers to the 
eternal problems are kept. 

All this makes for an 
atmosphere of comrade- 
ship. I never knew any- 
one give themselves airs 
in a laboratory for very 
long. In fact, swagger 
is impossible, if only be- 
cause in research every- 
one is always making 
mistakes, or perhaps I 
should say following 
temporarily the wrong 
byroad. 

The only essential pre- 
liminary qualifications 
are keenness — and this is 
the most important of all 
— and a certain degree of 
natural dexterity. For 
the hopelessly awkward 
and heavy fingered the 
laboratory has no place. 

Then the candidate must not be absolutely 
hopeless at ** Figures." Lat'er on she will have 
to work out chemical reactions and statistics, 
and if this has to be done by counting her 
fingers she will be left behind in the race. But 
the majority of girls nowadays have these 
qualifications — ^and especially for those who 
prefer mental to physical work, a laboratory 
career offers many and interesting possibilities. 



NURSING AND THE WAR. 



We are indebted to the courtesy of the edilor of 
the Scots Pictorial for our portrait of Miss Mary 
Courtnay, Matron of Montgreenan Auxiliary 
Hospital, Kilwinning, who was recently decorated 
with the Royal Red Cross. 




MISS MAkY COURTENAY, R.R.C., 
Matron, Montgreenan Auxiliary Hospital, Kllwlnnlngr, 



At an Investiture held In the Quadrangle of 
Buckingham Palace on July 31st, the King con- 
ferred the following decorations :■ — 

ROYAL RED CROSS. 

First Class. 
Territorial Force Nursing Service. — Assistant Matron 
Ada Taylor. 

Civil Nursing Service. — Assistant Matron Isabel Kemp, 
Sister Elizabeth Macaulay. 

Canadian Army Nursing 
Service. — Matron Myra Good- 

EVE. 

Second Class. 
Queen Alexandra's Imperial 
Military Nursing Service 
Reserve. — Sister Georgina 
Hester, Sister Florence 
Hughes, Sister Clara Robin- 
son, Sister Amy McDowell, 
Staff Nurse Mercy Huffer, 
Staff Nurse Euphemia 

Loraine, and Miss Margaret 

PlERSON. 

Territorial Force Nursing 
Service. — Sister Charlotte 

FlTZMAYER. 

Civil Nursing Service. — r 
Matron Ethel Carew-Hodge, 
Matron Marianne Iffland, 
Matron Phillimore Ind, 
Matron Kathleen Irwin, 
Matron Mabel Johnson, 
Matron Amy Kaye, Matron 
Ellen Kidson, Matron 
Blanche Knapton, Matron 
Edith Wake, Matron Marie 
Wheeler, Assistant Matron 
Isabel Heberden, Sister Ellen 
Howard, Sister Gertie Inman, 
Sister Minnie Jones, and 
Mrs. Marian McGlashan. 

British Red Cross Society. 
— Matron Mabel Hunt, Sister 
Jessie Gunn, Sister Kate 
Hatton, and Sister Kathleen Nixon. 

Voluntary Aid Detachment. — Miss Kate Bishop, Mrs. 
Sibyl CocKBURN, Miss Lily Haggar, Mrs. Evelyn Heyde, 
Miss Catherine Hickling, Miss Mabel Hodges, Miss 
.\my HusoN, Miss Kate Jackson, Mrs. Agnes James, 
Mrs. Eva Jones, and Miss Gertrude Mirrington. 

Canadian Army Nursing Service. — Sister Alba 
Andrew, Sister Irene Brady, and Sister Sophie 
Hoerner. 

THE MILITARY MEDAL. 
Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service 
Reserve. — Sister Mary Brown. 



Messrs. Debenham & Freebody have given 
up two of their large workrooms in Welbeck 
Street to the West End Hospital. They wilj be 
known as the Debenham wards. 



At the opening of Australia House by the King 
on Saturday last. Head Sister Ida O'Dwyer* 
Australian Army Nursing Service, R.R.C., was 
presented to the King and Queen. 



96 



Jlbc British 3ournal of IRursmg. 



August lo, 1918 



THE MILITARY MEDAL. 

FOR DISTINQUISHED SERVICES IN THE 
FIELD. 

A special supplement to the London Gazette 
issued on July 30th states that the King has 
approved the award of the Military Med?l to the 
under-mentioned ladies for distinguished services 
in the field. In each case the act of bravery 
recorded was performed during enemy air raids 
on hospitals : — • 

Sister C. L. A. Robinson, A.R.R.C, Q.A.I. M.N. S.— 
A stationary hospital was struck by four bombs from 
an enemy aeroplane and one wing was practically cut 
in two, many patients being /buried in the debris. Sister 
Robinson, at very great personal risk, went in amongst 
the ruins to assist in recovering the patients, quite re- 
gardless of danger, her one thought being the rescue 
of the patients. She displayed magnificent coolness and 
resource. 

A. -Sister N. Galvin. Q.A.I. M.N.S.R. — Four enemy 
bombs were dropped on the building occupied by the 
hospital, causing much damage to the ward in which 
Sister Galvin was on night duty. She remained in the 
ward attending to the sick, several of whom were 
wounded, and carried on her work as if nothing had 
happened. She displayed the greatest coolness and 
devotion to duty. 

A. -Sister M. M. de Guerin, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R.— The 
building occupied by the hospital was hit by four bombs,, 
which cut in two the ward in which Sister Guerin was 
on night duty. Several patients were wounded 
and buried in the debris of the destroyed building, but 
she remained on duty in her ward, displaying the greatest 
coolness and courage in attending to the wounded and 
helping to rescue the buried. 

Sister L. A. Wilkinson, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R.— Although 
her ward was demolished, she continued to attend to 
the wounded whilst the raid was still in progress. 

Staff Nurse B. Dascomue, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R. —Her 
ward being destroyed by a bomb and herself wounded, 
she insisted on remaining at her post and attending to 
the wounded. 

Sister (A.-Matron) L. M. M. Toller, R.R.C, 
Q.A.I.M.N.S. — When the sisters' quarters were wrecked 
and nurses wounded, Sister Toller collected the staff and 
placed them in comparative safety. By her fine example 
she undoubtedly saved life. 

Staff Nurse A. M. McGrath, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R.— In 
charge of a ward of serious cases. She showed through- 
out a quiet confidence and set a fine example during a 
most critical period. 

Sister M. E. Davis, Q.A.I.M.N.S. — When the sisters' 
quarters were wrecked and bombs were falling, she 
showed a fine example, and assisted materially in control- 
ling the situation and attending to the sisters who were 
wounded. 

Staff Nurse S. D. ^tuNRo, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R.— An 
enemy air raid wrecked three of her wards. She showed 
coolness and contempt of danger and a solicitude for her 
patients which Jkvas invaluable. 

Staff Nurse K. R. Lowe, T.F".N.S. — Bombs destroyed 
a large portion of the ward in which she was on night 
duty, wounding and burying many of the patients. She 
continued to carry out her duties with great composure, 
and showed much resourcefulness in looking after the 
injured. 

Miss M. Thompson, F.A.N.Y., Miss W. M. Elwes, 
F.A.N. Y., Miss E. A. Courtis, F.A.N.Y., Miss M. 
Richardson, F.A.N.Y., Miss M. O'Connell-Bianconi, 
F.A.N. Y., Miss H. M. Dickinson, F.A.N. Y., Miss E. B. 
Callander, F.A.N.Y. — .All these lady drivers were out 
with their cars during the raid, picking up and in every 



way assisting the wounded and injured. They showed 
great bravery and coolness, and were an example to all 
ranks. 

Miss K. M. Freshfield, V.A.D. — The ward in which 
she was working was destroyed by a bomb, but she 
continued to attend to her patients, and was herself veiy 
severely wounded. 

Miss L. A. Gregory, V.A.D. — Her ward was 
destroyed by bombs, but she insisted on remaining at her 
post, and attended the wounded during the progress of 
the raid. 

Miss K. Farling, Miss S. Dickson, Miss J. Pennell. 
Miss M. Davidson, B.R.C.S. (V.A.D.).— All these lady 
drivers were out with their cars during the raid, picking 
up and in every way assisting the wounded and injured, 
and showed great bravery and coolness, and were an 
example to all ranks. They also carried to safety and 
helped in every way many French civilians. 

Miss W. A. Brampton, B.R.C.S. — This lady continued 
at duty throughout the raid, although the ward in her 
charge w^as almost completely wrecked, several patients 
killcKi, and she herself was wounded. 

Miss D. M. L. Crewdson, B.R.C.S. (V.A.D.).— 
Although herself wounded, this lady remained at duty 
and assisted in dressing the wounds of patients. 

Commandant W. E. S. Mount Batten, B.R.C.S. — 
She superintended the work of the convoy, drove an 
ambulance car herself during the raid, and by her cool- 
ness and disregard for her own safety ensured the prompt 
removal of the wounded to hospital. 

Sub-Section Leader G. M. Cuthbert, B.R.C.S. — She 
showed exceptional coolness and courage in directing her 
section. . 

Section Leader G. F. Johnston, B.R.C.S. — She 
directed her section with coolness and courage under 
very trying circumstances. 

Senior Section Leader J. V. Mellor; B.R.C.S. — She 
showed exceptional courage and efficiency as senior 
section leader. 

Nurse M. G. Campbell, B.R.C.S. — During a raid 
buildings were set on fire. She moved about in full glare, 
regardless of imminent danger, taking patients to safety, 
and inspiring confidence in all. 

V.A.D. M. Cavanaoh, St. John's Ambulance Brigade. 
— Miss Cavanagh was in charge of four wards, two of 
which were entirely wrecked. She continued to perform 
her duty ; in addition was very active in removing the 
wounded to a place of comparative safety. 

Nurse E. Hounslow, A.R.R.C, St. John's Ambu- 
lance Brigade. — A bomb fell between two of her wards 
and injured many patients. She behaved with the utmost 
coolness, and set a fine example, attending wounded 
under most trying circumstances. 

Asst. Matron M. Chittock, St. John's Ambulance 
Brigade Hospital. — She displayed great presence of 
mind, and instilled courage and confidence throughout 
a very trying time. 

Matron C. E. Todd, St. John's Ambulance Brigade 
Hosoital. — She moved freely about the wards during the 
brmbinrf, encouraging the sisters and patients, ar-" dis- 
played great braver>' and presence of mind throughout. 

Sister G. Warner, St. John's Ambulance Brigade 
Hospital. — She displayed the utmost coolness, and main- 
tained a cheery spirit throughout, showing great braverv. 

Sister J. Bemrose. St. John's Ambulance Brigade 
Hospital. — She showed disregard of danger, and con- 
tinued to attend the wounded in her charge during the 
heavy bombardment. 

Sister M. McGinnis, St. John's Ambulance Brigade 
Hospital. — She showed great courage, took charge of a 
word, and sustained her patients. 

Sifter M. H. Ballance, St. John's Ambulance Brigade 
Hospital. — Her fortitude and courage were most con- 
spicuous. She devoted herself entirely to her patients. 



August lo, 1918 



ITbe British 3ournal of IRureinQ. 



97 



CARE OF THE WOUNDED. 



. PARKSIDE ORTHOP/CDIC HOSPITAL, 
RAVENSCOURT PARK, HAMMERSMITH. 

In any kind of weather this, the newest of 
auxiliary war hospitals, would have been 
attractive, but on a warm summer day, with the 
breath of the flowers sweetening the air, and the 
bright sunlight making everything look cheerful, 
the impression left on the mind of the visitor was 
pai ticularly pleasant. It stands in two acres of 
ground and is approached by a shady avenue of 
beautiful old sycamore trees. It is a handsome, 
well-built, commodious house, admirably adapted 
to its present purpose. The need of a hospital of 
this sort for officers has long been felt ; the In- 
firmary in Ducane Road is used for the accommo- 
dation of men only, requiring orthopaedic treat- 
ment. It seems that it was only necessary to 
m.ention the fact to the Mayor of the Borough 
(Alderman H. Foreman, O.B.E., J. P.) for the idea 
to materialise. It is owing to his great generosity 
and that of Mrs. Foreman that Parkside has been 
acquired, redecorated and furnished to accom- 
modate thirty officers besides the staff. No.expense 
has been spared in making it as cheerful, cosy and 
comfortable as money plus a kind heart could 
make it. There may be hospitals as nice, but it is 
certain there could not be any nicer. 

There is uniformity \\dthout monotony. 
Polished floors everywhere ; a mat of artistic 
colouring beside each bed, white embroidered 
coverlet, with an eiderdown quilt on each bed, and 
each of a different coloured silk. Shot silk 
appeared to be the favourite. White-painted 
lockers with glass tops, upon each of which stands 
an electric lamp with a shade of the same colour 
and material as the quilt. Harmony and propor- 
tion spell art, and this is evident everywhere, and 
is, we were told, the taste of the Mayoress. The 
wars are distempered in a soft shade of grey. The 
architect is to be congratulated upon the liberal 
provision of window space ; had he designed the 
house for the purpose he could not have done 
better. 

The lavatory and bathroom accommodation is 
abundant, also sluices far bedpans, &c. 

A winter garden or conservatory is used as a 
lounge and smoke room. There is a large and 
handsomely furnished dining room for the officers 
on the ground floor, and the same in the basement 
for the V.A.D. staff. The resident staff consists 
of the Matron, Miss Dible, and one Sister ; also 
the cook. Thirty-six V.A.D-s come in in three 
shifts of twelve. These as well as the Com- 
mandant are, of course, non-resident. 

The sitting room for the officers is as comfortable 
as the rest of the house. The piice de resistance 
there is a splendid new Grafonola, the gift of 
Messrs. Watsons, Sons & Room. There is a good- 
sized vegetable garden, which is not the least of 
the many attractions of the hospital. 

We are greatly indebted to Miss Dible for her 
courtesy in showing us this admirable hospital. 



Many generous people have given handsome 
subscriptions, but many more would be gratefully 
accepted. 

The hospital was opened on Thursday, July 25th, 
by Mrs. Hayes Fisher, accompanied by the Right 
Hon. W. Hayes Fisher, President of the Local 
Government Board. . g_ jj. 



FRENCH FUQ NURSING CORPS. 



. What The " Times " thinks of'Our Work 

i ^^ * "^t: AND Policy. • * 

" The French Flag Nursing Corps, wtich has 
supplied from 100 to 200 of the best trained British 
nurses for FrenchArmy hospitals, since 1914, came 
into prominence in the recent retreat from the 
Cherain des Dames, where they gave an example of 
their mettle by sticking to their posts till all the 
wounded were evacuated, and only escaped as 
the Germans entered the hospitals. These British 
women, scattered in twos and threes in great 
military hospitals throughout France, have raised 
the whcle standard of nursing and made thousands 
of friends for us — friends who will not forget." 



The good, kind " Henriette," femme de manage 
at Verneuil, is now a refugee in Savoy. She was 
in attendance on the Sisters at the old Chateau to 
the last day when the retreat began. A Sister 
writes : — " Poor girl, she was very good to us, 
and has lost everything Would it be possible to 
send her a gift of clothing or any help ; they are 
glad oi such gifts. I send you her address." 
Poor Henriette I Well we remember her and the 
lovely dejeuner she prepared for us the happy 
day we visited the Sisters in their romantic 
surroundings. Very happy we should be to 
forward her a gift of clothing, if any kind friend 
will help to make up a parcel. We could do with 
a tidy coat and skirt, two pairs of warm stockings, 
a good pair of boots, a waim petticoat, under- 
linen, and seme tidy aprons, and any useful 
additions. " Henriette " is tall and stout and 
requires garments of ample proportions. It 
would be nice to send her a parcel from " Friends 
in England " now she is far from ner home. Let 
us hope it may not be for long ; but, alas ! we 
know the devastation of the fair land of France, 
where the hoof of the Hun has passed. Please 
address gifts to the Editor, 431, Oxford Street, 
London W., marked " For Henriette." 



A Sister in the war zone writes: — -"We are 
having very bad nights, as we have nightly visits 
from the Boches. We get big rushes of wounded 
when the brutes have gone. . . . Nearly all our 
windows have gone, and some of our wounded 
have been cut with the falling glass. My flat has 
its disadvantages, so I lie down on any spare bed 
in the hospital, dressed of course. .' . . The hospital 
where we are working was a mill before the 



98 



(The Brttiab 3ournal of IRursiuG. 



August lo, 1918 



Ropal BrItisI) Rurses' ilssociation. 



(Incorporated Dp 




Ropal Cbarten) 



THIS SUPPLEMENT BEING THE' OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE CORPORATION. 



THE TRAINING OF CHILDREN OF FROM 
TWO TO FIVE YEARS OF AGE. 



Synopsis of a Lecture given at Woolwich under 
the auspices of the City Parochial Charities 
by Miss Kate C. Atherton, M. R.B.N. A., 
Medallist of the Royal Sanitary Institute. 

In commencing a very interesting lecture on 
"The Training of Children," Miss Atherton 
drew attention to the fact that, although one 
cannot change the nature of a child, much can 
be done by careful training and by environment 
so to direct his tendencies that his character will 
be such as to help, and not to hinder him, in the 
battle of life, and to make him in every sense a 
useful member of the community. Undue 
repression in the training of children is just 
as harmful as over-indulgence ; to this, as well 
as to a shock or perhaps some nervous condi- 
tion in childhood, mental trouble in after life is 
not infrequently traceable. Children have the 
same emotions as older people— love, jealousy, 
hope, and fear — and it is to be remembered that 
a child who has a great capacity for love has 
often a similar capacity for jealousy, so that 
his very love for others may indirectly be made 
the cause for stimulating a tendency to 
jealousy, and may give rise to a great deal of 
unhappiness, and even to ill-health. A child, 
being immature, is very crude and simple, and 
one of the first lessons to teach him is that 
of obedience. This can often be practised as 
a game, and, where there are two children, they 
can compete as to who will perform the com- 
mand most quickly. In this exercise care must 
be taken not to carry it to the point of fatigue. 
Drill answers much the same purpose for older 
children. Organised exercises, as soon as the 
child is able to perform these, are very bene- 
ficial ; they improve physical development, lead 
to unfolding of the mind, cause the child to 
realise that there is a right way and a wrong 



way of doing the simplest thing, and uncon- 
sciously they develop in the child the habit of 
doing promptly what he is told. 

Observation is of the greatest importance in 
those to whom there is entrusted the care of 
child life ; in fact, to deal successfully with 
children one must, so to speak, become a child, 
must observe and understand to the utmost 
possible extent the psychology of the child 
mind. By observations and comparisons we 
arrive at conclusions which help us to under- 
stand each individual child. Take fjr 
instance, the immoral child. Very often he will 
be found to be in some respect, perhaps only ^n 
a very minor degree, physically defective. It is 
wrong to train such a child, or one whose health 
is not good, on the same lines as a normal child. 
In such cases suggestion often plays a very 
important part in the training. Then there is 
the rheumatic child, constantly quarrelling and 
"grizzling"; in all probability he is nervous, 
delicate, timid, and difficult to please, but rarely 
actually ill. Such children should be treated 
with the greatest consideration, but should be 
encouraged to mix much with other children, 
or they are apt to develop into the " mother's 
darling " type, and to become an affliction alike 
to themselves and their elders. In studving 
children always observe the signs of nutrition, 
expression, movement, and posture. Fatigue, 
for instance, is often indicated by posture. Ask 
a tired child to extend the arms on a level with 
the shoulders, and it will invariably happen that 
the arms will droop and the thumbs hang down. 

Self-control and independence should be 
cultivated in children. A well-managed child 
in this respect is usually a well-balanced adult 
in later life. Regularity is really the keynote 
to successful training, and indeed applies to a 
period previous to the actual birth of the child; 
we, who have much to do with welfare work, 
are constantly impressing upon the mother the 
importance of regular habits during pregnancy. 



August lo, 1918 



Zbc 16i1ti6b 3ournal of IRursino. 



9$ 



Out of regular habits self-control is evolved, 
and, in order to develop independence, never do 
for a child what he is quite capable of doing- for 
himself; rather, indeed, he should be encour- 
aged to do things for those around him. 
He will enjoy performing little duties, and even 
the boys should be taught to help in the home ; 
this will teach them to^use their hands, and will 
sharf>en their faculties. It is impossible to 
overrate the pleasure a child has in using his 
hands, and it is never too early to teach him 
to handle, to grasp, and later to pile up and 
throw about his toys Complaints are some- 
times made about the " destructiveness " of 
children, but it must be remembered that some- 
times this arises from the mere desire to be 
creative, and then it should be encouraged 
rather than otherwise. Those of us who have 
worked among children in the hospitals and 
elsewhere often hear the demand, " more pic- 
tures, more scissors, and some paste, please." 

Some children have a great difficulty in being 
accurate, and this must not be confused with 
lying, for they are often delighted to relate an 
experience which is really all imagination. In 
such cases the child should be taught to explain 
that he is " only pretending." 



AN ATTRACTIVE CLUB FOR NURSES. 



Members coming up to town for the holidays 
frequently write to enquire where they can find 
a comfortable and central club at which they 
may stay. They will find nowhere more plea- 
sant quarters than the Kensington Gardens 
Nurses' Club, 57, Kensington Gardens Square, 
W. It is within easy reach of all the important 
parts of the city, and the Principal of the Club, 
Miss B. Cave, had a very intimate knowledge 
of club life and the requirements of private 
nurses before ever she established her own very 
popular club. Its rooms are large, airy, and 
very tastefully furnished, Ajhile the numerous 
contrivances for adding to the convenience and 
comfort of the nurses, and the exactitude with 
which their telephone messages are attended 
to, add very much to the value of the club as a 
residential one for private nurses. One much- 
travelled nurse expressed the view that she had 
never sojourned in any club where the atmo- 
sphere seemed more homelike or offered a 
greater sense of freedom. 

Miss Cave is a MembeV of the Royal British 
Nurses' Association and of the Incorporated 
Society of Trained Masseuses, and her club is 
one of the very few large clubs for nurses in 
London which has a trained nurse at its head. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 

THE BADGE OFMEMBERSHIP OFTHE ROYAL 
CHARTERED CORPORATION OF NURSES. 

To the Secretary, R.B.N.A. 
Dear Madam, — I have seen a picture of the badge 
of our Association in the official organ, and I should 
like to draw attention to the fact that all the 
members should make a point of wearing it who 
can. I often meet nurses from our Association, and 
we always recognise one another as fellow members 
through our badge. I have heard of two of our 
members who met out on the Rockies, and one was 
able to give the greatest help to the other, when, 
but for the R.B.N. A. badge, they would never have 
known that they were members of the same body, 
or even fellow nurses. j g,^^ ^.j, 

H. Mac WILLIAM, 
M.R.B.N.A. 
A KIND THOUGHT. 

To the Secretary, K.B.N. A. 

Dear Madam, — A few days ago I heard of a 
member, suffering from an incurable disease, who 
felt the keenest disappointment because she could 
not afford, owing to the expenses of her illness, to 
take The British Journal of Nursing, as she had 
been in the habit of doing our monthly paper. Her 
subscription was promptly paid for her by another 
member, but I hear that there are quite a number 
of the old nurses who find the cost of a weekly paper 
too much for their slender incomes. 

\\ e have had to discontinue the Recluse Club 
since the war began. Might I suggest that it now 
bo revived for a slightly different purpose than its 
original one — that of supplying our old members 
with an illustrated paper each week? We used 
to subscribe a shilling annually, and I think it 
would be nice if we young members could link up 
and subscribe the same amount again, just to pre- 
vent the old members who helped to found the 
Association, and who have belonged to it for so long, 
from feeling shut out or left behind. Seven of us 
could keep one old nurse in touch with it right to 
the end in this way, and I know that it is a real 
grief to some to feel that they will no longer have 
their Nurses' Journal each month. 

The President's letter has given us all pleasure, 
and I for one warmly endorse what she says about 
welcoming other nurses to a share in our Charter. 
I am glad, too, that you have made this new 
arrangement about the official organ, for many of 
Us have been very indignant about the one-sided 
propaganda for the College in the other papers. I 
hope that other nurses will follow the example of 
the R.B.N. A. members and " wake up." 
I am, &c., 

V. M. Cobbett, 
M.R.B.N.A. 

Application forms for registration and member- 
ship can be obtained on application to the Secretary, 
R.B.N..\ , 10, Orchard Street, Portman Square, 
W. I. 

(Signed) Isabel Macdonald, 

Secretary to the Corporation. 



loo 



TLbe Britteb Journal ot TRursmg, 



August lo, 1918 



LONDON HOSPITAL SYSTEM. 



THE GRAVE OF FLORENCE 
NIGHTINGALE. 



In the House of Commons on July 31st Major 
Chappie asked the Uuder Secretary for War 
whether the certificate of training presented 
in evidence of qualification by London-^ Hospital 
nurses applying for posts in the Army Servdce 
states that the nurse has had three years' training 
in the hospital or only two years' training ? 

Mr. Macpherson replied that steps are always 
taken to ascertain that a nurse has completed the 
necessary period of training and service in the 
wards. In reply to Sir C. Henry he said that 
there was no differentiation in the nurses that 
come from the London Hospital and from 
others. 

Major Chappie then said : " Is the Right Hon. 
gentleman aware that he told us that a three 
years' certificate of training is necessary for 
appointment to the Army Nursing Service, and I 
ask him in the present question, does the London 
Hospital certificate of training say two years or 
three years ? " 

Mr. Macpherson replied : "I cannot add any- 
thing to the answer I have given, but I would like 
to point out that the three years includes two 
years' training and one year's service in the 
wards." 

Pressed "further by Major Chappie, Mr. 
Macpherson said : " We are satisfied in every case 
with the nurse who comes from the London 
Hospital, or any other hospital, if she has com- 
pleted the necessary period of training and service 
in the ward." 

Thus, though the London Hospital certifies its 
nurses at the end of two years, the War Office 
requires that they shall serve another year in the 
wards before they are eligible for Queen 
Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service, 
which, presumably, indicates that it does not 
consider a nurse certified at the end of two years 
adequately qualified. 

Major Chappie also asked the President of the 
Board of Education whether nurses-trained at the 
London Hospital have been appointed to any 
posts under the jurisdiction of the Board. Before 
putting the question he also asked, as a point of 
Order, why the following words were deleted from 
the question : " Whether he is aware that nurses 
at the London Hospital are taken from their 
training in the wards and sent out to do private 
nursing at the end of their second year, receiving 
13s. per week, while the hospital draws riot less 
than 29s. per week profit from their earnings ; and 
whether he will see that no nurses are appointed 
from hospitals that exploit their nurses in this 
way "^with those words deleted the question is 
meaningless ? " 

The Speaker replied that the \vords were in the 
nature of giving, and not asking, information to 
a Department which was not responsible for it, 
and further that the Board of Education had no 
control over the training of nurses at the London 
or any other hospital. 



" A Londoner," who appealed recently in 
the Telegraph for support for the Gold and 
Silver Fund of the British Red Cross Society, 
should know his London and his nursing 
history better before he conjures up the soul of 
Florence Nightingale in support of the appeal. 
He (oris it she?) writes : — 

" Among your tarnished treasures you will 
find gold bracelets that even for your husband's 
sake you could never wear again, and that 
hitherto you have never dared to get rid of. 
To day the soul of Florence Nightingale cries 
to you insistently that the Red Cross can best 
be helped by those very discarded trinkets that 
meant so much to the women of her own 
generation. There were life and labour in the 
trenches of that day too. From her grave in 
the Abbey she will thank you — if it is thanks 
you ask for." 

" A Londoner " will search in vain amongst 
the graves of the great ones of the earth in the 
Abbey at Westminster for that of Florence 
Nightingale. The nation would willingly have 
paid that last tribute to her genius, but Miss 
Nightingale expressly directed in her will that 
her funeral should be of the quietest possible 
character, and those who wish to stand beside 
her grave must make a pilgrimage to the quiet 
little Hampshire town of Romsey, and thence 
drive deep into the heart of the country across 
the lovely river Test, and, if they can get p>er- 
mission from the present owner, through 
Embley Park, close under the windows of 
Embley House, which Miss Nightingale in her 
ardent girlhood would like to have converted 
into a hospital, and so, through deep hedge- 
rows, till they come to the tiny village of East 
Wellow, and, arrived at its typically English 
church, with its high-pitched, red-tiled roof, 
and black wooden tower, pass through the 
turnstile, at the side of the lych gate, to the 
Nightingale tomb. On three of the sides of 
this are inscribed the names of Miss Nightin- 
gale's father, mother, and sister respectively. 
The fourth panel bears the simple inscription r 

+ 

F. N. 

Born 12. May, 1820. 
Died 13 August, 1910. 

It faces the church where Miss Nightingale so 
often worshipped. She is still remembered by 
old inhabitants, and on the dav of her funeral 



August lo, 1918 



CTbe Brlti0b 3ournal of TRureino. 



lOI 



a former porter at Romsey, then blind, who 
knew her at Embley, begged to be led on the 
platform to hear the footsteps of the bearers 
" bringing her home " ; the coffin was preceded 
by six old tenants and workmen on the Embley 
estate who knew her, and, in the porch of the 
church, as the procession passed in, stood John 
Kneller, a Crimean veteran who served in the 
trenches at Sevastopol, and was for three 
months in the hospital at Scutari, and familiar 
with the sight of " The Lady of the Lamp " on 
her night rounds. j^ ^ 

OUR ROLL OF HONOUR. 

NURSING SERVICE. 

Died. 
Hills, Sister M. E., T.F.N.S. 

Miss Hills, who was trained at St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital, London, had a charming personality 
and was much loved by the staff and patients of 
the 53rd General Hospital, B.E.F., France, to 
which she was attached, and where she was very 
happy in her work. 

The following announcement appeared in the 
Daily Orders of the 53rd General Hospital on 
July 24th :— 

" The Commanding Officer much regrets to 
announce the death of Miss M. E. Hills, Sister 
T.F.N.S., which took place in Queen Alexandra's 
Military Hospital, London, on July 22nd, 1918. 

" Sister Hills was called up for duty at the ist 
London General Hospital on March 31st, 191 6, 
and served there until she came out for duty with 
No. 53 General Hospital on April 24th, 191 7. She 
was at once posted to Calais and rejoined this Unit 
on October 13 th, 191 7. 

" As Sister-in-Charge of Wards 7 and 8, as 
Night Sister, and again as Sister-in-Charge of 
Hut No. 7, she endeared herself to all who had 
the privilege of working with her or under her, and 
the patients under her charge had something more 
than respect and regard for her. 

" Skilful, kind, capable and devoted to her 
work, her death is a great loss to No. 53 General 
Hospital, and the sympathies of all ranks will go 
out to Miss Hills' relatives and friends in their 
bereavement." , 

Amongst the floral tiibutes sent was one from 
the nursing staff of the 53rd General Hospital, a 
copy of the Badge of the Territorial Force Nursing 
Service in scarlet and white flowers. 

A memorial service was held in the Church Tent 
at the 53rd General Hospital on July 5th. 



MASQUERADED AS A V.A.D. NURSE. 



The sinking of the Australian Ambulance 
Transport, Warilda, carrying some 600 seriously 
wounded men, adds to the heavy score to be 
settled with an inhuman foe when the day of 
reckoning comes. It is feared that over 100 of 
those on board lost their lives, the majority being 
wounded helpless soldiers. Amongst the drowned 
is Mrs. Long, Chief Controller, Q.M.A.A.C. ' 



The suspicious conduct of a woman wearing the 
uniform of a V.A.D. nurse on the occasion of the 
arrival of a trainload of wounded at the Victoria 
Station lecently attracted attention, and the sequel 
was that at the Nottingham Guildhall she admitted 
that she had no right to appear in such a dress. 

She was Emma Elizabeth Hunt, of Kirkstead 
Terrace, Kirkstead Street, and Captain J. A. H. 
Green, prosecuting, explained that the woman was 
noticed by Dr. T. Lindley, who was in charge of 
the special constables. Asked to produce her 
certificate, she was unable to do so. On her 
uniform were brass shoulder titles indicating that 
she was a member of the Notts. 20th Detachment, 
which had no existence. She gave a false address, 
but was tiacked to her real one by a detective, to 
whom she stated that she had been admitted as 
a member of a detachment by Mrs. Coulby. A 
week or tf n days previously she had been seen at 
the Midland Station dancing about with soldiers in 
uniform, and kissing them " Good-bye." Empha- 
sising the necessity that tailors and drapers should 
take care not to supply the uniform to unauthorised 
people. Captain Green pointed out that otherwise 
no end of mischief might arise. 

Defendant was sent to prison for 14 days. 

If this masquerader had worn the uniform of 
the trained staff of the General Hospital, Notting- 
ham, she might have kicked capers from now till 
Doomsday, as the civil professional nurse's 
uniform is not protected by law. 



APPOINTMENTS. 

MATRON. 

County Hospital, Ayr. — Miss I. M. Crichton 
has been appointed Matron. She was trained at 
Chalmers Hospital, Edinburgh, and has held the 
position of Sister at the West Kent Hospital, 
Maidstone, and of Staff Nurse at the Edmonton 
General Hospital 

NURSE MATRON. 

Infectious Diseases Hospital, Montrose. — Miss 
A. R. Hay has been appointed Nurse Matron. 
She was trained at the Alloa Infectious Diseases 
Hospital, and at the Royal Infirmary, Halifax. 

CHARGE NURSE. 

Tlie Infirmary, Lichfield. — Miss G. M. Foster 
has been appointed Charge Nurse. She was 
trained in the same institution. 

QUEEN ALEXANDRA'S IMPERIAL MILITARY 
NURSING SERVICE. 

Miss D. M. Priestley to be Staff Nurse. 



PRESENTATION. 

On leaving Kensington Infirmary to take up 
work as a Chaplain to the Forces the Rev. A. Lom- 
bardini was the recipient of many gifts, including a 
dressing case from the Nurses' League, and a 
fountain pen, and field water bottle from the 
patients. 



I02 



^be »nti9b 3oiirnal of l^ursing. 



August lo, 1918 



NURSING ECHOES. 



The Lord Mayor of Norwich has announced 
that Queen Alexandra has consented to open 
the new Edith Cavell Memorial Home at 
Norwich, a decision which will give great 
pleasure to many nurses. 



The Royal Sanitary Institute, 90, Bucking- 
ham Palace Road, London, S.W. i, has 
now issued its prospectus for its autumn 
courses of lectures for the examinations for 
Women Health Visitors, School Nurses, and 
Maternity and Child Welfare Workers, begin- 
ning on Wednes- 
day, September 
i8th, and Monday, 
September 23rd, at 
6 p.m. Candidates 
must possess a 
nursing qualifica- 
tion before enter- 
ing for these ex- 
aminations. Not 
only is the know- 
ledge obtained by 
attendance at these 
lectures and de- 
monstrations valu- 
able to its posses- 
sor, including in- 
■ struction on many 
subjects not dealt 
with in the ordi- 
nary curriculum of 
a nurse's training, 
but the certificates 
awarded to suc- 
cessful candidates 
after the examina- 
tion held at the end 
of the courses, are 
definite assets, as 
the Women Health 
Visitors and School 
Nurses' certificate 
of the Royal Sani- 
tary Institute is 
recognized by the 

Local Government Board as qualifying for the 
appointment of Health Visitor, and that in 
school hygiene is accepted by the Education 
Committee of the London County Council and 
other large towns as a qualification for certain 
appointments. 




MISS CARRIE M. HALL, R.N., 
Chief Nurse for the American Red Cross in Great Britain. 



Cross Society at Colebrook Lodge, West Hill, 
Putney Heath. The house, which belongs to 
Colonel Ryan, will accommodate twenty-five 
nurses, stands in three acres of lovely grounds, 
and is ideal for the purpose. By and by, 
when the nurses, now for the most part full of 
energy, are feeling the strain of war work and 
the need of rest and recuperation, the hos- 
pitality of Colebrook House will be welcome 
indeed. At present it is under the direct charge 
of Miss Carrie M. Hall, R.N., Chief Nurse for 
the American Red Cross in Great Britain, but 
she hopes to delegate this duty as the demands 
on the Horre become more strenuous. 

By permission of 
Mr. Frank M. 
America, Director 
on Information of 
the American Rpd 
Cross in London 
(the headquarters 
of which are at 
40, Grosvenor 
Gardens, S.W.), 
and by the courtesy 
of the Editor of the 
Gentlewoman, we 
are able to publish 
the accompanying 
portrait of Miss 
Carrie Hall, taken 
in her office at 
Headquarters. It 
will be remembered 
that about a year 
ago Miss Hall 
came over in 
charge of the Har- 
vard Unit, which has 
seen active service 
in France, and her 
experience in this 
connection, as well 
as her administra- 
tive work as Super- 
intendent of Nurses 
at the Peter Bent 
Brigham Hospital, 
Boston, U.S.A., arc 
excellent qualifications for her present posi- 
tion, which demands a woman of tact, profes- 
sional skill, and experience. On the wall 
behind her desk hangs a large map of Northern 
France, of the details of which Miss Hall 
has an intimate knowledge. 



A Convalescent Home for American nurses, 
of whom there are some 500 now working in 
this country, exclusive of the thousands in 
France, has been opened by the American Red 



Sir William Treloar, who has done so much 
for tuberculous children, by founding the hos- 
pital at Alton, announces further developments 
in prospect at Hayling Island. 



August lo, 1918 



Zbc British 3ournal of IRurstnQ. 



103 



NURSES' 



MISSIONARY 

[Contributed.] 



LEAGUE. 



Another Nurses' Missionary League Camp — this 
time arranged to suit dwellers in the North. It 
was with feelings of great equanimity I embarked 
from Ireland and wended my way to Mottram-St. 
Andrew, Cheshire. I was rejoicing in the thought 
that I was an outsider going to have a good time 
as such, looking on, and finding pleasure in the 
observance of others from a nice, quiet corner— so 
I told myself. But — and such a big but — little 
by little my idea fell to pieces, as I realised I was 
not to be an island out on my own, but a member 
of a very happy, gladsome community. My dis- 
illusionment commenced at the station, where I 
was met by the sister of our hostess who handed 
my belongings to the official for delivery and we 
set off together for the Camp. The country was 
charming, and every few moments one felt it 
impossible to be silent and had to e^jclaim about 
the beauty of it all. As we neared Green Dais we 
were met by our indefatigable hostess and secre- 
tary, who extended me a very warm welcopie. 
How at home I felt ; the "corner " was quietly 
disappearing. 

Arrivals continued at frequent intervals What 
a joyful whirl of excitement meeting everyone ; 
parties on the road coming up, crossing others on 
the way down to meet still' further comers from 
hospitals, &c., there being but one small regret — 
you could not be going both ways at once. 

We quickly shook into our places, and our daily 
course took shape. Early tea and the energetic 
hurried off to try to raise an appetite (none too 
difficult to woo) for breakfast. We laughed and 
chatted over this meal, plans were discussed, 
arrangements made for meeting those who could 
only pay short visits, objects of interest to be seen 
&c. After singing, reading and prayers, we all 
hastened out of doors, returning at noon. We 
then assembled for a Bible study. On three 
occasions we were led by Mrs. Kirk [nSe Stubbs)- 
These studies were most helpful as each was asked 
to take part if inclined. No hesitation was felt in 
the asking of questions or testifying to any passage 
that had been in any wise illumined. 

After dinner at i p.m., we followed our own 
devices, whether resting, walking, reading, 
writing or sewing. We were such a jolly, happy 
lot. Tea at four o'clock was served out of doors 
if weather permitted. Conversation then fre- 
quently ensued on missionary subjects, Mrs. 
Kirk telling of her hospital experiences in China, 
from whence she had recently returned. She was 
brimming over with interest, and we all felt 
how very delightful it was to listen. 

One also who came from Ceylon and India 
could find an audience at any moment to talk 
over the methods of work, &c., among the many 
varied nationalities there found, each of which is 
of intense interest from the missionary point of 
view. 

Our camp (as the outsider in the corner now 



calls it) has been a great help all round. One 
feels freshened and restored in every way — mind, 
body, soul and spirit. We felt it was good to be 
here, even for a short time. 

I would like to refer to the kindness of the 
curate of the pai"ish church, who welcomed us to 
all the services and arranged for a special earlv 
celebration, where we could all unite and renew 
our vows to Christ our Head, pledging ourselves 
to be His faithful servants and followers to our 
life's end. Then again we would thank the Rev. 
H. E. Stevens, who, though greatly pressed for 
time, came over to the camp and held a short 
service. 

Our farm friends were most kind in seeing to 
our bodily wants. In these days of permits, 
ration-cards, &c., one cannot enlarge upon it, 
but sit down, marvel, and be thankful. Our 
happy week came to an end all too soon, but one 
and all echo the words of the old toast : " To our 
next merrie meeting." 



DORMIQENE. 

We have received several inquiries from our 
readers concerning this drug, and a London 
phvoician to whom we referred the question has 
been good enough to answer as follows : — Dor- 
migene used to be known and was widely used 
under the trade name of " Bromural." It is, in 
simple language, a bromide valerian combination 
and I have found it valuable in nerve cases as a 
very efficient sedative. Especially in the ex- 
tremely troublesome series of nervous and organic 
congestions associated with the menopause in 
women, and due of course to the presence in the 
body of the blood previously lost each month and 
the consequent stress on the circulation. I have 
found that Dormigene is more useful than the 
ordinary bromides of potash or ammonium, which 
have for so many years been our great resource in 
medicinal treatment of these ca,ses. Moreover 
Dormigene does not seem to me to exert either the 
depressing effects which bromides so often cause, 
nor do patients while taking it seem to suffer from 
the acne eruptions which are so frequent and 
troublesome a consequence of a continued bromide 
couise. T have not used this drug as a hypnotic 
and cannot therefore give 3'ou any opinion on that 
point ; but as a matter of fact I have found the 
bromides in nerve cases only act as sleep pro- 
ducers when given in large doses, and I have, there- 
fore, come to rely on such drugs as trional for that 
purpose. 

■ • ■ 

Gen. Sir Arthur S:oggett, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., 
K.C.V.O., has joined the Board of Bovril, Ltd. 
Sir Arthur was Director-General of the Army 
Medical Service from June ist, 1914, to June ist 
1918, and from October, 1914, to June ist, 1918, 
was Director-General of the British Armies in 
France and Chief Commissioner of the Order of 
St. John of Jerusalem and the British Red Cross 
Societies. 



I04 



JLbc Briti0b 3ournal of 'Wursina. 



August lo, 1918 



WELL EAR NED DI STINCTION, 

The King has conferred on Dr. Alfred Cox the 
Order of the British Empire and the rank of 
Member of the same Order on Miss Laurence. 

At the Annual Representative Meeting of the 
British Medical Association Dr. Garstang, chair- 
man of the Medico-Political Committee, referred 
to the fact that as a result of Dr. Cox's work for 
the Central Medical War Committee he had been 
honoured by the King, and proposed a vote of 
very hearty congratulations to Dr. Cox, and also 
of congratulations to Miss Laurence, whose work 
had been of great value to the office. This was 
warmly seconded by Dr. Jenner Verrall, and 
acknowledged by Dr. Cox. 



BOOK OF THE WEEK. 



KAREN.* 

" I am going to Germany," I said looking up 
from my letters, 

" What for ? " said Dad. He never wasted 
words. 

" Eugenie Gutheim is going to be married, and 
wants me to come to her wedding. I promised her 
I would if she won her bet." 

" What do you mean by saying she has won her 
bet I " 

"We had a bet together when she left school. 
I said she would marry a business man, and she 
said she would marry an officer, however difficult 
it was." 

" Why should it be difficult ? " 

" Because the Gutheims are Jews. Eugenie told 
me that no officers visited at their house. Yet she 
has pulled it off." 

This conversation gives Ihe key to the eventful 
visit of Kaien to Germany prior to the war. It 
was in the train between Cologne and Reichen- 
stadt that she met the German officer that she 
afterwards married. There was a great gulf fixed 
between the vulgar Gutheims and the noble family 
of Karen's fianc6, and, of course, this made com- 
plications from the outset. Added to this, Oscar 
Strauss, upon whom Emma Gutheim had set her 
somewhat heavy affections, had chosen to regard 
Karen attentively whilst he sang, " Du bist wie eine 
Blume." The result was a violent outburst from 
Emma and the return of Karen to England. This 
Nvas before her engagement to Graf Wolfram. 

Karen, however, got a great deal of amusement 
out of the affaii. 

" To watch Frau Gutheim and Eugenie conduct 
Emma's love affairs was like watching an old- 
fashioned play, or reading an old-fashioned novel 
in which characters play their part with a 
simplicity w? cannot achieve. I began to wonder 
why Herr Strauss hesitated over the word that was 
to make him the happiest man till Eugenie told me 

*By Mrs. Alfred Sidgwick. Collins, Sons & Co. 
London. 



he was waiting for the betrothal ring. It would 
arrive shortly from Reichenstadt, and at the same 
time there would be a moon. 

"You see," she said, "one morning he will 
receive a sealed packet, and after supper he will 
Suggest to Emma that it is a glorious night." 

" Supposing it rains," I suggested. 

" Then he will find sohie other plan, Oscar is 
highly ingenious and original." 

" Did he sing " Du bist wie eine Blume " to 
Emma ? 

" He did at our house, about six weeks ago, it 
was highly exciting." 

Karen's own wedding took place in England, 
and she returned with her husband to life in a 
German noble family, where we are glad to say she 
held her own. 

The Grafin was large, fair and dignified. The 
Graf stared at my maid and said in a tone of 
surprise : 

" Who is this, then ? " 

" Its only Wil kins, my maid." 

Wilkins was devoted to me and an excellent 
maid, but she had her tiresome side, and when I 
told her to say " Ja," as if she meant " Yes," had 
bridled in an irritating way and pointed out 
that she had been taught to consider " Yah " 
a vulgar expression only used by the lower classes. 

" Of course, you mustn't put your tongue out 
and say it in a defiant tone," I explained. " You 
must say ' Ja,' gently and firmly when you want 
a thing. When you don't want it you say 
' Nein.' " 

" Nein," echoed Wilkins, " what a peculiar 
language. Why not ten ? " 

I told her she must expect that everything 
would be a little different, but she had only 
replied that she supposed German gentry were like 
gentry everywhere else and knew what was 
expected.' 

Wilkins was whole-hearted in her dislike of 
everything German, in which matter she showed 
her power of perception, even in those pre-war 
days. 

" I had to speak to the Grafin and explain to 
her that Wilkins was used to tea and bread and 
butter at half-past seven, porridge, tea, bacon and 
marmalade at nine, and a solid early 'dinner at 
one, and that she would feel faint if she were 
supplied with less than this. 

" Then let her feel faint," said the Grafin " such 
demands I will not satisfy." 

So I had to wrap up this ultimatum in different 
language and deliver it to Wilkins as best I might.' 

Once more, we have brought into prominence 
the cruelty of the educationeJ methods applied to 
German boys as exemplified in little Max. The 
book ends with the death of Wolfram and the 
escape of Karen and Wilkins from the German 
frontier at the outbreak of the war. Wolfram 
it must be admitted, had some good points ; but 
we are glad that the concluding pages leave Karen 
happily married to a True Blue. 

H. H. 



August lo, 1918 



(Tbe British 3ournal of IRursina. 



?o3 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects Jot these columns, we wish it to h$ 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 

RECONSTRUCTION IN THE NURSINQ 
PROFESSION. 

To the Editor o/The British Journal of Nursing. 

Madam, — So much interest is being shown in 
the problems connected with the re-building of 
the nation that I feel this is not an inappropriate 
moment to draw the attention of your readers 
to an important movement in the organisation 
of the nursing profession, which has been develop- 
ing for a number of years. The essence of the 
movement makes it unostentatious and un- 
clamorous for assistance, but that very fact 
will enlist the sympathy of those who believe in 
sound organisation and self-respecting effort. 

I need say nothing in these days about the 
immense importance to the community of the 
nursing profession, and I merely allude to it in 
order to show that this being so, it is also a matter 
of real interest to the public that nurses should be 
organised on right lines. As stated in a recent 
publication : " All the proposals which are con- 
nected with the re- organisation of public health 
must, for their efficient treatment, depend greatly 
upon the work of nurses." 

An upward turning point comes in the history 
of a profession when its members realize that 
the responsibility for its development rests on 
"their shoulders. Those who have studied the 
histoiy of the medical profession know what a 
great influence for good was brought to bear 
when the rank and file of medical men banded 
themselves together into the British Medical 
Association. The keynote of such an organisation 
is that the responsibility for a profession shall be 
shouldered by the profession itself. Self-respect, 
self-government, self-development, self-support. 
The National Union of Trained Nurses has had 
for a number of years a system of Branch organisa- 
tion, providing for post-graduate lectures, oppor- 
tunities for discussion and practical demonstra- 
tion. It assists its members with free legal and 
professional advice. It upholds the interests 
of nurses in Parliament and on public bodies. 
It runs an employment bureau for nurses which 
has proved to be of great value. Many nurses — 
members and non-members — ^have expressed their 
appreciation of the friendly welcome and expert 
advice they receive at the Central Office, 46, 
Marsham Street, "Westminster. 

The Society has a very carefully thought out 
democratic constitution and is managed entirely 
by members of the profession on the system of 
local representation on a central body. It is run 
on practical business lines for the benefit of nurses, 
but it has from the beginning always borne the 
good of the country in mind, thus avoiding cne 



of the great pitfalls of similar organisations — a 
narrow professionalism. 

The National Union of Trained Nurses is 
affiliated to the Royal British Nurses' Association, 
which is the only society of women possessing a 
Royal Charter, with the powers that result 
therefrom. 

The members of the public who understand 
the importance of professional development will 
be glad to realize the existence of so soundly 
organised a society for nurses and will doubtless 
give it their support, and nurses should join in 
large numbers to give it the strength necessary to 
carry out its reason for existence. The body 
which will administer the affairs connected with 
State Registration must be one representing all 
nursing interests, and a bill safeguarding this has 
for years been before Parliament, but it is of the 
utmost importance that there should be a strong 
society such as the National Union of Trained 
Nurses — representing trained professional opinion 
— in existence, both whilst the bill is being con- 
sidered and after the Act comes into force, in order 
that the beneficent effect of a wide range of free 
opinion may be brought to bear op all matters 
affecting the profession. 

All information can be procured from the 
Secretary, 46, Marsham Street, Westminster, 
S.W. I. Yours faithfully, 

E. L. C. Eden. 

A VEXATIOUS ARRANGEMENT. 

To the Editor of HviiE British Journal of Nursing. 
Dear Madam, — In answer to your correspondent 
re R.N.P.F. annuitants, I should like to state the 
annuitant has no need to send either doctor's or 
clergyman's certificate in acknowledgement ot her 
quarterly allowance. It is sufficient for her 
receipt paper to be signed by someone who knows 
her personally, and who will also witness her sig- 
nature, which implies that she is alive. Therefore 
there is no need for publicity in respect to her 
private aftairs. Neither is Income Tax deducted 
from her annuity. The amount of her annuity 
must be recorded in the ordinajy way if she is 
lia.ble to Income Tax duty. A special certificate 
was sent out last Maixh to be signed by others 
than friends, but that is the only occasion I 
know of. 

One of the Second Thousand. 



OUR PRIZE COMPETITION. 

QUESTIONS. 

August lyth. — What is pernicious anaenva ? 
How have you seen it treated ? 

August 24 /A. — ^What points would you observe 
in paying an ante-natal visit to an expectd.nt 
mother ? What would you impress upon the 
patient ? 

OUR ADVERTISERS. 

Do not omit to buy, as far as possible, every- 
thing you need from " Our Advertisers," and to 
recommend them to your iriends. They are all 
first-cJass firms. 



'o^ Zbc :3Brltt0b 3ournal of "Kureinc Supplement, "^"sust lo, 1918 



The Midwife. 



CENTRAL MIDWIVES' BOARD (ENGLAND) 

EXAMINATION PAPER. 

The following are the questions set at the 
examination of the Central Midwives Board 
(England) at the London and Provincial Centres on 
August 1st : — - 

1. Describe the relative positions of the cont€ nts 
of the female pelvis, illustrating your answer with a 
diagram. 

2. What investigation would you n:i,ake of a 
patient at the seventh month who engages you to 
attend her in her confinement ? Under what 
circumstances would you advise the patient to see 
a doctor ? 

•3. What is meant by presentation and prolapse of 
the cord ? How would you treat these conditions ? 

4. What are the causes of subinvolution of the 
uterus, and what symptoms accompany it ? 

6. What is the best method of feeding an infant, 
and why ? Describe the care of the breasts of the 
nursing mother. 

5. What is the importance of irregular bleeding 
from the vagina in a woman aged fifty ? 

I m ■ 

CENTRALMIDWIVES' BOARD (SCOTLAND) 

T'he Examination of the Central Midwives' Board 
for Scotland, held on July 29th last, simultaneously 
in Edinburgh, Glasgow and Dundee, has concluded 
with the foil owing results : — 

LIST OF SUCCESSFUL CANDIDATES. 

' Edinburgh. 

Miss Elizabeth Baxter, Mrs. Henrietta G. 
Deller, Miss Helen O. Driver, Miss Margaret J. 
Elliot, Mrs. Jemima M. Ferguson, Miss Barbara 
Galloway, Miss Helen Grant, Miss Esther J. Hewes, 
Miss Margaret C. McCIuskie, Miss Mary Missett,' 
Miss Jeanie M. Motson, Mrs. Annie F. Tait, Miss 
Isabella N. Wanless, Mrs. Ellen G. Watson, Miss 
Jemima Young. 

Glasgow. 

Mrs. Mary A. Ablett, Miss Alexandrina Ander- 
son, Mrs. Elizabeth Foster, Miss Annie Eraser, 
Miss Bridget Gavin, Miss Mary L. W. Hall, Miss 
Annie Hardie, Miss Elizabeith F. Horn, Miss Helen 
L. Hosie, Miss Elizabeth Kay, Miss Jessie Kelso, 
Miss Mary King, Miss Isabel W. McCIymotit, Miss 
Catherine McGillivray, Miss Catherine M. Mclnnes, 
Mrs. Jeanie McLellan, Miss Catherine McMillan, 
Miss Mary Munn, Miss Lizzie G. Polwart, Mrs. 
Beatrice A. Reid, Miss Margaret B. Summers, Miss 
Susan Turner, Mrs. Jessie Wi'liamson. 

DUNUEE. 

Miss Davina B. Anderson, Miss Magdalena M. 
Baxter, Miss Barbara W. Craigen, Miss Janet M. 
Drummond, Miss Margaret M. Dunn, Miss Emily I. 
Gilbert, Miss IsabeUa Gordon, Miss Charlotle 
McGregor, Miss Annabella Mackay, Miss Isabella 
McKenzie, 



EXAMINATION PAPER. 

The following are the questions set at the 
examination of the Central Midwives Board for 
Scotland on July 29th : — 

1. Define the third stage of labour. Give its 
management when normal and mention the com- 
plications which may occur. 

2. What medical conditions must the midwife 
inquire into on the occasion of her first visit after 
labour {a) as regards the mother, and (6) as regards 
the new-born infant ? 

3. If a patient has bleeding from the uterus 
about the seventh month of pregnancy, what may 
it be due to, and what arc the risks to her and to 
the foetus ? 

4. What do you understand by prolapse of the 
umbilical cord ? How would you manage such a 
case until the doctor arrived ? 

5. In a private house what methods would you 
use and how would you proceed to sterilise and 
disinfect the following : — Your hands, surgical 
instruments, and the patient ? 

6. State the cases in which a midwife must seuu 
notification as soon as possible to the Local Super- 
vising Authority according to the Rules of the 
Central Midwives Board. 

FIRST VACANCY IN THE SCOTTISH BOARD. 

We regret to announce that Sir Robert Kirk 
Inches, who had been present and taken an active 
interest in the meetings of the Board on the 
'Jhursday afternoon, died suddenly on Friday 
morning. Sir Robert Inches was elected by the 
Convention of Royal Burghs of Scotland as its 
representative on the Board, when it was consti- 
tuted on February i8th, 1916. He was appointed 
Convener of the Finance Committee, an office 
which he discharged with much acceptance. His 
shrewdness and business ability were highly ap- 
preciated by the Board, and his relations with his 
colleagues were at all times of the kindliest and 
most genial character. 

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF MOTHERHOOD. 

An exceedingly interesting meeting of the 
Workers Section of the A.I.W.M.C. was recently 
held at the National Institute of Public Health 
(by kind permission of the secretary). 

The speaker was Dr. Jessie Murray, and she 
came to talk about the " I'sychology of Mother- 
hood," a subject that is of great interest to those 
who are working amongst mothers. Dr. Murray 
gave an interesting account of the development 
of the human organism, and then went on to an 
absorbing analysis of the present-day mother. The 
discussion afterwards was keen, and in answer to 
questions that followed, sonic further points were 
elucidated. The thanks of the meeting to the 
lecturer were proposed by Miss Atherton and 
seconded by Miss E .ot. 



THE 

WITH WHICH IS INCORPORATED 

rME MMHSIIKl ll^€01 

EDITED BY MRS BEDFORD FENWICK 




No. 1,585. 



SATURDAY, AUGUST 17, 1918. 



Vol. LXI. 



EDITORIAL. 



THE SOUL OF NURSING. 

We can hardly touch upon any question 
of social reform which does not affect the 
work and the interests of intelligent, edu- 
cated nurses, for the term " trained nursing " 
has an ever-widening meaning and scope, 
and its aims are preventive as well as 
curative. 

Nurses of the present day have a much 
greater knowledge of the evil in the world 
than those of the past, That bare fact 
shows very significant and important pro- 
gress ; because, with wider knowledge of 
existing evil, comes the stronger, more 
passionate aspiration to abolish it, and to 
make our beloved country cleaner, and there- 
fore healthier and happier. We are well 
aware, for instance, of the widespread 
evil caused by the preventable infection of 
venereal disease. We are up against that 
accusing fact, also that in spite of the 
numerous public health agencies, that are 
doing such excellent work, these prevent- 
able things are not prevented. Neverthe- 
less, there is another side to the melancholy 
picture, which fills us with encouragement 
and hope. Endued with power that comes 
of knowledge and adequate training, nurses 
are beginning to realize themselves. When 
all stultifying limits and barriers to progress 
are removed, and the full powers of nurses 
(more especially social service nurses) are 
liberated, the opportunities of our profession 
will be boundless. 

There is a beautiful expression in a well- 
known hymn; — '*fire of love." It is just 
this fire of love — love for our fellow-crea- 
tures which is the highest form of love, 
which impels enlightened men and women, 
whose consciences are aroused to a sense 
of their corporate responsibilities as their 
weaker brothers' and sisters' " keepers," to 
desire more power to do 'more and more 



good in the world, which is " white already 
to harvest." The one supreme hindrance 
to progress which has for so many years 
strangled endeavour, and stultified effort, 
has now been removed. Women are now 
enfranchised citizens. All conscientious 
nurses endued with the "fire of love " and 
having the necessary qualifications will 
realize that they dare not repudiate their 
responsibilities in this matter. They are 
fully aware also of the high privilege of 
having a voice- — through their representa- 
tives — in the Councils of the Nation. 

Questions of public health are now being 
recognized as \itally important to the 
future welfare of our great Empire, and tlje 
next Parliament — the first that will be 
elected by the people (women as well as 
men) will have to deal with them, and none 
will be more competent than well-trained, 
educated nurses. 

Hitherto the emphasis upon the work and 
usefulness of nurses has been placed too 
much upon the heart, and too little upon 
the head. We do not mean for a moment 
to minimize the importance of the former, 
the highest qualities of the heart are needed, 
but an understanding heart is what is most 
required. A woman who is all heart and 
has no head will make as bad a nurse as 
the one who is unbalanced in the other 
direction. The soul of nursing consists of 
wisdom, understanding, counsel, strength 
and knowledge, combined in a well-balanced 
whole. 

Thus equipped, and with the opportunities 
and powers referred to above, we believe 
that trained nurses will, in the near future, 
take a large share in the reforms and 
destinies of their country. The way will 
not be easy, the path will not be smooth. 
There will be vested interests and other 
antagonisms to combat, but — 
" I hold that it becomes no man to nurse despair. 

But in the teeth of clench'd antagonisms 

To follow up the worthiest till he die." 



io8 



^be Britteb Journal of *Rur0tnQ. 



August 17, 1918 



OUR PRIZ E COM PETITION. 

WHAT IS PERNICIOUS AN/EMIA? HOW HAVE YOU 
SEEN IT TREATED? 

We have pleasure in awarding the prize this 
week to Miss Alice M. Burns, East Suffolk and 
Ipswich Hospital, Ipswich. 

PRIZE PAPER. 

Pernicious anaemia is a somewhat obscure 
disease of the blood. It resembles simple 
anaemia in that it produces the symptoms of 
unhealthy pallor, breathlessness, languor, 
debility, and constipation, and differs from it 
in that it is associated with a diminution and 
also enucleation of the red blood corpuscles 
which would seem to destroy their capacity for 
holding iron and attracting oxygen, for iron, 
so valuable in the treatment of simple anaemia, 
is of no avail in these cases. 

The disease is a very insidious one, and said 
to be invariably fatal, though periods of 
improvement may be looked for. 

How I have seen it treated: — (i) Drugs, 
(2) bone marrow, (3) rest, (4) good food, 
(5) fresh air. 

,(i) We give first place to drugs, and one 
drug — arsenic — because they would seem to 
arrest the destruction of the blood elements. 
It*may be given as a simple mixture, but is now 
usually given by either intravenous or intra- 
muscular injection in the form of Salvarsan or 
its English substitute Galyl (20 to 40 c.c.gs.). 

(2) Bone marrow is looked upon as a source 
of supply of new red blood corpuscles, and is 
often given in sandwiches. 

(3) Rest is esssential, in the later stages in 
bed. The heart is always overtaxed in these 
cases, and may give out under strain. 

(4) Good food of an easily digested char- 
acter should be abundant, and the patient's 
appetite fostered, although unfortunately in 
the nature of the disease he cannot take 
advantage of all he eats. 

One investigator has discovered that the 
blood destruction is greatly diminished by the 
use of a farinaceous diet and increased by 
nitrogenous foods. 

(5) I have placed fresh air last because, 
since the blood is deficient in haemoglobin and 
iron, the patient can only derive a minimum 
of benefit from oxygen, yet it goes witout say- 
ing that he should be placed in a position to 

-obtain that minimum without loss of time. 

These patients come to suffer great exhaus- 
tion and emaciation, and require unwearying 
care in the keeping of the bed clean and the 
skin whole, and the relieving of painful 
symptoms which are the outcome of their 
enfeebled conditions. 



HONOURABLE MENTION. 

The following competitors receive honour- 
able mention : — Miss Ethel E. Hall, Miss E. F. 
Thompson, Miss M. Robinson, Miss B. James, 
Miss A. M. M. Cullen. Miss Ethel Hall writes : 

It is probable that a group of diseases are 
collected together and called pernicious anaemia 
because the blood changes are similar in all 
of them. The usual type is generally fatal, 
and may occur both in men and women after 
the age at which chlorosis is common ; and its 
chief characteristic is failure to improve under 
iron, which often proves of benefit in ordinary 
anaemia. The cause o<" it is not yet known, but 
it follows many conditions in which the system 
is depressed either physically or mentally. 

The disease is a very insidious one, the 
patient gradually becoming weak and blood- 
less, and the colour of the skin is yellowish, 
the mucous membranes are also pale, there 
is marked shortness of breath on exertion, due 
to the fact that there is but little haemoglobin 
to carry oxygen to the tissues, the blood thus 
requiring much more aeration in the lungs than 
usual. There is often severe and distressing 
palpitation of the heart, and the sufferer is 
feeble, languid, and incapable of physical or 
mental exertion of any kind. Constipation is 
often a marked feature, also pain after food, 
with constant attacks of diarrhoea and vomit- 
ing, or both, but there is no marked wasting. 
There is often fever, the urine is dark in colour, 
and there may be tenderness of the bones. 
Changes also occur in the retina, and death 
usually ensues from exhaustion. Another 
special feature is the iiability to haemorrhages. 

QUESTION FOR NEXT WEEK. 

What point would you observe in paying an 
ante-natal visit to an exi>ectant mother? What 
would you impress upon the patient? 



RECTAL FEEDING. 

An article on this subject in the Journal of 
the American Medical Association says that as 
there is no proof that the colon possesses 
adequate digestive capacity, all food introduced 
by way of the rectum should be completely pre- 
digested. Flesh and eggs are undesirable 
because of their tendency to putrefy. Milk is 
comparatively free from this disadvantage, and 
appears to be the ideal source of protein for a 
nutritive enema. It should be fresh and un- 
boiled, thoroughly p>eptonized and pancrea- 
tized. It should be skimmed, as fat introduced 
into the colon is useless and may be harmful. 
Glucose in solution supplies carbohydrate in an 
available form. Strained fruit juice may supply 
desirable salts to a limited extent.. 



August 17, 1918 • 



^be Brtti0b 3ournal of IRuraina* 



109 



NURSING AND THE WAR. 



RECOGNITION OF HOME HOSPITAL WORK. 

The names of a very large number of ladies 
have been brought to the notice of the Secretary 
of State for War for valuable nursing services 
rendered in connection with the war. The lists 
are issued from the War Office under dates August 
loth and 1 2th. 

AFRICAN CAMPAIGN. 

Gen. Deventer's List of Mentions. 
East Africa. 
The names of the following have been brought 
to the notice of the Secretary of State for War 
by Lieutenant- General Sir J. L. van Deventer, 
K.C.B., Commanding-in-Chief, British Forces, 
East Africa, for distinguished services during the 
operations from May 30th to December, 1917, 
described in his dispatch of January 21st, 191 8 : — 

NURSING SERVICES. 

Imperial Section. 
CoRMACK, Miss J., Sister, N.Z.A.N.S. ; Roberts, Miss 
F. N., Sister (A./Matron), R.R.C., Q.A.I. M.N. S. 
Thornborrow, Miss M. A., Staff Nurse, T.F.N. S. 
Townley, Miss E. J., Staff Nurse, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R. 
Watson, Miss E. N., Staff Nurse, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R. 
Wreford, Miss K. E., Staff Nurse, T.F.N. S. 

South African Section. 
FitzHenry, Miss D., Sister, S.A.M.N.S. ; Lambert, 
Miss J., Sister, S.A.M.N.S. 

East African Section. 
Brown, Mrs. N. M., Hon. Nurse, E.A.N.S. ; Dray- 
ton, Miss L. A., Nursing Sister, E.A.N.S. ; Sheldon, 
Miss A., Nursing Sister, E.A.N.S. 

Norforce. 
Spendler, Miss F. , Sister, Nyasaland Fd. Force Med. 
Serv. ; Wilson, Miss R. L., Sister, Northern Rhodesia 
Med. Serv. 

Italian Mission. 
Gundene, Nursing Sister. 

THE V.A.D. 

The Surrey Branch, British Red Cross Society, 
have passed the following resolution : — 

" That in view of the lajge number of other 
services now open to women, it is essential for 
maintaining the personnel of Voluntary Aid 
Detachments that service in such detachments 
should be placed on a more satisfactory basis. 
That, as a step in this direction, the opinion of 
this branch is that approved whole-time service 
in auxiliary hospitals, for a specified period, should 
be reckoned to excuse some portion of the training 
of such members as professional nurses in general 
civil hospitals." 

Lord Ashcombe, Chairman of the Surrey 
County Committee, writing from Denbies, Dorking, 
says in the Times that concessions of this kind 
have already been made by at least four of the 
great hospitals of this category in London, but, 
the Committee feel that the principle should be 



universally adopted by civil hospitals in Great 
Britain and Ireland. They know that views of a 
like nature are largely shared by other county 
branches and persons connected therewith, but 
that there are difficulties in the way of their 
expression. They are prepared to take the lead 
in a movement to forward this purpose if sufficient 
Support is forthcoming, and ask, therefore that 
those in sympathy with them in this respect will 
communicate with the Secretary, Surrey Branch, 
British Red Cross Society, 13, Charterhouse 
Street, E.C. 1. 

We have always foreseen that the claim would 
be made that war service should rank as sytematic 
training in nursing, but it has not been organised 
as such, and cannot, therefore, be rightly so 
regarded. 

THE EDINBURGH BRANCH OF THE 
BRITISH RED CROSS SOCIETY. 

The following appointments have been made by 
the Personnel Committee of the Edinbuigh Branch 
of the British Red Cross Society during the past 
ha' f -year : — Miss Maiy Gordon Smith, Kippenross 
Hosp'., Dunblane; Miss McBain, Edenfield Hosp., 
Fife ; Mrs. Allan, Edinburgh War Hosp., Bangour ; 
Mrs. Green, Battery Hosp., Dunbar ; Miss Macleod, 
Edinburgh War H:)sp., Bangour; Miss Gordon, 
St. Leonard's Aux. Hosp., Edinburgh; Miss Stobo, 
Bowhill Officers' H:!sp., Selkirk; Miss Gray, St. 
Leonard's Hosp., Edinburgh ; Miss Farquhar, 
D mgallon Hosp., Oban ; Miss Mitchell, Edinburgh 
War Hosp., Bangour; Mrs. King, Mayfield Aux. 
Hosp., Edinburgh ; Miss Jennings, Hopeton 
H mse H ^sp. , South Queemferry ; Miss E. Forsyth, 
Marchhall H )sp., Edinburgh ; Miss McBain, Leven 
H^sp., Fife; Miss F. Cameron, Tillyiie Hosp., 
Milnathort ; Miss Methven, Coldingham, Berwick- 
shire ; Mrs. Macdonald, Ceres Aux. Hosp., Fife ; 
Miss D )ig, Castle Milk H )sp., D amfries ; Miss A. B . 
Watscn, Ranfurly H:)sp., Bridge of Weir; Miss 
Tnomson, Ranfurly Hosp., Bridge of Weir ; Miss 
Lorimer, Bowhill Hosp., Selkirk ; Miss E. 
Chowler, Polkemmet Hosp., Whitburn ; Miss 
Cowan, Tayside Aux. Hosp. ; Miss Hastie, May- 
field Aux. Hosp., Edinburgh; Miss Torrens, 
Wemvss Castle Hosp., Fife ; Miss Tcrriss, Eden- 
field H Jsp., Fife ; Miss Field, D 'nblane War Hosp. ; 
Miss Janet D'ckson, DjJmeny House Hosp. ; Miss 
Belcher, The Gables, Gullane ; Miss Campbell, 
Whitehill Aux. Hos., Rosewrll ; Miss C. M. Grant, 
Dunblane War Hosp. ; Miss Campbell, Morelands, 
Peebles ; Miss Gillon, Wemyss Castle Hosp., Fife ; 
Miss F. Urquhart, Royal Naval Hosp., Peebles ; 
Miss Binnie, Whitehill Red Cross Hosp , Rose- 
well ; Miss Locke, Lochiel Hosp., Banavie, Fort 
William; Miss Belcher, Kippenross H^sp. Dun- 
blane ; Miss M. Thomas, Coldingham, Berwick- 
shire ; Miss Wray, Miss Grant, Miss Field and Miss 
Pearce, D JUb'ane War Hosp. ; Miss Maude Martin 
Craiglockhart War Hosp., Slateford, Edinburgh 
Miss Macdonald, Dunblane War Hosp. ; Miss 
Ruddock, Marchhall Aux. Hosp., Edinburgh. 



JIO 



Cbe British 3ournal of mursing. 



August 17, 1918 



THE ROYAL RED CROSS/ 



The King has been pleased to award the Royal 
Red Cross to the undermentioned ladies in recog- 
nition of ^their valuable nursing services in con- 
nection with the war. 

Second Class. 

NippARD, Mrs. E., Matron, Alderney Isolation Hospl., 
Newtown, Dorset; Nutsey, Miss E. M., Sister, 
N.Z.A.M.S., No. 2 N.Z. Hospl., Walton-on-Thames. 

Oatman, Miss C. M., Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing 
Service, No. 4. Can. Gen. Hospl., Basingstoke, Hants; 
O'DoNOGHUE, Miss A., Matron, Kitebrook, Moreton-in- 
Marsh ; O'Neill, Miss M., Matron, Southgate Aux. War 
Hospl., Grovelands, Southgate; O'Neill, Miss M. E., 
Matron, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., Mil. Hospl., Woking, Surrey; 
O'Sullivan, Miss J., Matron, Quarry Hill V.A.D. 
Hospl., Tonbridge. 

Palmer, Miss H. S., Sister, Thorncombe Mil. Hospl., 
Bramley ; Parker, Mrs. C. E., Sister, Gifford House 
Aux. Hospl., Roehampton, London; Parkins, Miss 
"M. F., Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing Service, I.O.D.E., 
Can. Red Cross Hospl. for Officers, i, Hyde Park Place, 
W. i; Paten, Miss E. M., A./Matron, Aust. A.N.S,, 
2nd Aust. Aux. Hospl., Southall, Middlesex; Paterson, 
. Miss H. C, Sister, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., Central Mil. 
Hospl., Heme Bay; Williams, Mrs. J. P., Commdt., 
Sandy Hospl., Beds; Peebles, Miss J. M,, Matron, R. 
Infirmary, Stirling; Peel, Miss A. M., Matron, Gerstley- 
Hoare Hospl. for Officers, 53, Cadogan Square, London ; 
Percy, Lady V. A., Matron, Mil. Hospl., Alnwick; 
Perrin, Miss H., Sister, Aust. A.N.S. , No. 3 Aust. Aux. 
Hospl., Dartford, Kent; Perry, Miss M., Sister, 
T.F.N. S., 5th Northern Gen. Hospl., Leicester; Peter, 
Miss M., Sister, Brompton Mil. Hospl., East Yorks ; 
Peter, Miss P., Matron, Hdqrs., B.R.C.S. ; Pettigrew, 
Miss E., Asst. Matron, Catterick Mil. Hospl., Yorks; 
Philip, Miss A. T., Matron, Forres Aux. Hospl., Moray- 
shire ; Philp, Miss E. K., Matron, St. Leonards Stone- 
haven Red Cross Aux. Hospl., Kincardineshire; Picker- 
ing, Mrs. A. M., Commandant, Arnold Hospl., Don- 
caster, Yorks; Pinnock, Mrs. R. H., Commandant, 
Warden House Hospl., Deal; Pitts, Miss R., Nurse, 
Hart House Hospl., Burnham, Somerset ; Porter, Miss 
E. A., Matron. Banbury Red Cross Hospl., Banbury, 
Oxfordshire; Price, Miss E., A./Matron, Highfield Mil. 
Hospl., Liverpool; Prichard, Miss M. A., Nursing 
Sister, Can. Nursing Service, No. 10 Can. Gen. Hospl., 
Brighton; Prowse, Miss M. T., Sister-in-Charge, Bram- 
hall and Cheadle Hulme Aux. Mil. Hospl., near Stock- 
port; PuGH, Mrs. E. M., Sister, Woolton Aux. Hospl., 
W. Lanes ; Pumphrey, Miss L., Matron, Queen's Hospl., 
Birmingham; Purcell, Miss L. E., Nurse, V.A.D. 
Hospl., Exmouth ; Purdie, Miss N. M., Matron, 
Brabyns Hall, Marples Bridge, Cheshire. 

Quigley, Miss M. E. , Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing 
Service, Granville Can. Spec. Hospl., Buxton; Quinn, 
Miss A., Sistcr-in-Charge, Spencer Street Aux. Hospl., 
Keighley, Yorks. 

Radcliffe, Miss G. S., Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing 
Service, No. 16 Can. Gen. Hospl., Orpington, Kent; 
Rainbow, Miss H. K., Night Sister. Brook War Hospl., 
Woolwich; Ramsbotham, Mrs. E. M., Sister-in-Charge, 
Rcdburn War Hospl., Eastbourne; Ramsden, Miss G., 
Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing Service, No. 12 Can. Gen. 
Hospl., Bramshott, Hants; Rigby-Murray, Miss E., 
Matron, V.A.D. Hospl., Hatton Grange, Shifnal, Shrop- 
shire ; Ridgevvell, Miss L. M., Staff Nurse, 



Q.A.I.M.N.S.R., King George's Hospl., Stamford 
Street, London; Roberts, Mrs. F., Matron, Holmfirth 
.Aux. Hospl., nr. Huddersfield ; Robertson, Miss 
C. C. B., Sister, Aux. Mil. Hospl., Moor Park, Preston ; 
Roche, Miss F., Sister, Q.A.I.M.N.S.R., Queen 
Alexandra's Mil. Hospl., Grosvenor, S.W. i ; Rogers, 
Miss A., Sister, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., Pavilion Gen. Hospl., 
Brighton; Romer, Miss H. E., Asst. Matron, T.F.N. S., 
3rd Sco. Gen. Hospl., Glasgow; Rooke, Miss R. M., 
Asst. Matron, Q.A.I. M.N. S., Mil. Hospl., Park Hall 
Camp, Oswestry; Rose, Miss E., Matron, Wych Red 
Cross Hospl., Forest Row, Sussex; Rose, Mrs. M., Asst. 
Matron, T.F.N.S., ist Scot. Gen. Hospl., Oldmill Sec- 
tion, Aberdeen; Rowlands, Miss B.. Commdt., St. 
Pierre's Red Cross Hospl., Cardiff; Russell, Miss A., 
Sister, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., Mil. Hospl., Dover ;. Russell, 
Miss E., Sister, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., Mil. Hospl., Prees 
Heath, Salop. 

Sadler, Miss M. T., Sister, Mil. Hospl., Alnwick; 
Saunders, Miss M. A. G., Matron, Plas Tudno, and St. 
Tudno Aux. Hospl., Llandudno, Carnarvon ; Scott, Mrs. 
M., Sister, Red Cross Hospital, Christchurch, Hants; 
Shield, Mrs. M., Matron, 20th Durham V.A. Hosp., 
St. Gabriel's, Sunderland; Short, Miss B., Nursing 
Sister, Exeter War Hospl., No. i Section; Siddells, 
Miss F., Sister, N.Z. A.N.S., No. i New Zealand Gen. 
Hospl., Brockenhurst, Hants; Sinclair, Mrs. J., 
Commdt., Red Cross Hospl. , Maesteg ; SLAYDEN.Mrs. E., 
Sister, County Hospl., Lincoln ; Slocock, Miss R., Sister, 
Harnham Red Cross Hospl., Salisbury; Slocombe, Miss 
J., Masseuse, V.A. Hospl., Totnes ; Smith, Mrs. E. M., 
Theatre Sister, Myrtle Aux. Hospl., Liverpool; Smith, 
Miss G. E. S., Sister, T.F.N. S., 2nd Sco. Gen. Hospl., 
Craigleith; Smith, Miss L. G., Sister, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., 
Mil. Hospl., Fort Pitt, Chatham; Smith, Miss M. E., 
Matron, Lady Forester Hospl., Much Wenlock, Shrops. ; 
Smith, Miss M. L., Matron, Burntwood Red Cross 
Hospl., Surrey; Smith, Miss M. E., Matron, Red Cross 
Hospl., Leek, Staffs; Smith, Miss S. E., Sister, V.A.D. 
Hospl., Coalville, Leics'; Smythe, Miss I., Sister, 
Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., Stoke-on-Trent War Hospl., New- 
castle, Staffs ; Spanner, Miss G. L., Nursing Sister, Can. 
Nursing Service, No. 12 Can. Gen. Hospl., Bramshott, 
Hants; Stein, Mrs. M. McK., Asst. Commdt. and 
Sister-in-Charge, Park House V.A. Hospl., Shipston-on- 
Stour; Stevens, Miss G. A. B., Matron, Aux. Mil. 
Hospl., Frodsham, Ches. ; Stevenson, Miss L. C, 
Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing Service, No. 10 Can. 
Gen. Hospl., Brighton; Strike, Miss M., Sister, 
Q.A.I. M.N. S.R., Mil. Hospl., Belton Park, Grantham; 
Sword, Miss J. E., Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing 
Service, No. 12 Can. Gen. Hospl., Bramshott, Hants. 



Miss Kate Maxey, who gained the Militr.ry 
Medal, the Red Cross Medal, and the Mens Ribbon, 
has been presented with a silver set of salts and 
spoons, inrecogrition of her heroic work in France, 
by the Spennymoor Ambulance Brigade and 
Nursing Division. She was wounded by hostile 
aircraft when in charge of a hospital in France. 



The Military Medal won by Sister McGinnis was 
awarded her for conspicuous bravery and devotion 
to duty during attacks by Germans on a St. John 
Ambulance Brigade Hospital from May 19th to 
June 1st. Miss McGirnis was on the staff of the 
City of DubUn Nursing Institution before joining 
the Red Cross at the outbreak of war, and has 
served over three years in France. 



August 17, 1918 



^be British 3ournal of iRui'smg. 



Ill 



AMERICAN RED CROSS NAVAL HOSPITAL, 

ALDFORD HOUSE, PARK LANE, W. 



One of the latest American Red Cross Hos- 
pitals in this country, and the first devoted to 
the needs of the sick and wounded of its Navy, 
is Aldford House, erected on a unique site in 
Park Lane, where it occupies an entire block. 
It has been placed at the disposal of the 
American Red Cross by Mrs. Frederick Guest, 
wife of Captain Guest, M.P,, and accom- 
modates 50 patients — men on the ground floor, 
officers above. 

The nursing staff, who are members of the 



its purpose ; damask panels on the walls have 
been covered up by calico stretched over them, 
and the ceiling in the operating theatre has 
been subjected to the same treatment. 

One ward on the ground floor opens on to a 
verandah, where chairs can be placed, over- 
looking Park Lane. Its pretty pink quilts and 
screens give it a very attractive appearance. 
In the opposite ward the quilts are white, and 
the screen-covers a rosy pink. The hospital 
has a garden of quite considerable size for 
London — an invaluable asset, especially for 
sailors, not used to Jiving within four walls. 
It even boasts of a rabbit-hutch and rabbits. 

There is also a winter garden, where the 




Miss Powell, R.N. Mi'ss Akroyd, R.N. Mrs. Bucking- 

Miss Lamb, R N. Dr. McGrath. Miss Taylor, R.N. Miss Fifield, R.N. ham, R.N. 

[Photo, Bassano.] (Matron.) 



NURSING STAFF OF TMB AMERICAN RED CROSS NAVAL HOSPITAL. 



American Red Cross, a're all Registered 
Nurses, and proud of the fact. Most of them 
have been war nursing for two or three years, 
and have served in Mesopotamia, 'Gallipoli, 
East Africa:, and France, as well as in hospitals 
in this country. The Matron, Miss Catherine 
Taylor, was trained at St. Luke's Hospital, 
New York, by Miss Anna W. Goodrich, for 
whose personality and work she has unbounded 
admiration. The V.A.D.s undertake pantry 
work and kindred duties, but do no nursing. 

The medical officers are Dr. L. W. McGrath 
and Dr. Agnew, both of the United States 
Naval Corps. 

The house, with its central airy hall, and 
wide shallow staircase, is very well adapted for 



patients can sit when the weather is unsuitable 
for life in the open air. 

On a level with the floor above is a wide roof 
'garden, where long chairs can be set, and from 
which an extensive and charming view is 
obtained. 

The hospital, which for the first years of the 
war was used for British patients, .has only 
been open as an American hospital for seven or 
eight weeks. The cases admitted are at present 
chiefly medical, accident, and operation ones. 

Miss Taylor wears the dainty white uniform 
of the Chief Nurses of the American Red Cross, 
with the distinguishing black band and tiny 
red cross on the cap. The other members of 
the staff wear grey. 



113 



JLbc Britteb 3ournal of IRursing. ^"^"^* ^7, 1918 

CARE OF THE WOUNDED. SOCIAL SERVICE. 



The Queen, accompanied by Princess Mary, 
visited the Brook War Hospital on Wednesday 
in last week and spent a long time in the wards. 
Her Majesty was received by the President of the 
Local Government Board, the Chairman and the 
Vice-Chairman and Clerk of the Metropolitan 
Asylums Board. Major Swainston, Acting Senior 
Medical Officer, and Miss E. M. Baum, the Matron. 

Her Majesty has also visited Queen Mary's 
Hospital at Stratford, the Pavilion General 
Military Hospital at Brighton, and the Hospital 
for Sick Children, Great Ormond Street, where 
she saw Princess Mary at work in the wards. 



In a Summary of Work of the Joint War 
Committee of the British Red Cross Society 
and the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in England, 
the Commissioner of the Committee in France 
and Belgium — Colonel the Hon. Sir Arthur 
Lawley, K.C.M.G. — ^writes of Ambulance Train, 
No. 16 :— 

No. 16. — ^The following extracts referring to 
this train will be of interest : — 

"It is not long since that I recommended to 
your notice the excellent behaviour of this unit 
on the night of the 26th-27th March, 1918. I then 
particularly drew attention to the gallantry 
and courage shown and efficient work done by 
the Sister-in-Charge and Q.M.-Sergt 

" This time . . . No. 16 Ambulance Train 
arrived at ... in the midst of an air raid. 
' A ' Coach got a direct hit from a large bomb, 
wrecking it and setting the stores on fire — the 
details of the damage done will have been made 
known to you. 

" The Sisters were taken out of the cutting 
and placed under a hedge. I then returned to 
the train, where Q.M.-Sergt. had already engaged 
the men in trying to extinguish the fire ; in this 
he was ably assisted by one volunteer. . . . The 
burning coach was disconnected by this officer 
and Q.M.-Sergt. . . . while I directed the engine- 
driver what to do. The engine-driver and fireman 
had remained at their post — ^the brakesman had 
disappeared. 

" It must be remembered that this was carried 
out while the raid was still in progress and 'planes 
humming overhead, three out of the four injured 
men assisting at the salvage. 

" The personnel to a man did their very best." 



Colonel Sir E. W. D. Ward, Director-General of 
Voluntary Organisations, asks for strong walking 
sticks foi* the use of wounded soldiers, for which 
he continues to receive large and increasing 
demands. It is necessary, if these requests are to 
be fully and punctually met, that he should receive 
a far larger number. If householders will made a 
point of sending one good strong walking-stick to 
the Comforts Dep6t, 45, Horseferry Road, West- 
minster, S.W. I, the required number will be 
secured. 



The American Red Cross has not only allocated 
;^5,ooo to the National League for Health, Mater- 
nity, and Child Welfare, 4, Tavistock Square, 
London, W.C. i, to establish and maintain infant 
welfare institutions for a year, but has also given 
it ;£io,ooo for maternity hostels. It is hoped to 
establish one in each of the three kingdoms and 
one in London, in addition to ante-natal clinics 
and factory crSchesc" in various parts of the country. 
An emergency home for babies and two day 
nurseries for children of the professional classes, 
whose mothers are obliged to work to supplement 
their Army and Navy allowances, are also to be 
set up in London. Offers of empty houses are 
invited. 



The report on the working of the Tuberculosis 
Department started at the Great Northern Central 
Hospital — ^by arrangement with the Islington 
Borough Council in May, 191 7 — shows that, 
during the year ended April 30th last 841 cases 
from the northern half of the borough were 
treated, and that there were 3,472 attendances. 
In addition, 1,510 visits were made to patients' 
homes, and a considerable number of contacts 
examined. This appears to be a very satisfactory 
report of the first year's working of the new 
dispensary. 

THE PASSING BELL. 

We regret to record the death on August ist, 
at the Bradford Royal Infirmary, of Miss Janet 
McGill, of 93, Horton Lane, since 1894 'the much 
valued matron of the Bradford District Nursing 
Association, a branch of the Nursing Institu- 
tion in Manningham. The Home became a 
separate institution in 1904. The funeral took 
place on the 5th inst. at the Scholemoor Cemetery , 
a short service having previously been held 
at the Home. Both services were conducted by 
the Rev. C Stewart Douglas, Vicar of Thornbury, 
Amongst many who sent wreaths were the members " 
of the committee, the stafi, the house surgeon, the 
matron and nursing staff of the Royal Infirmary. 

Miss McGill was widely known, respected, and 
loved by the sick poor, and her death is a great 
loss not only to the Association but to the whole 
city. She was a good organiser, kind and sympa- 
thetic. Her whole life was centred in her work, 
and her activities were not confined to nursing. 
She was especially interested in getting patients 
away for a change of air, and took endless trouble 
to accomplish this. 

OUR ROLL OF HONOUR. 

Nursing Service. 
Wounded. 
Watkins, Sister E. F., Q.A.I. M.N.S.R. 

Died. 
Young, Miss M. C, V.A.D. 



August 17, 1918 



TTbe British 3ournal of mursiiiG. 



"3 



QUEEN VICTORIA'S JUBILEE 
INSTITUTE. 



NURSING ECHOES. 



Her Majesty Queen Alexandra has been gra- 
ciously pleased to approve the appointment of the 
following to be Queen's Nurses, to date July ist 

England. — James, Gladys L. H. ; Rider, Grace: 
J. E. ; Fitzpatrick, A. T. ; Kemp, Rose E. ; Burgon, 
Jane ; Gough, Hilda S. ; Robson, Gladys S. ; 
Sliotter, H. A. 

Wales. — ^Jones, Janet ; Owen, Gwladys., 

Scotland. — Coghlan, Annie ; Dewar, Jessie ; 
Macfarlane, Sarah ; McLellan, Ellen ; McPhee, 
Mary ; Swanson, Margaret S. ; Walsh, Marian ; 
Graham, Margaret G. ; 

Ireland. — Collery, Nora ; O'Doherty, Sarah T. ; 
Phelan, Glare. 

Transfers andJAppointments. 

Miss Selina Collier is appointed to Worcester 
C.N. A. as Assistant Superintendent and Training 
Sister ; Miss Minnie A. E. Banks, to Margate ; 
Mrs. Ada Bulkeley-Jones, to Garston ; Miss Kate 
Clarkson, to Irlam ; Miss Gertrude M. Eraser, to 
Southall-Norwood ; Miss Evelyn I. Gallacher, to 
Dorking ; Miss Louie C. Lakin, to Horsham ; Miss 
Grace McCulloch, to South Wimbledon ; Miss Lucy 
McKinlay, to Horsham ; Miss Alice J. Maclachlan, 
to Crook ; Miss Emily M. Scott, to Wolverton ; 
Miss Ethel Thompson, to Brownhills. 



APPOINTMENTS. 

MATRON. 

Mowsley Sanatorium (Leicestershire County 
Council). — ^Miss Jennie Cardwell Alcock has been 
appointed Matron. She was trained at the 
Crumpsall Infirmary, Manchester, and has been 
Sister-in-Charge of the New Hospital for Con- 
sumption, Kimberworth, Yorkshire, and Matron 
of the Hinckley Tuberculosis (Roadenhoe) Dispen- 
sary. 

NATIONAL UNION OF TRAINED NURSES 

Some Recent Appointments Made Through 

THE N.U.T.N. Employment Centre. 

Norfolk War Hospital, Thorpe, Norwich. — Ward 
Sister, Miss E. P. Dailington. 

Women's After Care Hostels. — ^Miss Percival. 

Addington Park War Hosp., Croydon. — Ward 
Sister, Miss A. M. Mann. 

Exeter, No. II Military Hosp. — ^Ward Sister, 
Miss Ethel A. A. Moon. 

St. Mary's Nursery Training College. — ^Nurse, 
Mrs. Eliz. Johnson. 

Exeter No. i Hosp. — ^Night Superintendent, 
Miss A. Mackinnon. 

Queen Mary's Aux. Mil. Hosp., Roehampton 
House. — ^Night Charge Sister, Miss S. E. McCracken. 

5^ Mark's Hasp., City Road. — ^Night Sister, Miss 
Sillers. 

The London Temperance Hospital. — ^Night Staff 
Nurse, Mrs. M. M. Clarke. 



The interest aroused by the paper on 
" Laboratory Work for Women " by Dr. 
Knyvett Gordon, which we published last week, 
proves that the scientific side of their work 
is attractive to a proportion of members of 
the nursing profession. For such nurses 
the British Scientific Products Exhibition, 
organized by * the British Science Guild, 
199, Piccadilly, W., and opened on Monday, 
last at King's College, in the Strand, will hold 
attractions, and is undoubtedly instructive, and 
as it remains o'pen until September 7th there 
are opportunities of a visit for all. 

The aim of the Exhibition is to stimulate 
public interest and confidence in the capacity of 
British Science, combined with industrial enter- 
prise, to secure and maintain a leading place 
amongst progressive nations, and the object is 
the full development of our mental and material 
resources. As Professor Gregory pointed out 
in an address given at the Exhibition, in purely 
scientific research of initiative quality we have 
been the pioneers ; where we have been deficient 
is in the practical use of the results obtained. 
In short, we need close association between 
the creative investigator, the industrial re- 
searcher who seeks to apply knowledge to 
useful ends, and the artisan, whose work is 
constructive arid technical. 

Amongst the exhibitors are firms of such 
world-wide repute as Me.srs. Burroughs Well- 
come & Co., Messrs. Allen & Hanburys, and 
Boots Pure Drug Company, Ltd., all of whom 
have exhibits cf exceptional interest. 

The dominant note of Messrs. Burroughs 
Wellcome & Co. 's exhibit is struck by the series 
of specimens showing the synthesis of " Khar- 
si van " and " Neokharsivan," which were the 
first British products to take the place of 
German salvarsan and neosalvarsan. 

An exhibit which opens up to nurses a vista 
of an interesting hobby, which may also be a 
work of national utility, is that arranged by 
Mrs. Grieve, F.R.H.S., who has a School of 
British Medicinal and Commercial Herb Grow- 
ing at the Whins, Chalfont St. Peter, Bucks, 
which represents an organized determination to 
recapture from Germany and Austria the Herb 
Growing Industry, which those countries have 
won from Great Britain. Before the war we 
spent annually ;^2c>o,ooo on importations of 
drug-yielding Herbs which we could have 
grown. What more interesting for a nurse 
living n the country than the cultivation of 
medicinal herbs? It is further of interest to 
know that the demand for properly trained herb 



114 



HDc British 3ournal of TRursmQ, 



August 17, 1918 



growers far exceeds the supply, and good posts 
are obtainable for students when proficient. 

The Council Meeting of the Metropolitan 
Hospital Sunday Fund have unanimously 
approved the report of the Committee of Dis- 
tribution, and have directed the awards recom- 
mended to be paid. The sum available this year 
(;£85,652) is a record one, exceeding the largest 
previous total by ;£i5,ooo.. It includes a gift 
of ;£5>ooo from the American Red Cross 
Society, and £2, ^^2 from St. Mark's, North 
Audley Street, the largest sum ever received 
from one London church, and £76 collected in 
pence from St. 
Andrew's, Lam- 
beth, a very poor 
parish. 

Seven and a 
half per cent, of 
the • total sum 
available for dis- 
tribution is ap 
propriated to the 
purchase of sur- 
gical appliances 
during the ensu- 
ing year, and 2^ 
per cent, for dis- 
t r i c t nursing 
associations. 

The following 
are the awards 
to Nursing Asso- 
ciations : — Bel- 
vedere, Abbey 
Wood, £g; 
Brixton, ;^36 ; 
Central St. Pan- 
c r a s, -^45; 
Charlton and 
Blackheath, ;^9 ; 
Chelsea and 
Pimlico, £iS; 
Hackney, £63; 
Ham mersmith, 
;^8i ; H a m p- 

stead, £27; Isleworth, ;^i8; Kensington, 
£81; Kilburn, £g; Kingston, ^45; Lambeth 
Road (Catholic), ;£i8; Metropolitan (Blooms- 
bury), £63; St. Olave's (Bermondsey), £36; 
Paddington and Marylebone, £63 ; Plaistow, 
£72] Plaistow (Maternity), £72; Ponders End, 
Enfield, &c., ;Ci8; Rotherhithe, £27; Shore- 
ditch, £72; Sick Room Helps Society, £g', 
Sidcup, £g; Silvertown, ;;(;i8; South London 
(Battersea), £54 ; Southwark, £36 ; South 
Wimbledon, £27 ; Tottenham, £27 ; West- 
minster, £26; Woolwich, £63; East London, 




Sisters Gregory, Steinhofi, Green and Burke, 

Sisters Burton, Klein and Kmc, 

Sisler Beck 

AT THE JAMSETJI JIJIBHAI HOSPITAL. BOMBAY. 



£iS5 ; North London, ;£8i ; Ranyard Nurses, 
£5U- 

Our illustration on this page shows a group 
of Sisters at the Jamsetji Jijibhai Hospital, 
Bombay, a hospital which owes its foundation 
to the munificence of Sir Jamsetji Jijibhai, a 
Parsi gentleman in Bombay. 

How many English nurses know anything 
of the Parsis, a community of Persian origin, 
their customs, their faith, their family life 
based on the patriarchal system, the astuteness 
of their men, the beauty of their women? 

It was on a 

■ journey to the 

East that the 
writer first got 
to know a Parsi 
family. Were it 
not for their 
Oriental dress, 
their olive-tinted 
CO m p 1 e xions 
might be taken 
for those of 
Spaniards o r 
Italians, but the 
quaint, stiff, 

shiny black hats 
of the men, not 
unlike a bishop's 
m'tre without 
the point, and 
the rich graceful 
saris of the 
women, indicate 
u n m i s t akably 
their Oriental 
extraction. A 
Parsi girl, 
lovely, graceful, 
modest, is . a 
thing of beauty, 
though early 
middle age prob- 
ably finds her 
slimness a memory of the past. 

The group of hospitals in Bombay, including 
St. George's (the European Hospital), the 
Jamsetji, and the Cama, a women's hospital 
with a school of midwifery recognized by the 
Central Midwives Board in this countrj-, in 
which the Sisters of the All Saints Community 
did such valuable pioneer work, have turned 
out many well-trained nurses, European, 
Eurasian, and native. For those who intend to 
work subsequently in India, the training given 
in these hospitals is specially valuable, as they 



August 17, 1918 



dbe Britieb 3ournal of IRurstno. 



"5 



not only receive a good professional education, 
but become acquainted with the conditions of 
life of those amongst whom they will subse- 
quently work, and how to deal with the 
problems which will confront them. 

THE HOS pItAL laundry. 

Most of the provincial general hospitals havt 
their own steam laundry attached in the grounds, 
the working and welfare coming under the 
Nursing department. The ideal laundry building 
is still to be planned, by the woman who knows 
its resources best, but until Utopia arrives 
■what is at present in working order must be utilized 
to the best and fullest advantage. 

The Staff. — The Board of Trade considers that 
i:o each 500 articles one worker must be allowed. 
This, taken all round, is a fair division, and, 
Tvith care, should work easily and well. 

All laundry workers come under the control 
■of the same Board, they must work for the 
prescribed hours with stated times for meals, 
their Sundays must be free and Bank Holidays 
-counted as holidays. 

As a rule the hospital laundry workers prefer 
to be free from noon on Saturday until Monday 
morning, with hours off two evenings during the 
week, which enables them to get away from the 
lieat and noise of the laundry. 

A weU-trained and experienced head laundress 
who though not required to run the machinery 
thoroughly understands it, is absolutely 
necessary, She arranges and controls the work 
•of the laundry, keeping to the special time table 
which is as a rule drawn up by the Matron or her 
^Assistant as best capable of taking in all the work 
of the week. Her work consists of sorting, pack- 
ing, checking, superintending the calender and 
collar machines, and personally attending to the 
work of the patients, officers, nurses and maids. 

It is better for the laundry staff, if possible 
to have their own sleeping apartments apart 
from the ordinary staff, and to have separate 
meals The hospital provides them with uniform 
?nd clogs for the wash-house, and with mack- 
intosh aprons to protect them whilst actually 
washing the clothes, • 

^ For a hospital of 120 beds and the necessary 

staff, . one head laundress and four maids, 

engineer and stoker should be ample — the weekly 

average of articles washed making a total of 3,800. 

The Building. — Tlvis ought to be well apart 

from the main building so that the smoke from 

the stoke house and the noise of the plant will 

not disturb the patients. A prepared footpath 

should lead to it so that the staff in all weathers 

■ can go and come easily. The machinery, should be 

well arranged so that'each stage of the process may 

be got through in the best possible manner — 

washers, hydros, drying-room, calender, mangle, 

ironers, all following in their various degrees of use. 

The ironing stove should not be in the same 

-department as that where the actual ironing 



is done, as even with the aid of asbestos 
screens, ventilation, and electric fans, the heat 
in the summer months rises in a surprising way. 

There should be pigeon-holes specially marked 
for each department and numerous laundry 
baskets and trollies to hold the clothes 

Superintendent. — Under this heading comes the 
work of checking and entering all articles sent by 
the wards, nursing department, home, house, 
maids, &c 

The special books are returned to the Matron's 
ofi&ce weekly to be gone through and all missing 
articles reported. When possible, it is best for 
the Assistant Matron to obtain daily a list from 
the Ward Sisters and check this with that of the 
head laundress. 

Where a venereal clinique is attached to the 
Out-Patients' Department, specially marked linen, 
which is treated in the same manner as that of 
infectious cases is the best and safest method. 

Each day has its special work, the Nurses' and 
house linen being done on days which are not 
set apart for the ward linen. 

The theatie washing, which in most busy 
general hospitals is a very heavy item, should be 
done daily and returned at a stated time for 
sterilization, this also applies to ward draw sheets 
and children's sundries. 

Stores. — These are called weekly, preferably on 
Saturday, so that the soap may be melted, starch 
prepared, and soda portioned out, ready for the 
new week's work. 

In a hospital where all garments are plainly 
and clearly marked and stocktaking is undertaken 
frequently there is very little trouble from lost 
articles. M. K. S. 



The Law Ofl&cers of the Crown have expressed 
the opinion that a woman is not entitled to be a 
candidate for Parliament, but jMr. Bonar Law, 
replying to questions in the House of Commons, 
stated that the introduction of legislation to make 
this legal would be considered by the Government, 
and admitted that when the question of extending 
the Parliamentary Franchise to»women was under 
discussion it was repeatedly said that when they 
gave the franchise to women they could not refuse 
their admission to the House, 



Mr. Bonar Law, replying in the House of 
Commons to Colonel Sir J. Craig (Down, E., U.), 
also said, if there was a general desire he wovld 
be glad to arrange an opportunity after the recess 
for a discussion on the question of opening the 
available galleries of the House to women and 
men impartially. 



The Home Secretary has expressed himself in 
entire sympathy with the proposal for the forma- 
tion of a body of women police, and also of the 
establishment of women special constables during 
the war, and promised a deputation, introduced by 
Lord Sydenham, to consider the whole project 
with a view to its development. 



ii6 



^be British 3ournal of "Kurgiug. 



August 17, 1918 



BOOK OF THE WEEK. 



THE GIRL FROM KURDISTAN.* 

Miss Kerruish will be remembered as the author 
of '•' Miss Haroun Al-Raschid," which book won 
the thousand guinea competition cfEered by 
Messrs. Hodder & Stoughton ; so her present 
novel, dealing with Persian customs and intrigue 
must command our attention. Those who are 
acquainted with the position of European govern- 
ment officials in the east will be aware that their 
position is often one that requires very careful 
handling, and it is from this point that the book 
under consideration is written. 

The opening chapter describes the position of a 
young Armenian lad, from, " forgetting he had a 
knife in his hand when he struck a man and God 
decreed that his neck vein should be cut. The 
blood ran all over my hand — see, all. And his 
brother said he would ki 1 me.'' He was rescued 
from the infuriated relative by Europeans in a 
barouche dri\ien by a Cossack coachman. Escort- 
ing it was a yelling and threatening mob of street 
roughs, slipshod policemen and a few respectable 
but enraged men of the better class and the 
inevitable rabble of. urchins. Two figures emerged 
and stepped out for the Toup. The larger was 
a big man of five-and-thirty, undeniably British, 
his ruddy curls prematurely grizzled at the temples, 
his eyes choleric by habit. He led his companion 
by one gloved finger hooked in a greasy collar. 

" The very shadow of the Pearly Gun is Basr 
(refuge)," said the European. He swung a foot 
back and shot his charge sprawling into the 
sanctuary. 

He then made his stately way back to the 
carriage. The ladies were comparing torn flounces. 

" No garden party after all, and a nasly, dirty 
criminal sitting on my feet all the way from 
Shim! ah Gate." 

It was unconventional Janet Macroy, who got 
herself into a nasty hole, by her friendship with 
Hajji Jaffier, the chief of a tribe, who was kept 
in Teheran by the Shah as a hostage for its good 
behaviour. 

" The Hajji Khan was hawking and interrupted 
his sport to put me on the road," Janet explained 
to Perdita, as she made the introductions. 

The Khan stroked down the diminutive falcon 
that was perched on his wrist and broke in depreca- 
tingly. What was a lifetime's sport compared to 
the least service to the Shehzadeh Khanoum ? So 
he demanded, and vowed furthermore that the 
joy of meeting her had cured him of several speci- 
fied diseases." 

Self -wiled Janet, although long resident in the 
East, chose to ignore the gulf that separates East 
from West, but in justice to her she was unaware of 
the havoc her friendship with the Eastern caused in 
the breast of his little wife. By strategy Janet's 

^ By Jessie Douglas Kerruish. (Hodder & 
Stoughton, London.) 



friends contrive a meeting between her and the 
little heart-broken woman. 

" You are a Hakim Khanoum, yea, and a white 
sorceress. I can see it in your eyes. You will 
give me a philtre, a love potion ? " 

She fell full length and kissed Janet's shoes, not 
knowing her identity. 

" The smallest Ferenghi philtre would bring him 
back. It is a Ferenghi woman who hath led him 
away, and may Allah send her swiftly to his 
kindled fire. And may he furthermore make 
every Ferenghi golden hair of her a serpent to 
gnaw the black Ferenghi heart of her to the last 
sounding of Serafil's Wakening Trump. 

Janet Macroy, one of the best of women at 
heart, once having grasped the situation dealt 
with it thoroughly. 

" Thou hast something better than spells," she 
said. " Thy little one doth but reckon her age 
in days. Take her and cherish her, O my sister, 
that when he returns she may be a sweet comfort 
to him, and a rosy link between ye twain." 

She further assures Hajji Khan : " A Christian 
gentlewoman does not wed a Muslim. I never 
dreamed thou wouldst entertain such a thought. 
Hear thee that for it, I will have nothing more 
to do with thee, and leave thee to do to me as 
thou wilt." 

" Do you deem, I may, as I can, cast dirt on your 
name in the ears of Teheran ? " 

But though, for political reasons, he did not dare 
to take this step, Janet came near to being ostra- 
cised for her foolishness, and it required all the 
finesse of her friends to prevent ugly consequences. 

But as her friend, Madame Ecroy said : " Janet 
is always rather fine when she really knows what 
she is doing." 

We feel sure that this story, that brings so 
vividly the atmosphere of the East around us, 
will be welcomed by many readers who are wearied 
by the commonplace, H. H. 



THE LAY OF THE LAZY NUR5E. 

Breathes there a nurse with soul so dead 
Who never to herself hath said : 
" To-morrow morning I will rise 
Before the sun lights up the skies. 
Soon as the calling maid shall ring, 
Before the birds begin to sing, 
Fresh as a lark I shall awake ; 
An early morning walk I'll take." 
And, when at an unearthly hour 
Next morn, the maid with awful power 
Makes noise enough to stir the dead, 
And wake the nurse upon her bed. 
Breathes there a nurse, I now repeat, 
Who wouldn't send her twenty feet, 
Then back beneath the counterpane 
With restful sigh doze off again ? 

(With apologies to Scott.) 

E. E. Thirkell. 
In the Journal of the Leeds Township 

Infirmary Nurses League. 



The British Toumal c/ Nurttng, August 17, 191S. 



" Science is, I believe, 
nothing but trained and 
organized common-sense, 
differing from the latter 
only as a veteran may 
differ from a raw recruit ; 
and its methods diffe' 
from those of common- 
sense only so far as the 
Guardsman's cut and 
thrust differ from the 
manner in which a savage 
wields his club." 

ProfeiioT Huxley. 



The Basis 
of 
Science 




BOOTS PURE DRUG COMPANY LIMITED wish to draw the 
attention of the medical profession to the following seven scientific 
preparations. Practitioners who endeavour to keep abreast of the times 
will find these modern antiseptics of superlative value in general practice. 



TABLETS OF CHLORAMINE-T 

One tablet dissolved in two ounces of water makes 
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Bottles of 25. 8*75 grain tablets, 1/2 
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100 3/9 

One tablet dissolved in ten ounces of water m^fkes 
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Bottles of 12 43-75 grain tablets, 1/10 

CHLORAMINE-T CREAM 

Containing approximately one per eent. Chlora- 
mine-T. Described and investigated under the 
name of Chloramine Paste by Vincent Daufresne, 
Carrel. Hartmann and others, in the Journal «/ 
Experimtnlal Medicine, 1917. 

In PoU. Trial size. 9d. ; large sice, 3/6. 

TABLETS OF PROFLAVINE 

(with todium chloride). 

One tablet dissolved in four fluid ounces sterile 
water makes 1:1000 Proflavine in normal saline. 

Bottles of 100 tablets, S/6 

DAKIfTS NEW WATER DISINFECTANT. 
Vidm BMJ., May, 1917. 

The action of Halazone is positive, and may be relied upon for crudest waters. Each tablet is sufficient to 
sterilize one quart of contaminated water, but in cases of extreme contamination a second tablet may be 
necessary. Halazon^ is invaluable for those on active service overseas, more particularly in hot climates. 

Bottles of 100 tablets. 6d. 

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MANUFACTURING CHEMISTS AND MAKERS OF FINE CHEMICALS. 
He«d Offices: Station Street. Notttnsham. JESSE BOOT. Managing Direc(«r. 



CHLORAMINE-T 

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medicine and surgery. 

In bottles of loz.. 1/2; 4oz.. 3/6; lib.. 12/S 

CHLORAMINE-T GAUZE 

In two strenfcths, containins approximately 5% 
and 35% Chloramine-T. (5% supplied unless 
otherwise specified). This should be fixed dry 
and subsequently moistened, if necessary, when 
in position. 

In sealed packages only, jfiict 1/6 per package. 

PROFLAVINE 

(3'6 diamino-aertdlnt-iulphale). 
The improved Flavine derivative. 

Equal in antiseptic powers to Acriflavine, and in 
important respects superior, being markedly less 
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costly to manufacture, can be sold at a substantially 
lower price than Acriflavijie. 

5 Kram bottle, 1/4 : 20 gram bottle. 5/- 

HALAZONE TABLETS. 



ii8 



Ebe Brttieb 3ournal ot flureing. 



August 17, 1918 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects for these columns, we wish it to b$ 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 

A CERTIFICATE OF EXISTENCE. 

To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear MadahI, — In your issue of The British 
Journal of Nursing (July 27th), I saw a letter, 
complaining of hardship imposed on the annui- 
tants of R.N. P.F.N. It sounded so unlike that 
valuable fund that I cut it out and asked what 
it meant. I enclose Mr. Dick's reply and should 
be so glad if you would make it public in your 
valuable paper. What a pity nurse did not find 
out facts before rushing into print. 

I wish some of the letters about the " Merry 
Mummers " could be copied into the daily papers, 
so th^t the public could see what nurses think 
of those who are dragging down an honourable 
profession as an excuse to show off and gambol, 
and this while the greater number of the profes- 
sion are living and sometimes dying for the men 
who are bleeding for their country. Is there no 
way in which we can stop this " War Charity " ? 
Believe me. Yours sincerely, 

S. SULIVAN, 

Harrow. Member R.B.N.A. 

Letter to Miss Sulivan from the Secretary 
R.N.P.F.N. 
Dear Madam, — ^The cutting which you enclose 
contains a misrepresentation of the facts. ' It is 
quite untrue that we requiie our annuitants each 
month to send a doctor's certificate and a clergy- 
man's certificate. The facts are these : — 

About six months ago we requested our annui- 
tants, for the first time in the history of the Fund, 
to obtain a Certificate of Existence, signed by a 
professional or other responsible man to the 
effect that' she was alive at the date of signing the 
certificate. This formality was for the satis- 
faction of our actuaries, and was a measure framed 
in the interests of the policy-holders of the Fund. 
It may not be necessary to trouble the annuitants 
again, at any rate not for some considerable time. 
In the ordinary course, all we require the Nurse 
to do is to sign a receipt for the quarterly instal- 
ment of her pension in the presence of a witness. 
Yours faithfully, 

Louis H. M. Dick, 

Secretary. 

To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — I have been much interested in 
the two letters published in your Journal as to 
the new condition to be complied with before 
annuitants of the R.N-.P.F. for Nurses receive their 
annuity. 

I was requested last March to get a signature 
from magistrate or doctor, &c., to say that I was 
alive. I did nothing that time. In June no 
cheque was sent, but another request for a certifir.,. 



cate of existence. I wrote and declined, and gave 
as one reason for my refusal that I did not wish 
to add to the conditions under which I joined, 
especially as this would be so burdensome. I 
received another letter, arguing the point and 
saying the condition was covered by Article 5, 
which, however, simply says that in the first 
instance the applicant must satisfy the Council 
that she has given correct dates, and so on, at 
first, before any payment can be made, and (here 
your second correspondent has not taken in what 
will be asked of her) that they will not ask again 
for another certificate till September — ^just three 
months later. 

I wrote again, saying it was not worth my while 
for ;^io a year to undergo the worry and incon- 
venience entailed, but that if they were doubtful 
as to my existence they could pay the amount due 
into my bank, and it was paid. 

The absurdity of it is that the annuity had 
never been paid without the signature of a witness, 
and either my partner or our secretary witnessed 
my signature. One can only suppose that, though 
women really have a vote now, that the Pension 
Fund Council still do not consider a woman's 
signature to be a trustworthy voucher, and the 
hardship of it is that nurses living in places where 
everyone's business is known will be obliged 
to ask outside people for signatures, thereby 
admitting them to a knowledge of their private 
affairs. 

Yours faithfully, 

Christina Forrest, 
Matron Victoria and Bournemouth 

Nurses' Institute. 

A CHANGE NEEDED. 

To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — In the early days of the war a 
large number of Nurses were sent to the Mediter- 
ranean, Egypt, and later to India. 

Last week I was speaking to a medical man 
heme frcm there, and he informed me that their 
lot is a very hard one. 

Three years in a climate to which they were 
unaccustomed coupled with constant strain of 
hard and anxious work, unhealthy surroundings, 
has reduced them to a pitiable state, which calls 
for immediate attention. 

They beg for a change to Europe, or even to 
Egypt, but no notice is taken of their request. 

I am sure it is only necessary to call the atten- 
tion of the higher authorities at home to this in 
order to bring about amelioration of the condition 
of those devot^3d women. Perhaps some Member 
would raise the matter by question in the House of 
Commons ' Faithfully yours, 

London, W.' I." '^''^'' M. C. W. 



OUR 



PRIZE COMPETITION. 

QUESTIONS. 

August 315^. — ^Mention some of the principal 
disorders of the nervous system, and the duties of 
thienuirg^Jer reg^d to tbem. 



August 17, 1918 zbc Britlab 3ournal of fluraina Supplement 

The Midwife. 



"9 



IS A SPECIAL TRAINING FOR TEACHERS 
DESIRABLE ? * 

By Miss M. Olive Haydon. 
The certificated teacher is a feature of modern 
times, we have the certificated teacher of massage, 
cookery, laundry, and other aits and crafts ; the 
teaching of practical midwifery is on the same 
lines as these, but on a higher plane — a higher 
plane because indifferent bad, or careless teaching 
may endanger the lives of mothers and babies. 
At present practical teachers of midwifery have 
to satisfy the Central Midwives Board as to their 
experience, their management of their practice, 
their character, and their wilUngness to give 
adequate instruction to the pupils. All these are 
admirbale in themselves, and necessary, but it 
does not follow that such an approved teacher 
has the gift or ability for imparting her knowledge. 
It is as much a fallacy that any skilful midwife 
can teach as it is that every mother has an instinc- 
tive knowledge of how to manage a baby. 

There are a few gifted persons who, without any 
special training for teaching do it inspiringly, 
originally, and brilliantly ; they are not always 
the most learned in theory, but they are usually 
people with love and enthusiasm for their work, 
progressive, and intensely interested in " leading 
out " the mental and physical capacities of their 
fellows. The born teacher loves the pupil to excel 
in his or her work, and even to excel him or her. 
There are exceptional pupils who have previously 
beeii educated in other branches of work who 
iearn without teaching. But such teachers and 
pupils are rare. 

In the educationallworld it is coming about 
more' and more that a high degree is not sufficient 
to secure a good post as teacher, unless its 
possessor has also taken a course of practical 
training as a teacher. 

There are, it must be confessed, men and 
women who would never make good teachers what- 
ever courses they followed ; th^re are the " born " 
teachers who might profit httle by them ; midway 
is the mass of average ability who greatly profit 
by such courses. The majority of practical 
teachers of midwifery would, I think, welcome a 
special training for their difficult and delicate 
task, and would do their work better if they were 
more conversant with the principles that underlie 
successful teaching, had some knowledge of 
psychology, were conversant with the methods 
of men and women who stand out as great 
teachers. 

The teaching of practical midwifery is, in many 
respects, simil ar to the teaching of little children — 

♦ A Paper read at the Conference for Teachers 
of Pupil Midwives, Midwives' Institute, London, 
May 30th, 1918, 



the training of the senses to observe accurately, 
manual training, the training in expression of sense 
impressions, in making discoveries, and in applying 
common sense and such knowledge as they 
possess, practically. Every teacher of midwifery _ 
would do well to study the work of such people 
as Froebel, Rousseau, James, Montessori. There 
are latent capacities in everyone that only need 
suitable environment and opportunities to develop, 
and our problem as practical teachers is how l>est 
to deal with each individual. Personally I found 
Madame Montessori's book a great inspiration 
and encouragement ; she thought out good 
methods for educating feeble-minded and back- 
ward children, and met with wonderful success. 
Most of us are backward, and many of us are 
comparatively feeble-minded (I mean in contrast 
to what we might be), and certainly many of 
our pupils, owing to the stupid way they have been 
taught in earlier years, are poor material. In 
desperation we are apt to perpetuate bad methods, 
learning by rote, unintelligent swallowing of 
information, slavery to printed matter, incapacity 
for retaining whatever is not written down, &e. 
A German girl once said to me, " in England it is 
always ' schreiber, schreiber ' (write, write) ; in 
Germany our professors say ' denken ' (think). 
They do not all do so. We teachers are faithful 
to Madam How. We are afraid of Madam 
Why? 

practical teachers of midwifery have much the 
same job as the N.C.O.s of the Army. They may 
be weak on strategy, history, mathematics, but 
they have been through the mill ; they know 
" how " things should be done, if they do not know 
" why." So the teacher of practical midwifery 
usually knows how to manage normal pregnancies, 
labour, or puerperia ; although she may know 
little of embryology, bacteriology, and other 
sciences. The N.C.O. who was progressive 
enough to study theory, would probably get a 
commission ; why should not the practical teacher 
of midwifery, who studied theory more advanced 
than that required to be certified, be promoted ? 

I understand that in Scotch universities it is 
the custom for aspiring graduates to take students 
foo: coaching outside the university ; if they gain 
a reputation as able men, they are likely to be 
offered a chair in the university with wider 
opportunities. I like to look forward to a time 
when the Midwives' Institute will be the College 
of Midwifery, with the ablest professors to pilot 
it, and midwives, who have distinguished them- 
selves as teachers, will have opportunity to help 
practically juniors and midwives who are keen 
to train pupils. 

This Conference, brief as it is, may be regarded 
as a course for practical teachers, for its aim is to 
inspire higher ideals. We hope that it may be 
held yearly in different centres. The demon- 



I20 



dbe jBrltieb 3ournal of Duretnc Supplement ^"5^"^* ^7, 1918 



strations and clinics are not simply to give informa- 
tion, but to demonstrate good methods of con- 
ducting the same. 

- We are specially privileged to have lectures 
from the leading teachers of midwifery to pupil 
midwives ; they cannot fail to ' inspire us to 
remodel our practical teaching in some cases, 
to realize how great a factor is the personality of 
the teacher, and to aspire to educate individually, 
more truly and thoroughly, each pupil that comes 
to us to be initiated into an art and science of 
which we ourselves feel that there is much yet 
to be perfected, to be discovered, to learn. 

The question as to whether some test of the 
midwife's ability to teach practical midwifery is 
desirable is an open one. Personally, I think an 
oral and practical examination, which should 
include a demonstration, a clinic, and the taking 
of a coaching class, would be excellent. We are 
all apt to grow stale — to get " sick of perpetual 
pupil " (to modify Lamb's phrase), and we can 
only improve the education of our pupils by 
improving our own education. We ought to do 
that practically at every case we conduct, if we 
put our minds into it. New acquisition of know- 
ledge will, in many cases, make us better midwives, 
and better teachers, and if there is anything to 
be said for a higher theoretical examination, 
demanding a wider knowledge of maternity and 
child-welfare than is required to become qualified 
as a midwife, it is that it will stimulate our lazy 
brains and keep us from numbness and rust, 
" the arch foe of women." 



BILL TO AMEND THE MIDWIVES 
ACT, 1902. 

On Thursday, August 8th, in the House of 
Commons (the day on which the House adjourned), 
,the Bill to amend the Midwives Act, 1902, was 
presented by Mr. Hayes Fisher, President of the 
Local Government Board, on behalf of theGovern- 
ment, and read a first time. 

Mr. Bonar Law, replying to Mr. Herbert Samuel, 
stated that when the House reassembled on 
Tuesday, October 15th, the Bill would be taken. 

THE MATERNITY AND CHILD 
WELFARE BILL, 

The Maternity and Child Welfare Bill, " An 
Act to make further provision for the Health of 
Mothers and Young Children," has now passed 
both Houses of Parliament. It provides that 
" any local authority within the meaning of the 
^Notification of Births Act, 1907, may make such 
arrangements as may be sanctioned by the Local 
Government Board for attending to the health of 
expectant mothers and nursing mothers, and of 
children who have not attained the age of iive 
years, and are not being educated in schools 
recognised by the Board of Education." 

The Bill has received the Royal Assent. 



CENTRAL MIDWIVES BOARD FOR 
SCOTLAND. 

Report on the Work of the Board. 

The Report on the work of the Central Mid- 
wives Board for Scotland for the year ended 
March 31st, 1918, and presented to both Houses 
of Parliament by command of His Majesty, is now 
published, and may be purchased through any 
booksellers or directly from H.M. Stationery 
Office, Imperial House, Kingsway, London, W.C. 2, 
price id. net. The following items are of interest — 

Midwives' Roll. 

The total number of enrolments is made up of 
1,351 by certificate, 1,695 ^^ bona fide practice, 
and 264 after passing the Examination of the 
Board. 

The returns made by the Local Supervising 
Authorities, under Section 16 (6) of the Act show 
that to date 1,408 midwives notified their intention 
of practising, and the names of these women have 
been prefixed by a star in the Roll. 

Financial Statement. 

The work of the Board has been carried out in 
an efficient and economical manner. A credit 
balance has been carried forward to next year 
without requiring any levy on the Supervising 
Authorities. 

Voluntary Resignations. 

Certain enrolled midwives have resigned volun- 
tarily on the ground of old age, ill-health, or 
inability to comply with the rules, and have applied 
to have their names removed from'the Midwives' 
Roll. 

The Board have instructed that their names 
should be retained in the Roll with a special mark 
in order that- they may still be under the super- 
vision of the Local Authority, with a view t© 
discontinuance of any practice whatever under 
" cover " of a medical practitioner, so that the 
recommendation of the General Medical Council 
in this respect may be given full effect. 

Maternity and Child Welfare Schemes. 

The Board has bepn consulted in regard to the 
position of Health Visitors, who are not inspectors 
of midwives, attending and advising in the 
management of the mother or infant in a con- 
finement case, where there is a certified midwife 
in attendance, and recommendations have been 
made to the Supervising Authorities whereby 
full co-operation of the existing organisations is 
secured for the benefit of the mother and the 
child. 

THE MIDWIVES* (IRELAND) ACT. 

At the recent election held pursuant to thfe 
provisions of the Midwives (Ireland) Act, 1918, 
the following four registered medical practitioners 
were elected to act on the Central Midwives Board 
for Ireland : — Sir Andrew J. Home, Sir William 
J. Smyly, Sir John William Byers, and Professor 
Henry Corby. 





[lOOMLo'llISiG 



WITH WHICH IS INCORPORATED 

TME MHHSIIKI MECOMB 

EDITED BY MRS BEDFORD FENWICK 



No. 1,586. 



SATURDAY, AUGUST 24, 1918. 



Vol. LXI. 



EDITORIAL. 



THE KINQS VISIT TO FRANCE. 

The King, after his recent visit to the 
Army in France, in the course of a letter 
addressed to Field-Marshal Sir Douglas 
Haig, warmly congratulating him and the 
troops that have fought so magnificently 
under his command on the triumphant issue 
of the recent operations, wrote : — 

" I gratefully recognise that this high 
moral is in part the outcome of a hearty 
co-operation between the fighting Army 
and the great organisations behind the line ; 
the transport service by land and sea ; and 
those vast industries in which the men and 
women at home maintain the supplies of 
food and munitions of war. 

*' It was a pleasure to me to find from 
the admirable condition of the horses and 
mules of the various units I inspected that 
the new Armies fully uphold our national 
reputation as good horse-masters. 

" Of the hospitals, their efficiency, skill, 
devotion, and untiring efforts of the staffs, 
I cannot speak in too high praise. 

" I realise with thankfulness all that is 
done for the spiritual welfare of the troops 
by the chaplains of the different denomina- 
tions. 

" I return home with feelings of profound 
admiration for our Armies, convinced that 
in union with those of the Allied nations, 
we shall, with God's help, secure a vic- 
torious peace worthy of the noble sacrifices 
maiie ; a peace which must be a surety to 
coming generations against sufferings such 
as the present world has endured through- 
out these years of relentless war." 

His Majesty visited several hospitals and 
casualty clearing stations near the fighting 
line and his visit was the source of much 
pleasure to both patients and staffs of these 
institutions. 



A MINISTRY OF HEALTH. 

At the instance of the Prime Minister, 
the National Memorial which urged the 
immediate establishment of a Ministry of 
Health as an urgent war measure has been 
laid before the Committee of Home Affairs. 
The Home Secretary, in a communication 
to Sir Kingsley Wood, states that the 
Committee have recently been considering 
the details of the scheme, and that the 
object of the Committee is to provide for 
the establishment of a Ministry with as 
complete powers as possible. 

The President of the Local Government 
Board, who is a member of the Committee, 
has also announced that the Committee are 
about to conclude their deliberations, 
and that the scheme is practically com- 
pleted. 

It is expected that the Bill will be intro- 
duced at the beginning of the next Parlia- 
mentary Session. 

No class of the community realise the 
necessity for a Ministry of Health more 
keenly than the trained nurses in the 
three kingdoms, whose work is largely con- 
cerned with the prevention as well as the 
cure of disease, and the maintenance of 
health. Sir Charles Booth in his " Notes 
on Social Influences " in the last volume 
of " Life and Labour of the People of 
London " wrote in reference to district 
nursing, " It is almost true to say that 
wherever a nurse enters, the standard of 
life is raised " and Dr. Thomas, at the last 
Conference of the National Union of Trained 
Nurses, said that the devoted, unflinching, 
steady, educational pressure of the L.C.C. 
School Nurses was revealed by the improv- 
ing figures year by year, even in war time, 
when the chances of infection are multi- 
plied a thousandfold by the close proximity 
of the hugger-mugger life of trench and 
camp to the homes of the people. 



122 



Jlbc Brltteb 3ournal of •Rursme. 



August 24, 1918 



NURSING AS A FIELD OF NATIONAL 
SERVICE. 



THE UNITED STATES STUDENT NURSE 
RESERVE. 

The pamphlet by Miss Isabel M. Stewart, 
R.N., M.A., Assistant Professor In the 
Department of Nursing and Health at 
Teachers' College, Columbia University, 
U.S.A., on the above subject, is a personal 
message from the Committee on Nursing, 
General Medical Board, Council of National 
Defence, Washington, D.C., addressed to all 
young women of America who are well educa- 
ted, physically capable, ahd otherwise able to 
put their full time and energy into some definite 
form of national service. 

The pamphlet is in support of the Government 
call for 25,000 young women between the ages 
of 19 and 35 to join the United States Student 
Nurse Reserve, and hold themselves in readi- 
ness to train for service as nurses, and has been 
forwarded to us by the courtesy of Dr. Franklin 
Martin, member of the Advisory Commission 
of the Medical Section of the Council of 
National Defence. 

In a recruiting leaflet, which is a reprint of 
matter included in Miss Stewart's pamphlet, 
it is pointed out that the war is creating an 
unprecedented demand for trained nurses. 
Only those who have taken the full training 
course are eligible for service with the 
American Forces overseas. Their places must 
be filled by student nurses enrolled for the full 
training course. Every young woman who 
enrols in the United States Student Nurse 
Reserve is releasing a nurse for service at the 
Front, and swelling the home army which must 
be relied on to act as the second line of hospital 
defence. Upon the health of the American 
people will depend the spirit of their fighting 
forces. 

The need of the 1,579 nurses' training 
schools in the United States is as great and 
imperative as that of the Army School of 
Nursing. Those who enrol for these schools 
will be assigned as vacancies occur. 

The enrolment card will indicate two classes 
of registrants — Preferred and Deferred. The 
Preferred class will be those ready to accept 
assignment to whatever hospital the Govern- 
ment directs them, although they may state 
what tiaining school they prefer to be sent to. 
I'he Deferred class is composed of those w^ho 
limit their pledge of service, i.e., who will not 
engage to go except to certain hospitals. This 
class is intended largely for those who, for 



family reasons, cannot accept training at a 
distance from their homes. Those who register 
in the Deferred class will be assigned only after 
the Preferred class is exhausted. 

The Government relies on the patriotism of 
those who enrol to fill out Preferred cards if 
they possibly can, thus volunteering to go 
where they are most needed. 

Nobody will be assigned to any schools 
whose conditions of training are not approved 
by the State Board of Nurse Examiners. 

After stating the terms of training, what the 
training course prepares for, and the earning 
capacity of the student after graduation, as well 
as referring to the honourable nature of the 
nursing profession, the recruiting leaflet con- 
cludes : — 

" Enrol at the nearest recruiting station 
established by the Woman's Committee of the 
Council of National Defence." 

The Committee on Nursing, whose message 
is voiced by Miss Stewart, assume at the out- 
set that the person to whom it is addressed is 
not simply a dabbler, or a sentimental dreamer, 
but a serious, practical, patriotic girl or 
woman, sincerely anxious to throw her energies 
and her abilities into some form of work that is 
really going to count. Her brothers and 
friends have been called into, the Army and 
Navy, and are now getting ready for a long 
period of hard and dangerous service for their 
country. That the girl is just as ready as they 
are to give up her own personal pleasures and 
pursuits and accept any of the sacrifices that 
may be called for, but that she does not want 
to squander her energy and waste her time 
in futile and unproductive forms of effort. 
That she wants to know how she can get into 
a real job. 

Miss Stewart then proceeds to show what 
a nurse can do for her country^ the need of 
recruits for the nursing army, the importance 
of thorough training, how the student recruit 
helps her country, what the training of the 
nurse offers, and the opportunities for service 
after graduation. She closes with the informa- 
tion already referred to in connection with the 
recruiting leaflet. 

There is an Appendix of Information for 
College Graduates Desiring to enter Schools 
of Nursing. A special three months' nursing- 
preparatory course is offered this year to 
graduates of recognized colleges at Vassar 
College, University of Cincinnati, and else- 
where, the object of which is to provide an 
intensive preliminary training in subjects 
which are usually taken up in the early part of 
the hospital training course. 



August 24, 1918 



ITbc Brtttsb 3ournal of IRurstng. 



"3 



THE ROYAL AIR FORCE NURSING 
SERVICE. 



It is fitting that the Royal Air Force, " the last 
creation of the fighting forces of the world," should 
have its own Nursing Service, which will build up 
its own traditions. 

The appointment of Miss L. E. Jolley as Matron- 
in-Chief of the Service foreshadowed its develop- 
ment, and Miss Jolley is now prepared to receive 
applications from nurses who desire to join its 
ranks. 

The rates of pay are as follows : — 

Staff Nurses. — ;^40 per annum, rising by annual 
increments of j^2 los. to ;^45. 

Sisters. — ;^5o per annum, rising by annual incre- 
ments of ;^5 to ;^6o. 

Superintending Sisters. — ;^6o per annum, rising 
by annual increment of -^5 to ^JS- 

Matrons. — ^j^ per annum, rising by annual 
increments of ;^io. 

There is no provision for Assistant Matrons, but 
the Superintending Sisters will have charge of 
units. 

The Nursing Service will have a uniform of its 
own, and those members who sign on for the 
duration of the war will receive an extra bonus of 
;6'2o per annum. 

xApplication for particulars should be made, in 
the first instance, to the Secretary, Air Ministry, 
Strand, VV.C. 2. 

The Service will assuredly be a popular one, for 
the splendid work of the gallant airmen who guard 
our coasts, and keep watch over the safety of the 
metropolis in the air, that lesser folk may sleep 
securely, commands both admiration and gratitude, 
and the privilege of serving those who are sick or 
wounded is one which should be very highly 
esteemed. So far the scope of the Service is re- 
stricted to the United Kingdom, as provision is 
made in the military hospitals abroad for the recep- 
tion of airmen in need of medical and nursing care. 

THE ROY AL RED CROSS. 

The King has been pleased to award the Royal 
Red Cross to the following ladies in recognition of 
their valuable services in con»ection with the 
\vc,r : — 

Second Class. 
Talbot, Mrs. K. H. E., Trained Matron and 
Gommdt., 24th Durham V.A. Hospl., Middleton St. 
George, Durham; Taylor, Mrs. B. D., Sister, Ridley 
House Hospl., Carlton House Terrace, S.W. ; Taylor, 
Miss D., Staff Nurse, Hooton Pagnell Hall Aux. Mil. 
Hospl. (V.A.D.), Doncaster; Taylor, Mrs. M. A. J., 
Matron, Belmont" Aux. Mil. Hospl., Anfield, Liverpool ; 
Taylor, Miss M. E., Sister, T.F.N. S., ist Eastern Gen. 
Hospl., Cambridge; Taylor, Miss N. H. R., Nurse, The 
Norlands Aux. Hospl., Erdington, Birmingham; 
Thomas, Mrs. A., Sister, Highbury Aux. Hospl., Bir- 
mingham; Thomas, Miss G. M., Sister-in-Charge, 
Temple Road Aux. Mil. Hospl., Birkenhead Section, 
ist West Gen. Hospl. ; Thompson, Mrs. A. M., Sister, 
Northd. War Hospl., Gosforth, Newcastle-on-Tyne ; 



Thompson, Miss B. M., Sister, T.F.N.S., 1st West 
Gen. Hospl., Fazakerley, Liverpool; Thompson, Mrs. 
L. , Matron, The Woodlands, St. John's Aux., South- 
port; TiMBRELL, Miss A. M., Matron, Lowestoft and N. 
Suffolk Hospl. ; Tollemache, Lady W., Commdt., Peck- 
forton Castle and Bunbury Hospls., Ches. ; Topham, 
Miss K., Sister, T.F.N.S., Becketts Park 2nd Northern 
Gen. Hospl. ; Tosh, Miss F. M., Matron, Q.A.LM.N.S. 
(ret.). Mil. Hospl., Sheerness ; Townsend-Whitling, 
Mrs. J. G. M., Matron, Cottesbrook, Northar^ts Aux. 
Mil. Hospl. ; Tracy, Miss M., Matron, Sedgeley Hall, 
Prestwich ; Tuknbull, Miss J. H., Matron, Carrick 
House Aux. Hospl., Ayr. 

Verdin, Miss E. G., Commdt., Winsford Lodge Aux. 
Hospl., Winsford, Cheshire. 

Wake, Miss E. E. P., Matron, Garswood Hall Hospl., 
W. Lanes; Walker, Miss A., Matron, Didsbury Lodge, 
Didsbury ; Walker, Miss A., Sister, Red Cross Hospl., 
The Chalet, Hoylake ; Walker, Miss C, Niirse, Park- 
field, Crumpsall ; Walker, Mrs. P., Sister i/c, 
Q.A.LM.N.S. (ret.), Post Office Hospl., 20, Kensington 
Palace Gardens, W. 8; Walters, Miss H., Matron, 
Southport Infirmary; Walton, Miss B., Matron, Shen- 
stone House, Higher Broughton ; Warrington, Miss 
E. M., Asst. Nurse, King George's Hospl., Stamford 
Street, London, S.E. i ; Watt, Miss C, Matron, Wool- 
ton Conv. Institution, West Lanes ; Webb, Miss F. A., 
Sister, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., Wharnecliffe War Hospl., 
Sheffield; Weller, Mrs. E. M., Sister, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., 
Frensham Hill Mil. Hospl., Farnham, Surrey; Welli- 
come, Miss M. A. M., Matron, Malmesbury Red Cross 
Hospl., Wiltshire; Wellsted, Miss A. M., Matron, 
T.F.N. S., 5th South. Gen. Hospl., Favvcett Road Sec, 
Portsmouth; White, Miss A. E. N., Sister, T.F.N. S., 
2nd South. Gen. Hospl, Bristol R. Infirmary, Bristol; 
White, Miss E., Matron, T. F.N. S., Cowley Sec. of 
3rd South. Gen. Hospl., Oxford; White, Miss M., 
Nursing Sister, Can. Nursing Service, No. 11 Can. Gen. 
Hospl., Moore Barracks, Shorncliffe ; Whitehead, Miss 
E. J., Sister, Woodlands, Wigan ; Whitting, Miss M. 
de G., Sister i/c, Colliton V.A. Hospl., Dorchester; 
Wilding, Miss E. A., Matron, Rudyford, Nelson, E. 
Lanes; Wilkinson, Miss M. E., Nursing Sister, Can. 
Nursing Service, No. 15 Can. Gen. Hospl., Taplow, 
Bucks; Williams, Mrs. E., Joint Commdt., Aberdare 
and Merthyr Red Cross Hospl., Merthyr ; Williamson, 
Miss S. A., Sister, North 'd War Hospl., Gosforth, New- 
castle-on-Tyne ; Willis, Miss E., Sister, T.F.N. S., N. 
Evington Mil. Hospl. (5th North. Gen.), Leicester ; 
Wilson, Miss A. M., Commdt., the Red Cross Hospl., 
Melton, Suffolk; Wilson, Mrs. B. M., Nursing Sister, 
Can. Nursing Service, No. 14 Can. Gen. Hospl., East- 
bourne; Winch, Miss M. E., Sister, Salisbury and Dist. 
Joint Isolation Hospl., Salisbury; Windemer, Miss 
M. E., Freemasons' War Hospl., 237, Fulham Road, 
Chelsea, S.W. ; Wood, Miss A. E., Sister, T.F.N. S., 
3rd West. Gen. Hospl., Cardiff; Woodfin, Miss M., 
Sister, Aux. Mil. Hospl., Moor Park, Preston; Wood- 
ward, Miss M., Matron, Aux. Mil. Hospl., Billinge 
Orrell, near Wigan; Woolley, Mrs. F. G., Hon. 
Matron, Mil. Hospl., Kingston-on-Thames; Wright, 
Miss L., Sister, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., Reading War Hospl., 
Reading; Wynne, Miss E. A., Matron, R. Berks Hospl., 
Reading; Wright, Miss M. A., Sister, N.Z.A.N.S.* 
No. 3 N.Z. Hospl., Codford; Wyld, Miss K. M., Sister, 
Melksham Red Cross Hospl., Wilts; Wynn, Miss L., 
Sister, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., Mil. Hospl., Bagthorpe, Notts. 
Yapp, Miss C. S., Matron, Lake Hospl., Ashtoni 
under-Lyne, Lanes; Young, Miss A. P., Sister, 
Q.A.I. M.N.S.R., No. i Mil. Hospl., Canterbury; 
Young, MrS. M., Sister, Norfolk and Norwich Hospl , 
Norwich; Younge, Miss C, Sister, N. Z.A.N. S., N.Z. 
Convalescent Hospl., Hornchurch. 



134 



JLl)C Britieb 3ournal of fluraing. 



August 24, 1918 



CARE OF THE WOUNDED. 



The Hotel Petrograd, North Audley Street, W., 
has been procured by the Office of Works, on 
behalf of the Wax Office, for the purpose of con- 
verting it into a hospital for the Canadian Forces. 
The hotel is of modern construction, and very 
Suitable for the purpose for which it has been 
acquired. 



of her sales on the Flag Day, and will also receive 
an official letter of thanks from the Italian Red 
Cross. 



It is announced in the official organ of the 
British Red Cross Society that after careful 
consideration of the sites available in the royal 
parks for the hospital which is to be presented 
to the American Red Cross by the Joint War 
Committee of the British Red Cross Society and 
the Order of St. John, the one finally selected is in 
Richmond Park. The original intention was to 
place the hospital in Windsor Great Park, and 
His Majesty the King had graciously consented to 
give a site in that park for the purpose, but it 
was found impossible to carry out this intention, 
owing to difficulties of drainage, clay, soil, &c. 
The site which has now been selected in Richmond 
Park is pronounced by the War Office and other 
experts to be satisfactory in every way. It 
stands high ; it is on gravel soil ; water, gas, and 
electric light are easily procurable ; and it is 
within a mile of two stations on the main line 
from Southampton. The Office of Works has 
undertaken the construction, the necessary funds 
being provided by the Joint War Committee. 
Work will begin at once, and it is hoped that a 
hospital may be provided within the next few 
months which will be worthy of the acceptance 
of the American Red Cross and of the American 
sick and wounded for whom it is intended. 



General Humbert, in command of the Third 
French Army, has conferred upon Section 2 of 
the British Ambulance Committee the rare 
distinction of the Croix de Guerre with Palm. 

In a despatch of July 3rd the General wrote : 
" Attached to the division since January, 1917, 
the Section has, under the orders of it^ command- 
ant, aroused universal admiration, especially 
during the operations from June gth to 13th, 1918 
(at Ribecourt). In spite o* the fact that several 
of the ambulances were injured by the bombard- 
ment, the work o^^ evacuating the wounded never 
ceased, the cars continuing to fetch the wounded 
from the most advanced and dangerous posts, 
close to the enemy." 

The distinction can only be awarded by a 
general in command of an army. The Section 
are entitled to paint it on their ambulances. 



It is also announced that a new problem in 
hospital work was presented to the American 
Red Cross in Great Britain recently by the large 
number of small camps of American soldiers, 
particularly aviators, which have been opened in 
various parts of the British Isles. These camps are 
too small to require the installation of a large 
hospital, but there are frequent cases of illness or 
accident, and the camps are generally situated at 
points far distant from the regular military 
hospitals. The problem has been met by the 
establishment in each camp of a small " tent 
hospital," where American soldiers suffering from 
minor ailments can be cared for satisfactorily. 
More than fifty of these tent hospitals have been 
set up in various small American camps during 
the past few weeks, each accommodating from 
four to ten patients. 

The Italian Red Cross Committee, 2, Albemarle 
Street, Piccadilly, W. i, is extremely anxious to 
secure names of ladies who will be willing either 
to take charge of dep6ts or to act as .sellers on 
the Flag Day on September 25th. Each seller 
will be subsequently notified as to the amount 



The public will learn with relief that our hospitals 
at the Front have been placed some distance from 
the fighting units. They are clearly marked, and, 
of course, when bombed were intentionally 
attacked. By-the-bye, we hear that the German 
aviation officer who was taken prisoner after the 
wholesale slaughter at Etaples and warded, 
demanded to be at once taken to a place of safety, 
and hysterically resented the chance of death at 
the hands of his cowa,rdly compatriots ! 



IN GRATEFUL MEMORY. 

A vase of red, pink, and mauve carnations, and 
spikes of red and white gladioli, with delicate green 
fern fronds, before the War Shrine in Hyde Park, 
on Saturday last, attracted considerable attention. 
Attached to the flowers, by a ribbon of the national 
colours, was a black-edged card bearing in Queen 
Alexandra's handwriting the words : "In grateful 
memory to our brave and splendid soldiers who 
gave their lives for King and country. God bless 
them all. — From Alexandra." 



OUR ROLL OF HONOUR. 

nursing service. 

Died. 

We regret to record the following death in the 
Nursing Service. 

Kemp, Staff Nurse C. M. F., Q.A.I.M.N.S.R. 



WEDDINQ BELLS. 

A marriage has been arranged, and will very 
shortly take place, between the Rev. George 
Berens-Dcwdeswell, Rector of Foot's Cray, Kent, 
and Miss Eveleen M. Hunter, Matron of the Cray 
Valley Hospital, St. Mary Cray. We wish them 
every happiness. 



August 24, 1918 ^be Brlti0b 3ournal of IRursinfl. 



125 



THE SCHOOL NURSE. 

One of the most interesting and important 
developments of civic and social service in con- 
nection with nursing is that of the work of the 
School Aurse, ano no one is better able to 
" survey the duties and responsibilities of the 
nurse in the maintenance of health and 
physical perfection, and in the prevention of 
disease among school children," than Mrs. 
Struthers, R.N., who, as Miss Lina Rogers, 
was Superintendent of School Nurses, first in 
New York City, and afterwards at Toronto. 

In a book bearing the name of " The School 
Nurse," published by Messrs. G. P. Putnam's 
Sons, 24, Bedford Street, Strand, London, 
W.C., price 9s. net, Mrs. Struthers deals with 
many aspects of school nursing from the point 
of view of the expert. As she herself tells us 
in her preface, " school nursing is still in its 
infancy, and many changes in methods are to 
be expected, but the underlying essentials — 
child love and preservation of child health — 
will exist as long as child life." 

"It is," says Mrs. Struthers, " very gener- 
ally believed that so-called medical inspection 
of schools, or, more properly speaking, health 
supervision of school children, is of recent 
origin ; that it is, in fact, one of the progressive 
measures of this century — an outcome of the 
newly aroused social conscience. Neverthe- 
less, medical inspection of schools dates back 
to the palmy days of the ancient Greeks and 
Romans. Under these ancient and warlike 
people, the State trained, educated, and 
developed the child for his place in life. With 
them, however, the chi'd was first the child of 
the State, and secondly the child of his parents, 
and to the State his physical training was more 
important than his mental training, because the 
chief duty of the State was to prepare the man 
for war. ' ' 

The Policy of Exclusion. 

Mrs. Struthers traces the successive steps 
in connection with the medidkl supervision of 
schools and school children of recent years. 
In the nineteenth century this only meant 
exclusion from school for communicable or 
loathsome diseases, and but little attention 
was paid to the child after exclusion. In most 
instances the parents failed, through ignor- 
ance, to obtain the necessary treatment, and 
he was even allowed to play on the street with 
other children after school hours, thereby 
making of no avail the first act of exclusion. 

The Policy of Cure. 
" The advent of the school nurse brought a 
radical change in the methods of dealing with 



diseased children. Instead of being excluded 
and neglected they were treated by the school 
nurse. Many cases were treated in the schools 
without danger of contagion to other children. 
The nurse visited the homes, pointed out to 
parents the dangers of such maladies, and 
specially interested the mother in getting the 
children well. The trained, and let us add 
the kindly arid diplomatic, nurse became the 
guide, philosopher, and friend of the family. 
The school nurse who fails to get into intimate 
touch with the family must confess she has 
failed in her first mission. As a result of the. 
nurse's work, school attendance increased fifty 
per cent. Interested and regular attendance 
took the place of exclusion and truancy." 

The Policy of Prevention. 

" During the last ten years the important 
outcome of the school health work has been 
the emphasis placed uj>on a policy of preven- 
tion. It is just the old story that prevention 
is better than cure ; that education is better 
than reformation. ... At the present time, 
therefore, health education is the fundamental 
basis of all school health work. To cure 
disease or remove physical defect is a neces- 
sary but incidental part of the work. The 
factors of greatest importance to the child's 
future welfare are wholesome food, proper 
clothing, personal cleanliness, physical drill 
and play, and plenty of fresh air in school and 
home. Unfortunately many have been slow to 
recognize that this last policy should ,be the 
primary function of the school in health work." 

Mrs. Struthers gives the history of the 
development of school nursing both in America 
and in this country. She details the organiza- 
tion of a system of health supervision of school 
children, and gives suggestive rules. 

A very interesting section is the description 
of the little mothers' classes and school, and of 
baby clinics, organized for the purpose of 
teaching little girls with younger brothers and 
sisters how to take care of their charges. 
Admirable illustrations show these little 
mothers as interested audiences at demonstra- 
tions of bedmaking, of the baby's bath, and of 
putting baby to bed. Considerable space is 
devoted to the Forest School at Toronto, and 
the uselessness of trying to cram a child's head 
full of knowledge when the body is enfeebled, 
poorly nourished, or sick, is emphasised. 

A study of Mrs. Struthers' lucid and in- 
teresting exposition of the purpose of school 
nursing should do much to create a sym- 
pathetic understanding of the needs of school 
children and of the high value in the body 
politic of the work of school nurses. 



136 



ZTbe Britteb 3ournal of IRureina. 



August 24, 1918 



Ropal BritlsD nurses' Ussociatioti. 



(Incorporated bp 




|\ Ropal CDarten) 



THIS SUPPLEMENT BEING THE OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE CORPORATION. 



COMPOUND FRACTURES OF THE 
HUMERUS. 

PART I— SPLINTS. 

BY Miss M. C, SiNZiNiNEX, A.R.R.C 
Diploma of the Royal British Nurses' A ssociation ; 
Matron of Queen Alexandra' s Hospital for Officers. 

The aim in cases of compound fractures of the 
humerus is to get the arm into a comfortable 
position with the ends of 
the bone in apposition 
by means of a splint, the 
arrangment of which 
must give free acccess to 
the wound for purposes of 
dressing and drainage, 
and at the same time 
enable the patient to be 
nursed and to move 
about in bed in comfort. 

At Queen Alexandra's 
Hospital, Highgate, a 
great number of very 
badly fractured humeri 
have been successfully 
treated. In many of 
these cases the bone 
has been so badly shat- 
tered that months (and 
in some cases a year) 
have elapsed before all 
the dead bone has come 
away, and until this has 
taken place the wounds 
will not heal satis- 
factorily nor will the 
fracture firmly set. The 
wounds are usually kept 
open by means of drainage 
tubes, as there is always 
sepsis where there is dead 

bone. Mr. Herbert Paterson (the surgeon-in- 
charge) has brought out a very good splint for use 
in fractures of the humerus or elbow joint, and it 
has been in use at Highgate for over three years. 
It is based on the Thomas's principle of extension, 
but the forearm is held at right angles to- the 
upper arm, instead of being out straight, the 




Fia. I.— PATERSON'S SPLINT FOR FRACTURE 
OF HUMERUS OR ELBOW JOINT. 



former position being much more comfortable for 
the patient, A padded ring fits round the top of 
the humerus, and is pressed well up into the 
axilla, two bars are carried down from either side 
of this ring, parallel to the upper arm, and are 
joined by a cross piece below the elbow. About 
half-way down the inner bar is a space arranged 
for the forearm by dropping the bar for the 
distance of 4 in. to 5 in., thus H P From 
this dropped piece two bars extend at right angles 
and between them the 
forearm rests, this also is 
joined under the wrist 
by a cross-bar to which 
a movable hand piece is 
attached. This is fastened 
on by means of a screw 
and can be raised or 
lowered at will. It is 
usually kept raised so as 
to prevent wrist-drop, 
but it can be lowered 
right down for purposes 
of movements and mas- 
sage to hand and wrist. 

In the case of a com» 
pound fracture, the 
method of extension is 
always a dif&culty, as so 
often the wounds occur 
just where the pull is 
most needed. When it 
has been impossible to 
put an extension on the 
upper arm, a very good 
pull has been maintained 
by an extension round 
the forearm to the lower 
part of the splint below 
elbow but on the side 
nearer hand (see fig. i, 
A.). When this method 
of extension is employed the wTist must be 
fixed by means of a firm bandage or buckle 
and strap to the upper bar of forearm piece 
at B., until such time as an extension can 
be put on the upper arm. Various armlets, to 
fit on part of the upper arm and part of the forearm 
have been devised, but nothing has been found 



August 24, 1918 



Zbc British 3ournal of IRurslno, 



127 



to be so satisfactory as the old-fashioned stirrup 
made of strapping with block and cord. Armlets, 
however tightly laced, seem to have a way of 
slipping, and when tightJy faslert d Ihey cut inlo 
the bend of the elbow and also impede the circula- 
tion of the forearm. 

Even with a good pull from the axilla to the 
end of the splint, supports are necessary at 
intervals under the arm from the axilla to the 
elbow. The most suitable material for this 
purpose is rubber, as it can be easily cleansed 
and boiled when it comes in contact with discharges 
from the wounds. Old inner tubes of motor 
tyres, cut to the required size, are cheap, strong 
and serve the purpose well. These supports used 
to be held in place by very strong spring letter 
clips ; but as time progressed, these became 
unobtainable and safety-pins were used, the 
difficulty in pushing these through the tough 
rubber resulted in more than one pricked and 
septic finger. Then 
studs (fig. I, C.) 
were made all down 
the bars on the new 
splints on which to 
fasten the rubbers. 
The rubber is 
nicked with a sharp 
knife in two or 
three places and 
pressed over the 
studs on the inner 
bar of the splint ; 
then it is brought 
under the arm and 
over the outer bar 
between the splint 
and the arm, drawn 
up to the requisite 
tightness, nicked 
again where the 
studs indicate by 
bulging through 
the rubber, and 
slipped over them, 
the elasticity of 
the tyre securing.it. The studs are made thinner 
at the part nearer the splint to prevent the rubber 
slipping over and coming o|f. By this means 
the rubbers can be taken on and off with perfect 
ease when once the holes have been made. For 
drv:ssing purposes only one side of the rubber need 
be detached from the studs. If several rubbers 
have to be used, it is wise to move only one at a 
time, as if too much support be taken away at 
once the fracture may sag and get out of position 
and also cause great pain to the patient. 

The cords of the extension are passed through 
a screw pulley, which hooks over the cross bar 
at D. in fig. i. This can be loosened or tightened 
by means of a key. 

This splint can be worn by a. patient who is 
able to walk about, the weight being supported 
by an ordinary arm sling. When the fracture 




FIQ. 2. 



-FRACTURE BED 
FOR SLINGING 



has set firmly, the arm is either put on a straight 
upper arm splint or put in plaster, the latter 
method being used where there has been great 
loss of bone. 

This splint is slung by means of cords, pulleys 
and weights (sufficient to balance the arm) to a 
bar crossing the patient's bed (see fig. II). By 
this means the patient is able to move about in 
bed quite easily and can balance the arm himself 
at any height that is most comfortable. These 
fracture beds are fitted with two bars, so that 
either a left or right arm or leg, or both, may be 
slung, the bars also providing an attachment 
to which the flask of lotion may be hung. 

DONATIONS RECEIVED. 

The Honorar\'^ Treasurer acknowledges with 
thanks donations from the following: — 

Misses A. E. and E. A. Boldero, 15s. ; Miss 
A. E. Billet, 5s. ; Miss Cruickshank, 2s. 6d. ; Mrs. 

Allan Robert-son 
2s. 6d. ; Miss A. 
Brentans is. ; Miss 
B. Carter, is. ; Miss 
E. Cowlan, is. ; 
Miss M. Ellis, is. ; 
Miss M. Lawford, 
IS. ; Miss M. Little- 
dale, IS. ; Miss L. 
Pettigrew, IS. ; Miss 
K. Rushton, is. ,• 
Mi33E. Stan den. is. 

THE THANKS OF 
THE MAYOR OF 
BIARRITZ TO AN 
ENGLISH NURSE. 

Miss Constance 
Clarke, m.r.b.n.a., 
Matron of an 
American Hospital 
at Biarritz, has re- 
ceived a letter from 
Senator Forsan, 
Mayor of- Biarritz, 
thanking- her ■ for 
the " enlightened zeal " with which she has accom- 
plished the administrative work of the hospital, and 
conveying- an expression of gratitude from the 
municipality of that town for the long months . 
during which she has devotedly served the cause 
of humanity. 

OBITUARY. 

.It is with regret that we have to report the death 
of Miss Mary Frost. 

Miss Frost was trained at University College 
Hospital, and was for a considerable number of 
years on the staff of Great Ormond Street Hospital 
for Children. For many years she has been an 
inmate of the Princess Christian Settlement Home. 

(Signed) , Isabel Macdonald, 

Secretary to the Corporation. 



, SHOWING DOUBLE BARS 
ARMS AND LEGS. 



izB 



Zbe Britieb Journal of IRuretna; 



August 24, 1918 



A SUPREME MOMENT. 



Work was heavy and hands were few in a pro- 
vincial hospital where I had gone to take tem- 
porary duty for three months ; in a wcrd, we were 
understaffed. I was at once the Night Nurse and 
Night Sister on the male side of the hospital. 
Accidents I also had to admit, there being no night 
porter, and, if necessa.ry, prepare the theatre for 
operations. 

There was the usual, busy, ra,pid routine of 
hospital work, only ra^ther more so than usua-lly 
falls to the lot of one nurse. L had no time to sit 
still and think enviously of those who were 
spending the night in the conventional way, a.nd 
deplore the anomaly of night nuirsing- I wa.s,"at 
any ra.te, spared the insidious tempta-tion of 
sleepiness, which, in spite of the sust?.ining cup of 
tea, will assail the tired Night Nurse if she has not 
much to do. " Nurse, will you get the isola.tion 
ward ready at once, please for a. bad ca.se of 
diphtheria — a boy, seven yeajrs eld — tracheotomy 
will be performed in the wajd directly he a.rrives, in 
about an hour's time, and — will you take the 
case ? " 

It was the house surgeon who spoke. 

I replied in the affirmative, and then asked 
tentatively how my work was to be done. The 
best arrangement possible, under the circum- 
stances, was made, a.nd I was left free for my new 
and responsible duty. There is no such thing really 
as monotony in hospital life — tha,t word should 
never find a place in a nurse's vocabulary, it 
savours of lack of imagination and sympathy on 
her part, who would do well to remember that 
what is an " interesting case " to her, spells 
something very different to the object of her 
interest. 

Nevertheless, an emergency case is the trained 
nurse's opportunity and should not be discounted. 
But this in parenthesis. 

To get the fire lit, bed made, tent erected, kettle 
half filled with boiling water and put in motion, 
and to make preparations necessajy for the opera.- 
tion and for the nursing of such a case did not take 
very long. 

One gla.nce at the poor little sufferer convinced 
me tha.t it wa.s p. very bad case ; the child was in 
extremis, semi-suffocated by the cruel disease so 
often chajacterised by the appearance of mem- 
brane of a more or less glutinous nature which 
attacks, and adheres to, the throa.t and nasal 
passages 

The Surgeon arrived a.lmost simultaneously, and 
the operation was performed at once. The 
immediate result of the incision into the trachea 
was a rush of confined air, and with it a splutter 
of mucus. The relief was instantaneus, and the 
look of strain and suffering on the little face was 
replaced by one of comparative comfort and ease. 
Johnny, however, was in a critical condition, and I 
watched him anxiously for eighteen hours, keeping 
the tube clear and giving constant nourishment, 
disinfecting and cleansing the throat, &c. 



For tha.t and the two following nights he did 
fairly well, and so I believed and hoped he would 
wea,ther the storm. On the third night, or fourth 
-7-1 cannot cleajly remember — a,ll went well for 
the first few hours, his breathing and his strength 
well maintained. Suddenly, without any wammg 
a.t all, there appeared to be an interruption in the 
brea,thing of a very serious nature, and poor little 
Johnny was threa.tened with suffocation, due to 
the fact that a piece of membranous matter had 
become dislodged, and wa.s blocking the trachea 
below the tube; As long a.s I live I shall never 
forget that poor child's face ; it wa.s transfigured ; 
his eyes, big with terror, were turned to me in 
agonised mute appeal, while he clenched his fists 
and kicked out his legs with the force of impotent 
frenzy. It was obvious that removing the tube 
would be of no ava.il, the tube was clear. 

For a moment my own helplessness was borne 
upon my mind with sickening dread.' Must 
I watch the poor little fellow die ! There was 
only one thing to be done, and if that failed 
nothing could save him — artificial respiration. 
I took the arms and brought them above the 
head ; in bringing them down to the sides, I 
pressed against the ribs to force the obstruction 
upwards if possible. Hearing a. nurse pass the 
door, I asked her to call up the house surgeon 
at once ; he appeared immediately. 

" I can do nothing more than you are doing 
yourself," he said, and — unwilling, I suppose, 
to watch what seemed to be inevitable — he, half- 
reluctantly, left the ward. Time cannot be 
measured in such supreme moments of life ; it 
materialises to the overwrought brain and merges 
into tangible torture. Obviously, no length of 
time can elapse in a case like this. After the 
house surgeon had left the ward, the child became 
slightly easier • soon he began to cough and 
I caught sight of something appearing at the 
mouth of the tube and was just about to seize it 
with the forceps, holding my own breath in the 
extremity of my suspense, when, with inspiration, 
it disappeared down the tube again. However 
the worst was over and the child could draw his. 
breath. I waited anxiously with forceps in hand, 
watching the tube as a cat watches a mouse-hole, 
with a wildly-beating heart. Another cough and 
I had caught the thing, the cruel thing that had 
nearly cost my little patient his life. A large 
thick glutinous piece of deadly membrane. No 
sooner had the obstruction been removed than 
the child closed his eyes, breathed easily and 
slept with all the anguish that had distorted his 
face gone. I looked at the sleeping boy and 
then at the thing I held in the forceps, and my 
eyes filled with tears — ^tears of joy — as the tension 
of my brain was relaxed and I realized that my 
efforts to save the child's life, had, under) God, 
not been in vain. I put it into a bottle containir g 
methylated spirit, I held it up to the light and 
looked at it again with — oh ! what different 
feelings. It was in the right place now, not in 
the wrong — that made all the difference. Now 
it was a bacteriological specimen ! I looked at it 



August 24, 1918 (jbe Brtttfib Sournal of IRuremo. 



I29i 



again, almost with affection, for had it not nega- 
tively saved my little patient's life ? The house 
Surgeon returned just at the moment of my 
triumph ; he was surprised to find the child 
sleeping and breathing normally. I held the 
little bottle up to him with a triumphant smile ; 
he understood and gave an answering smile and 
went back to bed. Easy respiration was estab- 
lished after that, and there was no recurrence 
of the impediment. _ Beatrice Kent. 



NURSES' REGISTRATION ACT IN 
BRITISH COLUMBIA. 

It is with pleasure we record that the Graduate 
Nurses' Associat'on of British Columbia have 
secured the passage of their Nurses' Registration 
Bill. Hearty congratulations. In this connection 
Miss H. L. Randa^, Editor of the Canadian 
Nurse, in a letter to Miss Beatrice Kent, writes : 
" I feel very strongly that we should give all the 
help we can to your efforts to secure Registration 
of Nurses, as we have it over here — a matter for 
the nurses alone and not of the laity. We have 
in British Columbia just got our Provincial Act 
passed after six years of work. Then, when all 
Provinces have their own Acts, we can formulate 
one Dominion Act with a -very good chance of 
passing it, particularly as we have Dominion 
franchise." 



APPOINTMENTS. 

MATRON. 

County Hospital, Ayr. — Miss I. M. Crichton, 
who has been appointed Matron of the County 
Hospital, Ayr, sends us the following details of 
her professional career. She was trained at 
Chalmers' Hospital, Edinburgh ; was Charge 
Nurse at the Victoria Infirmary, Glasgow ; and 
Theatre and X-Ray Sister, Hovsekeeper and 
Assistant Matron at Chalmers' Hospital. She 
has not held appointments at the West Kent 
Hospital, or the Edmonton General Hospital. 

SISTER. 

General Hospital, Nottingham. — Miss Alice 
Russell has been appointed Sister. She was 
trained at the Infirmary, East Dulwich Grove, and 
has been Sister in a Women's Surgical Ward at 
the Royal West Sussex Hospital, Chichester. 



PRESENTATION. 

At the Central Military Hospital, Fulford, 
York, on August 13th, Miss Kathleen Holmes, 
the retiring Matron, who is to resume nursing 
on the Western Front, was presented with a tea 
service on salver, a rose vase, a button-hook, and 
a shoe lifter, all in solid silver, the gifts of the 
nursing and medical staff of the hospital and 
the annexe at Haxby Road. Another gift from 
the annexe took the form of a piece of china 
beautifully designed to represent a wounded 
soldier. At the base was one word, " Blighty." 



NURSING ECHOES. 



An urgent appeal is made in the current, issue 
pf the Queen's Nurses' Magazine to all who are 
interested in its continuance. Owing to the 
war,, and the large number of Queen's Nurses 
on active service, some hundreds of sybscribers 
have ceased to take the Magazine, and of the 
rest no less than 208 have not yet paid for the 
current year, though they have given no notice 
of a wish to discontinue. Many others have 
not paid for 191 7. The cost of paper and 
printing, as everyone knows, has increased to 
an alarming extent, and unless present readers 
discharge their obligations, and unless the 
number of subscribers is substantially enlarged 
quite quickly, the Queen's Nurses' Magazine 
must cease publication forthwith. 



The dissertation on " Sister," by Corporal 
Ward Muir, R.A.M.C. (T.), of the 3rd London 
General Hospital, in that entertaining and 
interesting book, "The Happy Hospital," 
published by Messrs. Simpkin, Marshall, Kent 
& Go., Ltd., sums up the position with an 
insight so keen, and a humoift- so incisive, as 
to give both Sister and Staff Nurse pause for 
thought. Mr. Ward Muir writes : — 

" There is a deal of difference, in hospital, 
between the word Sister and the word Nurse. 
Sister is, of course, a Nurse. But Nurse is 
not a Sister. However, there is nothing to 
prevent you calling Nurse ' Sister ' — provided 
that Sister herself is not at your elbow. If she 
is, you had better be careful, both for your 
own sake and for Nurse's. 

" Some wearily-wase orderlies, and many 
patients of experience, apostrophise all the 
female officials of a hospital as ' Sister.' The 
plan has its merits. . . . Apart from the fact 
that it can offend none, and will cajole not a 
few, some universal appellation of this sort is 
— the soldier finds — almost a necessity in his 
constant dealing with women who are strangers 
to him. 

" He comes in contact with a host of women, 
especially after he is wounded ; not only 
nursing women, but women on the ambulances, 
women who serve refreshments at halting 
places, women clerks who take his particulars, 
women who trace casualties, women who 
transact postal errands, and so on. . . . To 
address them each indiscriminately as * Miss * 
is absurd ... * Madam ' is pedantic. ' Nurse * 
is in many instances manifestly ridiculous ; vou 
cannot call a clerical V.A.D. or a Y.M.C.A. 
waitress ' Nurse.' So, by a process of elimina- 
tion, ' Sister ' is reached. 



^30 



ZTbe Brttidb 3ournal of l^ur^tng. 



August 24, 1918 



" Thus it comes to pass the Mile. Peroxide 
of the Frivol Iheatre who takes a turn at 
ladling out cups of cottee in a railway-station 
canteen (with a press photographer handy) 
finds that the mud-stained Tommies are say- 
ing, ' Another slice of cake, please, Sister, ' or 
' Any fags for sale here. Sister? ' The 
Duchess, too, who is cutting bread-and-butter 
hears herself hailed, by the same designation. 
And if both Miss Peroxide and the Duchess are 
not flattered (and maybe a little moved, too), I 
should be surprised. 

" For really, you know, ' Sister ' is the 
happy word. It fits the situation — all such 
situations. Wouldn't it be possible to add one 
perfect touch : that our women comrades 
should drop into the habit of addressing 
us as ' Brother ' ? Officers and men alike — 
' Brother ' ! It would be a symbol, this, of 
what the war ought to mean to us all : a fine 
collaboration of high and low, equals in 
endeavour. . . . 



" When I was first put into a ward to serve 
as an orderly I was instructed beforehand that 
the only person to be entitled Sister was the 
goddess with the iStripes. Eager to be correct, 
I addressed the Statt Nurse as ' Nurse.' At 
once I divined there was something wrong. 
Her lips tightened. In a frigid voice she 
informed me of the significance of the Cape : 
all Cape-wearers held a status equivalent to 
that of a commissioned officer in the army, 
and must be treated as such by privates like 
myself. All Cape-wearers were to be accorded 
the proper courtesies and addressed as Sister. 
Furthermore, the speaker, realising that I was 
a new recruit, and therefore perhaps ignorant, 
would have me know that all Cape-wearers had 
undergone certain years of training. . . . The 
speaker concluded by a sketch of her past 
career — I was held up in the mid^t of an urgent 
job to hearken to it — ^and a rough estimate of 
the relative indispensability of the female as 
compared with the male staff. Finally I was 
dismissed with an injunction to hurry, and 
finish my incompleted task. 

" * Very good. Sister,' I replied. 

" Half an hour later, in a pause in the morn- 
ing's rush, I was beckoned aside into the ward 
kitchen by Sister herself. She gently apprised 
me that, as I was a new recruit, she thought 
perhaps I was not yet aware of the accurate 
modes of address and the etiquette customary 
in a military hospital. Etcetera, etcetera. She 
had overheard me call the Staff Nurse 
' Sister.' 



" Enough. One may smile at these exhibi- 
tions of feminine human nature (and I could 
match them, absolutely, on the male side), but 
when all is said and done ' Sister ' is a beautiful 
title, and most of the women who receive it — 
whether correctly or because, by war service, 
they have had it bestowed upon them — richly 
deserve it as a token of gratitude and honour. ' ' 



The trustees of the Scottish Nurses' Club 
have purchased and are equipping premises at 
205, Bath Street, Glasgow. The office-bearers 
appointed are the Marchioness of Ailsa, Presi- 
dent ; Mrs. J. W. Stewart, Vice-President ; 
Convener, Mrs. David M'Cowan; Vice-Con- 
vener, Mrs. J. F. Pollock ; Hon. Secretary and 
Treasurer, Sir John S. Samuel ; Law Agent, 
Mr. Thomas Stark Brown. The Club has no 
official connection with any organization of 
nurses ; the management will be in the hands 
of five representatives of the trustees, and 
individual nurses. 



EARNEST WORKERS NEEDED. 



Emphasising the need for recruits for Queen 
Mary's Army Auxiliary Corps {alias the " Waacs ") 
the Times says that " thousands of women are 
needed where hundreds only are coming forward. 
The appeals from the different commands are 
piteous. One commanding officer who had been 
promised a large contingent set to work and had 
the pleasantest portion of his camp fenced off and 
labelled, ' Q.M.A.A.C. only.' He had a garden 
laid out, had provided dining-rooms, recreation- 
rooms, sleeping huts, and everything of the best. 
As he looked sadly over the silent result, he said, 
' These are my " Waackeries," but where are 
my " Waacs ?' " ' You can see them any after- 
noon from three to six on the river,' was the 
cynical reply of one who knew, ' they haven't 
joined up yet.' 

" There are still thousands of idle women and 
girls in the country. Some of them, perhaps, do a 
little occasional voluntary work, but the a,verage 
of their hours of industry is not great. The 
controllers of the Q.M.A.A.C, howeve-, do not 
despair, and a big recruiting ' push ' has been 
begun, with a change of method. 

" A valuable adjunct to recruiting will be an 
official film which is being prepared and will 
presently be shown throughout the countty. It is 
called ' The Life of a Waac' It will show her 
from the time she enlists, her life in Connaught 
Club, her work when training at a great military 
centre, and finally her embarcation for France. 
Later, it is hoped that oversea films will be pre- 
pared showing how the women live and work at 
the great bases and how they help to send more 
men up the line by doing work which in war time 
men ought not to do." 



August 24, 1918 



^l>e British 3ournal ot TluretnG. 



Ill 



BOOK OP THE WEEK. 



"THE NURSERY."* 

Mr. Eden Phillpotts needs no recommendation, 
and no introduction. He is always worth reading. 
He most often deals with primitive and lawless 
men and women, but he would lose much of his 
power and charm if he attempted to lead his 
readers by conventional paths. " The Nursery " 
is an Essex story and the local colour is one of its 
chief attractions. 

Aveline, the young'widow, who turned out not 
to be a widow at all, appeared in the neighbour- 
hood of Colchester to follow her profession of a 
painter. None knew from where she came, or 
aught of her, save that she was a beautiful woman. 
Her entry into the village life was marked by her 
rescuing a love-sick girl from suicide in the River 
Colne, and afterwards her consequent close friend- 
ship with the girl. The incident also provided 
an introduction to the village circle, for Margery 
came of decent people and was well known in the 
neighbourhood. Aveline's first coveted subjects 
for a picture were the tramps, who play a 
prominent part in the story. 

" Both man and woman were somewhat extra- 
ordinary figures, and both smoked pipes. The 
woman bore the marks of beauty in ruins. She 
might have been forty-five, and was tanned brick- 
red by exposure. Her eyes were bright and of 
the darkest brown ; on her head she wore a 
bedraggled hat, with one great turkey feather set 
bolt upright upon it ; her hair was cut short, and 
her thin bosom was buttoned up in an old Norfolk 
jacket. Her dress of withered brown ended in 
a fringe of rags. 

The man accosting Aveline Brown says : — 
"Me and Emma was wondering what you were 
up to." 

" I'm going to paint a picture." 
" Why ? " asked the man. 
" I live by it." 

" Can't say as I've see you before, have you, 
Emma ? " 

" I'm a newcomer to Colchester." 
" We're very well known — famous, in fact," 
explained Emma. 

" But our liking for fresh air and objection to 
what they calls ' honest toil' makes us a people 
apart," drawled the man. " I'm William Ambrose 
and she's Emma Davey, better known as ' Marma- 
lade Emma,' owing to a misunderstanding at the 
grocer's." 

The brother of the male tramp was Aubrey 
Parkyn Ambrose, described by Emma as the 
" biggest nursery man in Colchester. Worth 
hundreds of thousands, I daresay — and the 
Mayor of Colchester this year into the bargain." 

" I'm the thorn in his flesh," declared the 
tramp. He certainly was ! If Mr. Phillpotts 
can draw the disreputable tramp true to life, he 
is no less successful when he paints nature in more 

♦ By Eden Phillpotts. (London : Heinemann.) 



attractive form, and his description of the summer 
glory in the nursery garden glows with colour. 

It was while strolling in the gardens that 
Aveline met Peter Mistley, who was to play a 
great part in her life. 

He was the designer of the water garden. 
Aveline asks if she may sketch there. " I'd love 
to try this lakelet, but I expect it would beat 
me," she confessed ! " D'you know the under- 
lying gold in it ? But you made it, so no doubt 
you do. It's gold. You feel it more than you can 
see it, but it's there soaking everything. It actu- 
ally flashes out on a dead water-lily leaf, or the 
edge of a reed, or in those warm, cloudy masses 
of plume poppy beyond." 

Oyster-dredging at Brightlingsea is yet another 
aspect of industry from this versatile pen, and it 
is possible to learn a great deal on this subject 
from Mr. Rebow. Of the human interest, it is 
impossible to justify Aveline's treatment of Peter 
Mistley, for she married him well knowing that 
her husband was alive, but the war solved the 
problem of their relationship, as it has solved 
many other problems. 

Even Marmalade Emma contrives to be pathetic, 
and she laments faithfully her disreputable 
partner, whose terrible death is depicted in 
characteristic fashion. 

" Of course," she said, " we shan't tramp no 
more, nor nothing of that. But he believed we 
should meet again ; he often said he'd be terrible 
bored till I came to him. He'll be changed, but 
I hope not too much changed." Her simple 
faith is not shared by Aveline, who, speaking of 
Peter's death with the tramp — rin the familiar 
fashion that Mr. Phillpotts makes natural — says, 
" He must have known that if he ever really came 
back that it would be ages before he could trust 
me or respect me any more. And no doubt he 
felt the game wasn't worth the candle. 

" If you could only feel, same as I do that you're 
going back to him — if he's happy, then it's your 
place to be content." 

But Aveline had the one adventure that Peter 
Mistley had declared that everyone needed, 
although it spelt disaster for herself and the 
man she professed to love. H.H. 



LIFE. 

I play with life on different days 

In different moods, 
Sometimes my wayward spirit sti-ays 

In wonderful solitudes. 
Sometimes I seek the crowded ways 

Of the world's gay multitudes. 

Sometimes my soul is fierce and mad 

As a winter sea ; 
Sometimes my soul is brave and glad, 

And the hours are good to me. 
But often enough it is tired and sad. 

Poor waif of eternity ! 
— From Rainbows, bv Olive Custance. 



Hjz 



Jlbc Britieb 3ournal of "Wurelnfi. 



August 24, 1918 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects for these columns, we wish it to be 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 

CERTIFICATE OF EXISTENCE. 

To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — ^As one who has from time to 
time vouched for the existence of annuitants of 
the R.N.P.F.N., as well as witnessed the signature 
on receipt, I am at a loss to know why the receipt 
had to be returned to the office before the dispatch 
of cheque. Should not the endorsement of cheque 
to order satisfy the actuaries and protect the fund, 
besides being businesslike, even in transactions 
with women struggling to live for the remainder 
of their days on a small income ? Postage counts, 
particularly in these days when a bonus is missed. 
Yours truly, 

Clara Lee. 

Letch worth. 

NURSERY SCHOOLS. 
To the Editor 0} The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — Mr. H. A. L. Fisher, at the 
opening of the Summer School for Teachers of 
Young Children at the Westfield College, Hamp- 
stead, in referring to tho Nursery School, said 
this opens the way for " free voluntary experi- 
ment," and, it seems, he desires " suggestions 
and offers from people especially interested." 

As a nurse who wishes her profession to take 
a definite form, and to command the same respect 
and similar remuneration from the Government 
and other employers as, for instance, the teaching 
professson, I object to the proposition that we 
should offer ideas founded upon our knowledge 
and training to authorities who did not heed our 
claims that this knowledge and training was 
essential to the success of the scheme. In my 
opinion the time has gone by for impressing the 
Ministry of Education with our views. Tne 
Nursery Schools are to be schools. Well, so 
be it. 

Why should our services always be regarv^iCd 
as something to be had for mere asking ? 

Because we have hitherto placed such little value 
nn them ourselvss. 

However, I am happy to say that there is to 
be plenty of scope for the ideas of nurses in their 
own recognised sphere, by the spurt given to the 
day nursery with the passing of the Child Welfare 
Bill. 

Let our best nurses interest themselves more 
in the development of public health work, and 
take their proper place in it, and we will prove 
that our services are worth true recognition, and 
are no longer to be classed with voluntary efEorts 
and benevolent societies. Then, indeed, will 
nursing rank with other professions and be able 
to claim its dues, 

Yours faithfully, 

Mosside, M/C Theresa McGrath, 



THE HOSPITAL LAUNDRY. 

To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — I was glad to see in The British 
Journal of Nursing last week an article on " The 
Hospital Laundry," for in my experience the sub- 
ject is one concerning which the knowledge of most 
nurses is sadly deficient. Yet, whether we consider 
it from .the point of view of the nurse who is often 
recklessly lavish of clean linen, both in hospitals 
and private houses, of the Sister who is personally 
responsible for the correctness and good order of 
the supplies of her ward linen, or the Matron who 
should know approximately the average number of 
articles required to supply a given ward, the number 
which should be sent to the wash, and the amount 
of labour and materials reeded to cope with them, 
the question of the laundry is all-important. Linen 
may be damaged or ruined, and expenditure in 
regard to the laundry be greatly in excess of what 
is necessary, if an expert and vigilant eye is not 
kept on all these departments. Added to this, most 
careful checking is needed when the clean linen 
is returned, or articles may disappear and not be 
forthcoming when stock-taking time draws on. 
Incidentally I may mention that this worry is mini- 
mised if the laundry is on the premises, as much 
closer supervision is possible. 

Another advantage is that nurses in their fourth 
year can act as assistant to the Home Sister, or 
Assistant Matron, who arranges and controls the 
work of the laundry. This makes for smooth work- 
ing in the hospital concerned, and the experience 
is invaluable to the nurse subsequently if she 
applies for an administrative post. For such a f>ost 
high certificates in nursing, indispensable as they 
are, are only part of her equipment. Housekeeping 
experience, a knowledge of food values, and of the 
management of a laundry, also count for much, for 
she may have to supervise and control both these 
departments. 

I am, Dear Madam, 

Yours faithfully, 

Superintendent. 
A CHANGE NEEDED. 
To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing, 

Dear Madam, — If nurses are run down through 
length of service in an enervating climate, they 
should have medical advice, and it should be fol- 
lowed. I may point out, however, that the climate 
of India differs widely, and that a visit to the hills 
would in most cases meet the needs of the situation. 
There are many places where the climate is as tem- 
perate and invigorating as that of the Homeland. 
Yours truly, 

Anglo-Indi.'vn. 



OUR PRIZE COMPETITION. 

QUESTIONS. 

August ^isi. — Mention some of the principal 
disorders of the nervous system, and the duties of 
the nurse in regard to them. 

September yth.—What are the principal functions 
of a School Nurse? How may she assist in raising 
the standard of national health ? 



August 24, 1918 ziyc Brttisb Journal of f^ur^ina Supplement. 

The 



13^ 



MATERNITY AND CHILD WELFARE. 

By direction of the President of the Local 
Government Board a circular has been addressed 
by the Secretary of the Board bringing to the 
notice of County Councils (other than the L.C.C.) 
and of Sanitaiy Authorities, the provisions of the 
Maternity and Child Welfare Act, 19 18, which has 
recently been passed. The circular states : — 

The Act widens thepowersof Local Authorities 
in the matter of maternity and child welfare. It 
enables them to make such arrangements as may 
be sanctioned by the Board for attending to the 
health of expectant mothers and nursing mothers 
and of children who have not attained the age of 
five years, and are not being educated in schools 
recognised by the Board of Education. 

A Council exercising powers under the Act 
must appoint a Maternity and Child Welfare 
Committee. This Committee ma,y be special'y 
appointed for this purpose or may be an existing 
Committee or a sub-Committee of an existing 
Committee, and it must include at least two 
women. Subject to two-thirds of the members of 
the Committee being members of the Council, 
persons specially qualified by training or expeii- 
ence in subjects relating to health and maternity 
who are not members of the Council may be 
appointed as members of the Committee. A 
Committee appointed under the section may also 
appoint sub-committees consisting wholly or 
partly of members of the Committee. Mr. Hayes 
Fisher considers it is important that working 
women should be represented on the Committee. 
In seeking such representatives the local branches 
•of working women's organisations or the Standing 
Joint Committee of Industrial Women's Organisa- 
tions, 33, Eccleston Square, London, S.W. i, 
might usefully be consulted. 

2. The Supreme importance of Ma^erni.y and 
Child Welfare work at the present time needs no 
•emphasis. With a view to encovirrging the 
.provision 'of further services, which exj^erience has 
shown would be of value for cO' 'serving infant lives 
'and health, Mr. Hayes Fisher has obtained the 
sanction of the Treasury to a considerable exten- 
sion of the scope of the Board's grant. 

Regulations under which grants not exceeding 
one-half of approved net expenditure will be payable 
by the Local Government Board to Local A uthorities 
and to Voluntary Agencies in respect of arrangements 
for attending to the health of expectant mothers and 
nursing mothers and of children under five years 
of age. 

I. The Local Government Board will pay 

grants during eaCh financirJ year, commencing 

on April ist, in respect of the following services : — 

(i) The salaries and expenses of Inspectors of 

Midwives. 



(2) The salaries and expenses of Health Visitors 
and Nurses engaged in Maternity and Child 
Welfare work. 

(3) The provision of a midwife for necessitous 
women in confinement and for areas which 
are insufficiently supplied with this service. 

(4) The provision, for necessitous women, of a 
doctor for illness connected with pregnancy 
and for aid during the period of confinement 
for mother and child. 

(5) The expenses of a Centre, i.e., an institution 
providing any or all of the following ad ivit ics : 
medical supervision and advice for expectant 
and nursing mothers, and for children under 
five years of age, and medical treatment at the 
Centre for cases needing it. 

(6) Arrangements for instruction in the general 
hygiene of maternity and childhood. 

(7) Hospital treatment provided or contracted 
f^r by Local Authorities for complicated cases 
of confinement or complications arising after 
parturition, or for cases in which a woman 
to be confined suffers from illness or deformity , 
or for cases of women who, in the opinion of 
the Medical Officer of Health, cannot with 
safety be confined in their homes or such 
other provision for securing proper conditions 
for the confinement 'of necessitous women as 
may be approved by the Medical Officer of 
Health. 

(8) Hospital treatment provided or contracted 
for by Local Authorities for children under 
treatment. 

(9) The cost of food provided for expectant 
mothers and nursing mothers and for children 
under five years of age, where such provision 
is certified by the Medical Officer of the 
Centre or by the Medical Officer of Health to 
be necessary and where the case is necessitous. 

(10) Expenses of creches and day nurseries and of 
other arrangements for attending to the 
health of children under five years of age 
whose mothers go out to work. 

.(i i) The provision of accommodation in convales- 
cent homes for nursing motheis and for 
children under five years of age. 

(12) The provision of homes and other arrange- 
ments for attending to the health of children 
of widowed, deserted and unmarried mothers, 
under five years of age. 

(13) Experimental work for the health of expect- 
ant and nursing mothers and of infants and 
children UTider five years of age carried out by 
Local Authorities or voluntary agencies with 
the approval of the Board. 

(14) Contributions by the Local Authority to 
voluntary institutions and agencies approved 
under the scheme. 



'31 XLbc :3Sr(ti9b Journat of 'Flurelnc Supplement ^«^"^^ ^4, 1918 



2. Grants will be paid to voluntary agencies 
aided by the Board on condition : — 

(i) That the work of the agency is approved by 
the Board and co-ordinated as far as practic- 
able with the public health work of the 
Local Authority and the school medical 
service of the local education authority. 

(2) That the premises and work of the institution 

are subject to inspection by any of the 
Board's Officers or Inspectors. 

(3) That records of the work done by the 

agency are kept to the satisfaction of the 
Board. 

3. An application for a grant mi.st be rna,de on a 
form Supplied by the Board. 

4. The Board may exclude any items of expendi- 
ture, which, in their opir.ion, should be deducted 
for the purpose of assessing the grant, and if any 
question a,Tises as to the interpretation of these 
Regulations, 1he de- 
cision of the Board 
sha'l be final. 

5. The grant paid 
in each financial year 
will be assessed on 
the basis of the ex- 
penditure incurred. 
on the service in 1he 
preccdi-g financial 
year, and wi'l be, as 
a rule, at the rate of 
one-half of that ex- 
penditure where the 
services have been 
provided with the 
Board's approval and 
are carried on to 
their satisfaction. 
The Board may, at 
their discretion, re- 
duce or withhold tic 
grant. 



interest in its upkeep, it has teen thought fitting 
that the memorial shemld take thcshape of some- 
thing which will enrich and beautify the chapel 
which would thus be a permanent mark of her 
devotion to it. 

Donations may be sent to the Matron, Miss A. 
Blomfield ; the Chaplain, Rev. E. W. French ; 
or the Secretary, Mr. Arthur Watls. 




THE OPEN-AIK SHELTER IN CONNECTION WITH THE 
COUNTESS OP ATHLONE'S BABIES' HOME. 



QUEEN CHARLOTTE'S HOSPITAL. 

Sister Micdcalf Memorial. 

We arc asked by Mr. Arthur Wp.t s, Secretary 
of Queen Charlotte's Hospi'.al, Marylcbone Road 
N.W., to notify that it is proposed to raise a 
permanent memorial to the late Sister Medcalf" 
in recogni'.ion of her splendid record of work 
at Queen' Charlotte's Hospital. She was a 
Sister at the Hospital for over twenty-feiur years, 
and from 1905 until the day of her elcath in 
Janua^'y last also held the post of Assistant 
Ma'^ron. 

Sister Medca'f was greatly esteemed by a large 
number of the midwives and monthly nurses 
trained at the hospital, aid it is thought there 
are many who would ^wish to be identified with 
such a memorial. Any subscrip'ion, no matter 
how small, wi'l be gladly received. 

As Sister Medcalf was so closely identified wiih 
the chapel services and took such a care and 



THE STORY OF THE TEETH. 

" The Story of the Teeth and How to Save 
Them " is the title of an instructive and interesting 
booklet by Dr. Truby King, C.M.G., issued by the 
Babies of the Empire Society, under the auspices 
of the Overseas Club anel Patiiotic League, General 
Buildings, Aldwych, London, W.C. 2. 

Writing of decay of the teeth D,-. Truby King 
says : " Docay of the teeth is not a mere chance un- 
fortunate disability 
of the day ; it is the 
most urgent and 
gravest of all diseases 
of our time — a more 
serious national 
scojrge than cancer 
or cons ;mption. In- 
elocd, these and other 
diseases would be 
best attacked by 
establish ing the 
strength a.nd resis- 
tivcness of the whole 
human organism of 
which the mouth, 
ja.vs, teeth, and nose 
are the gateways — 
*tho gateways to 
h<^r,lth or disease ac- 
cording to our choice. 
Therefore, the 
mother's health and 
habits during preg- 
nancy praxtica ly de- 
termine whether her baby's first set of teeth are 
to b3 strong and resistive or weak and subject to 
decay. In the next stage the main question (in 
addition to fresh air, exercise, &c.) is whether the 
baby is suckled or bottle-fed ; and in the third 
stage whether he is brought up luxuriously, or 
with a Spartan simplicity anel regulaity — ^fed on 
food needing vigorous mastication — not coddled, 
spoiled, or pap-fed. Thus is the building and 
destiny of the permanent teeth also an intimate 
domestic and family question. Granted sensible 
upbringing, on the lines indicatcel, there would be 
no grounds for any anxiety as regards the future." 
1 m « 

BABIES' OPEN-AIR SHELTER. 

Our illustration, forwhich we a-c indebted to the 
courtesy of the editor of The Gentlewoman, shows 
the open-air shelter in connection with the Countess 
of Athlone's Babies' Home. It is an interesting 
and, we do not doubt, successful experiment. 




THE 




§iiiiL°wmc 



WITH WHICH IS INCORPORATED 

ML maMBwa m^€mm 

EDITED BY MRS BEDFORD FENWICK 



No. 1,587. 



SATURDAY, AUGUST 31, 1918. 



Vol. LXI. 



EDITORIAL. 



THE RIGHTS OF TRAINED NURSES. 

To all men and women of thoughtful 
and receptive minds, the war, notwith- 
standing all its horrors, has been a useful 
if stern instructor. Among the many 
valuable lessons learnt, and one of the 
most outstanding, is the value of intimate 
contact. We have watched with the 
deepest interest the ties which bind the 
Mother Country to the Colonies growing 
stronger and stronger. It has strengthened 
our patriotism as never before ; it has given 
us a practical interpretation of solidarity — 
which we badly needed. Speaking broadly 
. — in spite of strikes and rumour of strikes 
(perhaps because of them) — we are 
approaching nearer to the ideal of national 
solidarity. Nearer, but not very near even 
yet. We trained nurses might, with much 
profit, take the signs of the times as a 
parable applicable to ourselves. We have 
Imperial Conferences, and Inter-Allied Con- 
ferences. The deliberations and conclu- 
sions arising therefrom, constitute a force 
which has brought us within sight of victory. 
L' union fait la force. There is not the 
slightest doubt about that legend. 

This intimate contact is needed in the 
nursing profession in order to make it 
" safe for democracy." We have an effec- 
tive plant ready at hand. We have our 
own professional societies, well organised 
and properly constituted. We have self- 
governing societies of certificated nurses 
grouped in our National Council, and with 
other National Associations we are grouped 
in the International Council of Nurses, and 
few of us thus associated can express or 
perhaps even realize, what we owe to its 
inspiration. Again we have the Royal 
British Nurses' Association, the only body 
of nurses to possess a Royal Charter, of 
which every member is. justly proud, for it 



confers both prestige and the power to pro- 
mote good constructive work. 

No progress can be made either in the 
government of a country, or the govern- 
ment of a profession, where the workers 
are denied representation — adequate repre- 
sentation — on the governing body. It is 
further necessary that nurses should realize 
the historical certainty that autocracy 
in their profession will die hard, and that 
their just rights can never be sufficiently 
secured, while it exists. 

Nevertheless, with unity, determination 
and solidarity ultimate victory is assured. 
The true spirit of liberty is never defeated. 
Let us remember that we are fighting in 
our own beloved profession (as well as 
throughout the civilised world) to over- 
throw this wrongful power, in the best 
interests of the sick, and in the interests of 
posterity. A careful and critical study of 
the Bill for State Registration of Nurses 
promoted by the Central Committee, will 
abundantly repay those who are interested 
in nursing politics, so will the synopsis printed 
inside our front cover, which shows what 
nurses agree to who sign the application 
form for Registration and Membership of 
the College of Nursing, Ltd. 

It is an interesting fact that the idea of 
self-government has found expression even 
in prisons : in some parts of America where 
prison reform is far advanced. The results 
have been all that could be desired. The 
spirit of self-determination pervades the 
whole world, it is no phantom spirit. It is 
quietly, though insistently palpable. 

The lure of it is felt by all the most 
intelligent nurses in this country. But 
nothing worth having can come, or will 
come, by lazily wishing for it only, except 
in fairy tales. If workers want their rights, 
they must assert themselves in the only 
practical way — namely by working for 
them, and working for them in conjunc- 
tion with others. Uunion fait la force. 



136 



^be »riti9b 3ournal of •Kurgino, 



August 31, 1918 



NURSES TAKE RANK AS OFFICERS. 

It is with great pleasure that we draw atten- 
tion to the announcement in the regulations for 
the members of the Royal Air Force Nursing 
Service published on pages 139 and 140, that 
honorary rank as officers is to be granted to the 
members of the Service, the Matron-in-Chief 
as major, Matrons and Superintending Sisters 
as captains, Sisters as lieutenants, and Staff 
Nurses as second-lieutenants. 

Nothing could make the Service more 
popular, or conduce more to its efficiency by 
attracting a high type of nurse. The thanks 
of the nursing profession are due to the Air 
Ministry for conferring on the members of the 
newest Nursing Service the rank which has so 
far been withheld from the members of the 
sister Services. 



A DEVICE FOR PREVENTION AND 
TREATMENT OF ADENOIDS. 

Dr. Isabel Ormiston, Medical Inspector of 
Schools, Tasmania, gives in the Lancet the 
following interesting description of a device for 
prevention and treatment of adenoids : — , 

When in 1914 a non-operative method of 
treating adenoids, discovered by Mrs. E. 
Handcock, was brought under my notice I was 
not merely sceptical, but openly scoffed at the 
idea. I was bound to admit, however, that 
after two years' residence in a children's hos- 
pital and three years' medical inspection of 
school children I was not satisfied with the 
results of the usual operative treatment; as 
such a large percentage of cases remained 
mouth-breathers and continued to suffer from 
nasal catarrh. In many cases also the growth 
returned. 

Description of Method. 

This new treatment consists in the produc- 
tion of a sneeze by lightly touching the nasal 
septum near the tip of the nose with a slightly 
irritant adhesive powder, made from powdered 
iris root and soap. The powder is not sniffed 
up into the nose. 

The effect of the sneeze is to expel the catarrh 
or muco-pus from 'the nose and the adjacent 
sinuses. This stimulation should be repeated 
till a " drv " sneezse results. The free flow of 
lymph which accompanies the sneeze acts as a 
most efficient washout, and no doubt acts, too, 
as a natural protective fluid against the bac- 
terial Invasion present in adenoids. 

The children who are old enough to blow 
their noses are then taught a handkerchief 
drill. They stand in line, and at the word of 



command they grasp the bridge of the nose and 
raise the elbow to the height of the shoulder, 
and then blow forcibly. The position of the 
elbow automatically expands the lungs and 
ensures a strong current of air being forced 
through the nose, which is held at the bridge 
to prevent pinching of the nostrils. 

Results. 

Under the supervision of Dr. Octavia Levvin 
an experimental clinic of this nature has been 
in ex'stence for six months at the Roll of 
Honour Hospital for Children, Harrow Road. 
The committee is so satisfied with the results 
that it is to be continued as part of the hospital 
routine. 

I have been observing this simple method of 
treatment for the past four years, and have 
found the results most gratifying. The first 
marked improvement is, curiously enough, in 
the digestive system. The dyspepsia and con- 
stipation, which are so common an accompani- 
ment of adenoids, are the first symptoms tb 
disappear. Perhaps some student of reflex 
action could explain this. We know that the 
nose is an early indicator of indigestion, 
alcoholism, and gout ; so perhaps it is not sur- 
prising if the digestive system can be reflexly 
affected by a nasal stimulus. 

Deafness due to the blocking of the Eus- 
tachian tube also disappears quickly. 

The time taken for the shrinkage of the 
growth varies. Generally speaking, the younger 
the child the quicker the results. A great deal 
depends on the intelligence of the mother, as 
the treatment must be carried out every day. 
In older children and adults with nasal obstruc- 
tion a certain amount of manipulation of the 
head and neck is necessary to stimulate the 
lymphatic circulation. 

One of the chief advantages of this form of 
treatment is that large numbers of school 
children should be treated simultaneously at 
little cost. School nurses could be quickly 
trained to carry out the treatment under the 
supervision of the medical inspectors of 
schools. At the present, when, owing to the 
shortage of staff, the out-patients' departments 
of the various hospitals find it impossible to 
cope with the number of cases from the board 
schools, it seems the ideal moment to introduce 
the system into our schools. 

A clinic has lately been started at the West- 
minster Health Association, Greek Street, 
Soho, where the enthusiasm of the mothers 
over the improvement in their children is most 
encouraging. 



August 31, 1918 



ZTbe Britisb 3ournal of IRurstng, 



137 



OUR PRIZE COMPETITION. 

MENTION SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL DISORDERS OF 
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. AND THE DUTIES OF 
THE NURSE IN REGARD TO IHEM. 

We have pleasure in awarding the prize this 
week to Miss Mary D. Hunter, Section Hos- 
pital, Kineton, near Warwick. 

PRIZE PAPER. 

There are so many nervous disorders that 
perhaps the easiest method of mentioning- some 
of the principal ones would be to classify them 
under three headings, i.e. : — 

1. Disorders of the brain (organic), such as 
hemiplegia, meningitis, or tumours of the 
brain. 

2. Disorders of the- spinal cord, such as 
tabes dorsalis, anterior jx>liornyelitis, scoliosis. 

3. Disorders of the nerves (functional), such 
as epilepsy, chorea, hysteria, and neurasthenia. 

The duties of the nurse in regard to them 
varies considerably in the different diseases. 
But in any case the first thing for her to con- 
sider is the cause (and if any organic disease 
is present), and v/hat steps the physician is 
taking to remove it or ameliorate. So much 
help can be given by careful and intelligent 
nursing in these cases. Suggestion plays a 
very important part in the nursing of all 
nervous disorders, and it is absolutely essential 
that the nurse inspires confidence in her 
patient. 

To enumerate the nurse's duties more fully 
and draw attention to the various methods, I 
should like to briefly mention a few in connec- 
tion with the disorders I have chosen as 
examples. 

I — Disorders of Brain. 

Heyniplegia and Meningitis. — Guard against 
bedsores in both diseases, and give great atten- 
tion to the bowels. Care must be taken that the 
diet is easily digested and nourishing. Pain is 
best relieved by cold applications to the head. 
In the former the nurse Should try by careful 
treatment to prevent fixation of joints and 
faulty pKJsition of limbs. 

Cerebral Tumour. — The intense headache 
being one of the symptoms, care is needed in 
choosing a suitable place for the bed : in the 
darkest corner, so that the light does not irri- 
tate the eyes. Absolute quiet is essential for all 
brain disorders, and the nurse would, of course, 
avoid any sudden noise, such as the banging 
of a door. 

2 — Disorders of Spinal Cord. 

Tabes Dorsalis. — " Lightning pains," one 
of the many distressing symptoms, may be 
relieved by hot fomentations, massage, or 



counter-irritants of some kind. * Suitable exer- 
cises to correct ataxia need to be practised 
daily. Constipation is frequently present, so 
that the question of aperients proves a trouble- 
some detail. The nurse should impress upon 
the patient the importance of micturition at 
frequent and regular intervals, as disorders of 
the bfadder generally arise to complicate 
matters. Between the attacks or crises, feed- 
ing up is required to make up for the loss of 
strengi:h. In fact, to insist on a quiet, regular, 
abstemious life is the duty of the nurse in 
regard to this disease. 

Anterior Polio myelitis. — The most essential 
matter is warmth, which is best obtained by 
baths, suitable clothing, and gentle rubbings. 
See that the child has complete rest in a com- 
fortable position, careful feeding, and that the 
bowels are kept regular. 

Scoliosis. — Really more a deformity of 
growth than a disease, and to correct this 
deformity great attention must be paid to the 
clothing. Suitable exercise and correct breath- 
ing are also duties for the nurse to consider. 

3 — Disorders of Nerves. 

Epilepsy. — It is necessary to improve the 
general health by regular hours, suitable 
exercise and occupation, and most careful diet. 

Chorea. — Absolute quiet and isolation should 
be insisted upon — rest being so important — 
combined with light food. The greatest care is 
needed in restraining the child, as too much 
restraint may do more harm than good. The 
sides of the bed will need padding. Proper 
nursing eliminates bed-sores. As arsenic is 
the drug usually given, the nurse must be well 
acquainted with the signs of an overdose. 

Hysteria. — ^The duty of the nurse is to gain 
the patient's confidence and make use of 
judicious suggestion. Weir-Mitchell treatment 
is often most successful. Not too much fuss 
must be made, but the fact that it is a definite 
disease must not be lost sight of, and the nurse 
should refrain from showing any impatience. 

Neurasthenia. — Due to some shock or worry 
and consequent mental strain, and therefore 
tact and sympathy are required in dealing 
with these cases. The nurse's chief duty is to 
ensure rest. There is usually loss of 
weight, so that diet must be considered to help 
improve the general health. A marked feature 
is insomnia, which requires great ingenuity on 
the part of the nurse to find out the best means 
of inducing sleep. 

HONOURABLE MENTION. 

The following competitors receive honourable 
mention : — ^Miss Catherine Wright, Miss Alice 
M. Burns, Miss P. Thomson, Miss J. Robinson. 



138 



^be Brltteb Journal of "Kuretno. 



August 31, 1918 



NURSING AND THE WAR. 



SOUTH-WEST AFRICAN CAMPAIGN, 

List of Rewards. 
The King has been pleased to give orders for 
a number of appointments for valuable services 
rendered in connection with military operations 
in German South-West Africa. Amongst them 
is the following : — 

ORDER OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE. 
Creagh, Mrs. Elizabeth Rymer, R.R.C., Matron-in- 
Chief, South African Military Nursing Service. 

ROYAL RED CROSS. 

The King has been pleased to award the Royal 
Red Cross to the following ladies of the Nursing 
Services in recognition of their valuable services 
in the campaign in German South- West Africa, 
1914-1915 :— 

First Class. 

Alexander, Miss I. G., Matron, S.A.M.N.S. ; Bester, 
Miss H. L., A.R.R.C, Staff Nurse, S.A.M.N.S. ; Fynn, 
Miss M. A., A.R.R.C, Staff Nurse, S.A.M.N.S. ; Weise, 
Miss H. H., A.R.R.C, Nursing Sister, S.A.M.N.S. ; 
Wessels, Miss E. S., A.R.R.C, Nursing Sister, 
S.A.M.N.S. 

Second Class. 

Burgess, Miss E., CmLD, Miss J. C, Ferguson, Miss 
J. M., Hawkes, Miss C J., Newth, Miss A. M., 
Pearson, Miss E. M., Wilde, Miss B. J., Wilson, Miss 
E., Nursing Sisters, S.A.M.N.S. ; Krohn, Miss G., 
Landman, Mrs. J. (tide Patterson), Van Niekerk, Miss 
D. N. K., Staff Nurses, S.A.M.N.S. 



A special supplement to the London Gazette 
contains the following list of honours and awards 
for valuable services with the British Forces in 
Mesopotamia : — 

ROYAL RED CROSS. 

First Class. 

CouLSON, Miss M. G., Sister, T.F.N.S. ; Earle, Miss 
A. L., Matron, T.F.N.S. ; Gilmore, Miss M. G., Matron, 
Q.A.M.N.S.L ; McNab, Miss M. M., A.R.R.C, Sister, 
Q.A.I.M.N.S.R. ; Rae, Miss M., Sister and Acting 
Matron, Q.A.I.M.N.S.R.; Wheeler, Miss, M. K., 
Sister, T.F.N.S. ; Wilkinson, Miss E. S., Sister, 
Q.A.I.M.N.S.R. 

Second Class. 

Argo, Miss M. B., Staff Nurse, Q.A.I.M.N.S.R.; 
BoTTOMLEY, Miss C M., Sister, Q.A.I.M.N.S.R. ; 
Crosbie, Miss M. F. D., Sister, T.F.N.S. ; Curties, 
Miss N., Sister, T.F.N.S. ; Davies, Miss A. M., Staff 
Nurse, Q.A.I.M.N.S.R. ; Davies, Miss E., Staff Nurse, 
Q.A.I.M.N.S.R.; Emuss, Miss E. A., Sister, T.F.N.S. ; 
Hartrick, Miss A. L., Sister, Q.A.I.M.N.S.R. ; Hun- 
stone, Miss M., Sister, T.F.N.S. ; King, Miss E. S., 
Staff Nurse, T.F.N.S. ; MacLean, Miss M. E., Nursing 
Sister, Q.A.M.N.S.L ; Marshall, Miss E. O., Nursing 
Sister, Q.A.M.N.S.L ; Reid, Miss A. E., Staff Nurse, 
Q.A.I.M.N.S.R. ; Robertson, Miss M. A., Sister, 
Q.A.I.M.N.S.R. ; Seacombe, Miss B. E., Sister, 
T.F.N.S. ; Wadsworth, Miss S. E., Sister, 
Q.A.I.M.N.S.R. ; Wellington, Miss A., Staff Nurse, 
Q.A.I.M.N.S.R. 

THE MILITARY MEDAL. 

It is announced in the London Gazette of August 
23rd that the King has approved of the following 



award of the Military Medal for distinguished 
service in the Field : — Staff Nurse Pearl Eliza- 
beth Corkhill, Aust. A.N.S. — For courage and 
devotion on the occasion of an enemy air-raid. 
She continued to attend to the wounded without 
any regard to her own safety, though enemy air- 
craft were overhead. Her example was of the 
greatest value in allaying the alarm of the patients. 

Miss M. Adelaide Nutting, Chairman of the 
Committee on Nursing of the Council of National 
Defence in the United States of America, in making 
a report to the twenty-first Annual Convention of 
the American Nursing Association, which is 
printed in full in the American Journal of Nursing, 
outlined the adoption of a very statesmanlike 
policy by that Committee. She said : " Women 
will ask themselves, ' What else is there that needs 
to be done that anybody could do, since the Red 
Cross and the Army and Navy are taking such 
care of the whole situation ? ' 

" Now this Committee on Nursing has found 
that while the Army and Navy controlled and the 
Red Cross mobilised, there was something else to 
be done, and that was to try to create something 
to take the place of that which was being called 
away. Let me say that last June the estimate 
was, if I remember right, that we would need 
something like 10,000 nurses for the Army Nursing 
Service. It did not seem to us that to find 10,000 
nurses in this great country would be very difiicult ; 
the Red Cross already had about ■that number 
mobilised. But before many months an order was 
made that said the United States Army Nursing 
Service is going to want 37,500 nurses, and a few 
weeks ago another body asked for an allowance of 
40,000 nurses. 

" Now it is perfectly clear that if we were going 
to put 10,000 into France or into active duty, we 
could not pick up 10,000 nurses without making 
10,000 vacancies, because nurses do not belong to 
the idle classes, and we would have to have some 
way of replacing those nurses at their posts, 
wherever their posts might be. Therefore, one 
of the first things to be done was to try to find 
some good and satisfactor\' way of bringing into 
our schools more women and training more women, 
just as rapidly as was practicable, to go into the 
places left vacant by those nurses who were called 
to active duty. It was assumed that a good many 
of the posts in the hospitals would be filled by 
senior nurses." 

After saying that with a very considerable 
amount of effort a very large number of students 
Jiad been brought into the training schools, 
amounting to something over 7,000, Miss Nutting 
pointed out that the vacancies created pressed 
most hardly on the training schools. 

Chevrons for American Nurses on Home 
Service. 

" Some of you, I presume, are shortly going out 
of the training schools, some of you have come out 
of them, many of you will face what seems to be 
the great choice of a great opportunity. You 



August 31, 1918 xLhc Britieb 3ournal of murstna. 



139 



will represent, over there in France, or wherever 
you go, the mothers, sisters, daughters and wives, 
and you take your places beside their loved ones 
that they would so gladly take if they could go, 
and all the world is looking. . . . Our work to-day 
presents to us a great crisis, and I know the 
American nurses will rise fully and thoroughly to 
meet it. Whether you will choose thethingyou most 
want to do or whether you will choose the thing 
that most needs you, it will be an honourable thing 
for any young woman to choose to remain at her 
post as teacher, as supervisor, as public health 
nurse, if she is more valuable there, and if those 
who know most of her work feel that she can do 
better service there than she can do anywhere else. 
A very conspicuous insignia to show that, will be 
given to those nurses, and I think that is very 
necessary. For I can remember well as the war 
progressed, both in England and here, it was said 
a young man to-day does not like to be seen in the 
streets without a uniform. If you wear the 
chevron it explains why you are not at the front. 
All the country is looking to you with the greatest 
possible afEection and with the greatest possible 
confidence." 



THE ROYAL AIR FORCE NURSING 
SERVICE. 



Lieutenant-Colonel C. Yeatman, in command of 
the ist Australian Auxiliary Hospital at Harefield 
Park, near Uxbridge, writes in the Boomerang : — 
" After more than three years' service in the 
A.I.F., it is good to realise that in all this time 
there has been room only in one's mind for the 
deepest feelings of pride and affection for men of 
one's race and country. Appreciation of their 
soldierly qualities and magnificent achievement in 
battle does not exhaust by any means all that can 
be said or written of them, and I feel it a p'-ivilege 
to be able to record my unbounded admiration 
of the pluck and sticking power of my wounded 
or :5ick Australian comrades, and the triumphant 
will which gave exhausted and sick troops in 
Gallipoli the power to stand for months against 
superior forces, and I shall never lose the memory 
of the cheeriness and fortitude of my emaciated 
and worn-out typhoid and dysentery patients in 
Cairo, with " Gallipoli faces " and frames of a sort 
to make one weep, but with an unfailing spirit 
which made one happy to have, been born and bred 
an Australian. Let me cite the case of a boy 
who in some manner became infected with small- 
pox. He was nursed by our own Sisters at the 
Fever Hospital at Abbasia, and when I went to 
visit him there, though he could not see me and 
was on the point of death, this poor, whispering 
boy, with the last flicker of life, had only words of 
gratefulness for the nurses who attended him. I 
have the same sense of pride in the qualities of the 
devoted women of the Australian Army Nursing 
Services on active service, and it is no unfounded 
or biassed statement to make that these are 
appreciated by soldiers of expeditionary forces 
other than Australians as they are by members of 
our own Impel ial Forces. I count myself fortu- 
nate beyond measure to be serving in this great 
war with the Australian Imperial Forces." • 



The following are the necessary qualifications 
and conditions of service for members of the 
temporary Air Force Nursing Service : — 

A. cdNSTITUTION. 

(i) Matron-in-Chief, (2) Matrons, (3) Superin- 
tending Sisters, (4) Sisters, (5) Staff Nurses. 

B. QUALIFICATIONS. 

A candidate for appointment in the Royal Air 
Force Nursing Service must be duly qualified 
according to the following regulations : — 

She must possess a certificate of not less than 
three years' training in a civil hospital, having 
not less than 100 beds. 

She must be of British parentage and between 
25 and 45 years of age, single or a widow. 

The Matron-in-Chief will be required to satisfy 
the Advisory Board that, as regards education, 
character and social status, the candidate is a fit 
person to be admitted to the Royal Air Force 
Nursing Service. f"' 

The candidate will be required to fill in and 
return the form of application which will be 
forwarded to her, together with the following 
documents : 

(a) Certificate of birth, or if this is not obtainable, 
a declaration made before a magistrate by one of 
her parents or former guardians^ giving the date 
of her birth. ' 

(b) Certificate of training (original to be produced 
when appearing before the' Sub-Committee of 
the Advisory Board). 

(c) Medical certificate. 
{d) Dental certificate. 

It is required that the candidate should have 
been vaccinated within the last two years and 
also inoculated against typhoid (A. and B.). 

f r^F^C.' TERMS ,OF APPOINTMENT. 

Forms of Agreement will be signed by candidates 
who are willing to serve : — 

{A) So long as required during the present 
emergency, or (B) for a period of twelve calendar 
irionths. 

D. PAY AND ALLOWANCES. 





Initial 


Annual 
Incre- 
ment. 


Maxi- 


Wash- 


Uni- 


— 


Rate. 


mum. 


ing:. 


form. 


Matrons 


£7^* 


£10 


;^150 


^ 




Superintending 








3/6 


£8 


^•isters 


£60* 


£s 


£is 


\ per 


per 


Sisters 


i^5o 


£-. 


£eo 


week 


annum 


Staff Nurses... 


£40 


£2 I OS. 


£45 


^ 





• And chargfe pay. 

When quarters, board, fuel and light are not 
provided, a stated allowance is made. 

A gratuity of ;^2o per annum is allowed to 
Sisters and Staff Nurses who sign Agreement 



I40 



Zbc Britteb 3ournal of IRurstno. 



August 31, 1918 



Form A., for serving as long as required during 
the present emergency. 

E. LEAVE OF ABSENCE. 
Twe'nty-eight days' leave of absence without 
deduction of pay will be allowed in each period 
of twelve months, i.e., fourteen days on completion 
of each six months. 

F. DRESS. 

The members of the Royal Air Force Nursing 
Service are to provide themselves with the follow- 
ing uniform :— 

The establishments selected to supply it will 
be intimated to them on application to the Matron- 
in-Chief. 

Matron-in-Chief. 

Dress : R.A.F. material, faced and braidedj 
cape : R.A.F. blue cloth ; bonnet : R.A.F. blue. 

Matrons. 

One winter dress, serge R.A.F. blue ; i summer 

dress (alpaca), R.A.F. blue ; 6 muslin caps R.A.F. 

blue ; 6 collars (soft) i^in. turnover ; 6 pairs cuffs 

(soft) I J in. turnover ; 2 cloth capes R.A.F. cloth ; 

1 bonnet R.A.F. blue ; i summer cloak (serge) 
and I winter cloak (serge), R.A.F. cloth collars. 

In hospitals, where Matrons are required to 
nurse, 3 washing dresses and 5 aprons should be 
substituted for i alpaca dress. 

Superintending Sisters and Sisters. 

One winter dress and i summer dress, serge, 

R.A.F. colour ; 3 washing dresses, blue cottoa ; 

6 muslin caps ; 6 collars (soft), i J-inch turnover ; 

6 pairs cuffs (soft), ij-inch turnover; 8 aprons; 

2 cloth capes, R.A.F. cloth ; i summer hat, straw, 
three-cornered ; i winter hat, felt, three-cornered. 

Staff Nurses. 

One winter dress ; i summer dress ; 3 washing 
dresses; 6 muslin caps; 6 collars (soft), i^-inch 
turnover ; 6 pairs cuffs (soft), ij-inch turnover ; 8 
aprons ; 2 cloth capes. 

In no detail whatsoever may the approved 
uniform be altered or added to. 

In uniform, no furs, ornaments or jewellery are 
to be worn, neither coloured shoes nor coloured or 
fancy stockings. 

Muslin caps are not to be worn outside the 
precincts of the hospital. 

Waterproof caps of regulation material and 
design may be worn in bad weather in place of hats. 

Waterproofs may be worn when necessary, but 
must be the same colour as the uniform, and of 
trench coat design. 

G. HONORARY RANK. 

Honorary rank in the Royal Air Force will te 
granted as follows : — 

Matrons-in-Chief . . Major. 

Matrons . . . . . . Captains. 

Superintending Sisters . . „ 
Sisters . . . . . . Lieutenants. 

Staff Nurses . . . . 2nd Lieutenants. 



CARE OF THE WOUNDED. 



The King has granted unrestricted permission^to 
Miss Henrietta Eraser, Ambulance Driver attached 
to Section Sanitaire, S.S.Y. 2, to wear the Cross 
of Chevalier of the Legion of Honour with the 
Croix de Guerre, conferred upon her by the Presi- 
dent of the French Republic in recognition of her 
courageous conduct when wounded recently while 
on duty ; to Miss Muriel Annie Thompson, First 
Aid Nursing Yeomanry, to wear the Cross|J]of 
Chevalier of the Order of Leopold II, conferred 
upon her by the King of the Belgians in recognition 
of her services to the Belgian sick and wounded ; 
and to Miss Frances Elizabeth Latham to wear the 
Insignia of the Fifth Class of the Order of St. Sava, 
conferred upon her by the King of Serbia in recog- 
nition of her services to the Serbian sick and 
wounded. 



The Lord Mayor has undertaken to make a 
special appeal to the City of London for funds for 
the British Red Cross and the Order of St. John in 
connection with. Our -Day, October 24th, and the 
collection of j^i, 000,00c in the City is the aim of his 
committee. The offices of the City appeal are at 
3, Lombard Street, and the honorary organising 
scretary is Mr. J. H. Estill, of the Port of London 
Authority. 



Miss Emma and Miss Kate Lansing, Sisters of 
the American Foreign Secretary, who are serving 
with the American Red Cross, have been men- 
tioned in an Order of the Day of the 5th French 
Army for courageous conduct. 



More than 6,000 women motor-drivers have now 
been enrolled in the United States in the Women's 
Motor Corps of the Red Cross. These women 
carry all official telegrams containing information 
regarding oversea casualties to the homes of the 
relatives of the killed. 



President Wilson has approved the suggestion of 
the Women's Committee of the Council of National 
Defence that relatives of American soldiers and 
sailors lost in the Service wear a black sleeve-band 
with a gold star for each member of the family 
giving his life for the defence of the nation. 



OUR ROLL OF HONOUR. 

We regret to record the following announce- 
ments in the Casualty List. 

NURSING SERVICE. 
Killed. 
Ingram, Miss E. A., V.A.D. 

Died. 
Chapman, Miss M. D., V.A.D. 

Wounded. 
Thompson, Sister M. C, St. John A.B. 
Harrison, Miss A, V.A.D. 



August 31, 1918 



^be Briti0b 3ournal of •Rurstno. 



141 



THE COLLEGE OF NURSING, LTD., 
AND POOR LAW GUARDIANS. 



A COLONIAL OPINION. 



A good de al of feeling has been aroused amongst 
Poor Law Guardians by the Council of the College 
of Nursing, Ltd., sending the following circular of 
inquiry over their heads to the Matrons of Poor 
Law Infirmaries — as in this breach of etiquette 
the College has failed to recognize that the Poor 
Law Infirmaries are public institutions admims- 
stered under legal rules, and the Guardians are the 
authorized channel by which information is 
officially conveyed. The circular has also been 
addressed to Matrons of voluntaiy hospitals. 
No doubt in both cases the Matrons will obtain 
permission from their Boards before complying 
with the demands of the College. 

The College and Hospital Etiquette. 
The College of Nursing, Limited, 
6, Vere Street, Cavendish Square, London, W. 1. 
The Matron, 

Dear Madam, — The objects of the College of Nursing 
will be known to you as including the following : — To 
raise the standard of training, to promote a uniform 
curriculum and one portal examination, to establish 
lectureships and scholarships, and to make and maintain 
a Register of Trained Nurses. 

Up to the present the Council of the College has 
largely centred its activities on the compilation of a 
Register which now numbers 8,800 nurses, and the 
Registration Committee acknowledges most gratefully 
the help and information you have given concerning 
applications for registration. 

The Consultative Committee, appointed to consider the 
curricula of Training Schools, now appeals to you for 
further assistance in this important matter. 

Before considering any plans for the future, the wisest 
course would appear to be to ascertain what is the pre- 
sent curriculum in the different Nurse Training Schools, 
and it would materially assist the work of this Com- 
mittee if you would kindly supply the information re- 
quested on the following form, and any other particulars 
you may have that would be helpful in the matter. 

With apologies for the trouble I am giving you, 

I remain, yours faithfully, 

M. S. RUNDLE, Secretary. 

QUESTIONS. 

1. For what period of training, or periods, do you 
grant your Certificate of General Nursing? 

2. Is sick leave, or any time beyond recognised annual 
leave, made up after the period of training? 

3. What Lectures are delivered to Probationers, and 
if you have a Syllabus, will you kindly send it? 

4. Are your Nurses instructed in Sick Room Cookery? 

5. Are the Examinations written and oral? How often 
are they held during the period of training, and by whom 
are they conducted? 

6. What Beds have you besides those for General 
Medical and Surgical cases? 

7. Are any facilities offered in the fourth year for pre- 
paration in special branches of work, e.g.. Massage, 
Midwifery, &c. ? 

Space is provided for the answers, and for the 
signature thereto of the Matix>n or Superintendent 
of Nursing. 



The following letter appears in the issue of Una, 
the official organ of the Royal Victorian Trained 
Nurses' Association, just received in this country : 

To the Editor of " Una.'' 

Dear Sir, — I notice with surprise that up to the 
present time you have not in our nursing journal 
attempted to voice an opinion upon the College of 
Nursing which is now being launched in London 
by Sir Arthur Stanley. ... It is of real live interest 
in the nursing circles of Great Britain, and as 
fellow-nurses I think it is about time we roused 
ourselves and became acquainted with the facts. 

I have always been an advocate of direct repre- 
sentation upon any board or council of nurses. I 
fail to see how any lay control can ever be the right 
thing in -the interests of the nurses themselves. 

Sir Arthur Stanley holds the position of Trea- 
surer of St. Thomas' Hospital as well as that of 
Chairman of the British Red Cross Society. His 
knowledge of the nursing profession would neces- 
sarily be that of an employer. There are several 
matrons of large hospitals also connected with the 
college. This I do not consider advisable, as after 
years of work with committees, &c., they more or 
less acquire the institutional mind. The general 
nurse wants someone in power who will be able to 
entertain her point of view in dealing with items 
of nursing. 

Here in Victoria the personnel of the Council of 
the R. V.T.N. A. is regulated by the nurse voters, 
who elect members once a year. A few are 
nominated by the committees of the special training 
schools, and the appointment ratified by the 
Council. In most cases the hospitals suggest their 
matrons. 

The readers of Una will well remember the firm 
stand this Council took when the then Minister of 
Health decided that there be no nursing member 
upon the proposed board to administer the State 
Registration Bill for nurses In the opinion of 
those best qualified to know, it was considered that 
it would be better to have no Bill at all unless the 
profession to be governed and regulated had a voice 
in the administration. 

When I was in London, in 1912, Mrs. Bedford 
Fenwick and Dr. Chappie — ^^who, by the way, was 
once in New Zealand — were working for their Bill, 
which, if I remember rightly, was introduced into 
the House of Commons by our present Governor- 
General, Sir R. Munro Ferguson, who passed it 
over to Dr. Chappie when leaving England. The 
aims and ideals of their proposed Bill seemed much 
the same as the objects we are striving for. As a 
keen registrationist I warmly support them in their 
efforts, as it appears to be the best course to uplift 
and safeguard the nursing profession. I hope now 
that 90 many nurses are eligible as women voters 
they will strive to place the important r61e they try 
to maintain, viz., the health of a nation, before 
their Parliamentary representatives, so that their 
services may become more efficient. — I am, &c., 

Gretta Lyons. 



142 



ZDc Britleb Sournal ot flurelnfi. 



August 31, 1918 



REGISTRATION PROPOSALS IN 
VI CTORI A. 

Bills for the registration of nurses and of 
masseurs will be introduced into the State Parlia- 
ment in Victoria, Australia, in the forthcoming 
session. It is proposed that the Governing Body 
under the Nurses' Bill shall be composed of repre- 
sentatives of the medical and nursing professions, 
the general public, and the Government. 



NURSING ECHOES. 



LEGAL MATTERS. 



Eva Grace Thompson, of Blackheath, was again 
brought up on remand at Greenwich last week, 
charged with the wilful murder of Kenneth Cedric 
Goodman, an infant aged eleven weeks, by striking 
him on the head, on or about June 4th, at the 
Sydenham Infant Welfare Centre. The prisoner 
was defended by Mr. G. W. Jones, and Sir Richard 
Muir appeared for the Director of Public Prosecu- 
tions. Miss Muriel Payne, the Superintendent of 
the Centre, said that the prisoner, a trained nurse, 
was alone in charge of the patients for several 
nights. 

Medical evidence was given by Dr. Gladstone, 
Medical Officer of the Centre, and Lieut. -Colonel 
F. S. Toogood, R.A.M.C., in reference to post- 
mortem examinations on various children at the 
Centre whose skulls were found to be fractured. 

The prisoner was again remanded. 

APPOINTMENTS. 



MATRON. 

Isolation Hospital, Mortlake, S.W. 14. — Miss 
Mary Grace Lloyd has been appointed Matron. 
She was trained at Guy's Hospital, and held 
various positions of responsibility before being 
appointed Matron at the Accident Hospital, 
Rhymney. 

SISTER. 

St. Mary's Hospital, Plaistow, E. 13. — Miss 
E. E. Hibberd has been appointed Sister on the 
Children's Floor. She was trained at the Lewis- 
ham Infirmary, and has been staff nurse at the St. 
Mary's Hospital, Plaistow. 



PRESENTATION. 

Miss Gregory, who for twenty-one years has 
held the position of Matron at the Aldershot 
Hospital, has been presented by the management 
committee with a solid silver Georgian tea service 
and salver ; and a gold watch has been presented 
to Mr. W. Wren, its Hon. Secretary, who has also 
been associated with the work from the start. 



LAVENDER BAGS FOR LINEN 
CUPBOARDS. 

The Editor will be pleased to distribute lavender 
bags to military hospitals in London, if friends 
have any to spare. Address to 20, Upper Wim- 
pole Street, London, W. i. 



Members of the Royal British Nurses' 
Association will have a specially warm welcome 
for their Secretary, Miss Isabel Macdonald, 
who returns to town this week, and who has 
had during her holiday in Scotland an experi- 
ence which might not have had a happy ending. 
Miss Macdonald writes : — " We had a very 
exciting evening yesterday ; we went out to fish 
without boatmen, and one of the worst squalls 
the boatmen remember on the loch came on 
unexpectedly. Oars were no more useful than 
teaspoons, and we had an exciting hour, twenty 
minutes of which was a very grim struggle. 
My brother said that had it been a nervous 
person with him we never would have survived, 
for every time the boat went down between the 
vA'aves the least excited movement would have 
upset it. At last, after a terrific struggle on 
the part of the two men, we managed to get 
the boat up to a small island, climbed over the 
side and waded in. About nine it seemed a 
little better, so we made for the Castle (Loch 
Leven) Island, and just managed to reach it, 
which was consoling, as it meant the shelter of 
the ruin, and a possible fiire if we had to spend 
the night out there. However, a, club had been 
watching us with glasses from the shore, and 
later two boatmen came and took us off, but 
it took all the strength of them and the other 
two to make the shore. They told my brother 
very frankly that they would not have cared 
for him or his friend, but they were not going 
to let the ' leddy ' spend the night out there if 
it was possible to get back, so don't say the 
age of chivalry is dead while there are boatmen 
on the Scottish lochs ! When the adventure 
was over it was entertaining, but at one stage 
we thought each wave would capsize the boat, 
and the water touched my fingers as I held on 
to the side." 



Nurse Reid, of Dunleer, has just tendered 
her resignation to the Ardee Guardians, after 
thirty years' service. In asking a super- 
annuation allowance, she stated, says the 
General Advertiser, she had not had an increase 
in her salarv all that time. 



Mr, James P. Chrystal, the Chairman of 
the St. George's Hospital Nursing Association, 
Bombay, in moving the adoption of the annual 
report at the Annual General Meeting of sub- 
scribers, held in Killick Buildings on June loth, 
said, in part : — 

" It will be observed from the report that 
considerable difficulty is being experienced in 



August 31, 1918 



Cbe British 3ournal of iRursma. 



M3 



securing suitable probationers for training in 
the hospital, and also in maintaining the 
numbers on the Private Nursing Staff. The 
chief cause for the former difficulty is found to 
be the wide scope of better-paid employment 
for young women in work connected with the 
war and the attractions of the V.A.D. work 
in the war hospitals. The high nursing fees 
obtainable from the public by private nurses 
■working on their own make it more profitable 
for nurses to commence nursing independently 
whenever they 
have completed 
their period of 
training and ob- 
tained their certi- 
ficates of qualifica- 
tion. To in some 
measure counter- 
act this effect the 
Committee have 
recently raised the 
grades of salaries 
of the Private 
Nursing Staff, and 
they hope under 
the new schedule 
that this staff may 
be strengthened. 
To meet this extra 
expenditure and 
the additional cost 
o f maintenance 
due to a depleted 
staff it has been 
necessary to in- 
crease the charge 
for a nurse by 
Re. I per day. 




" During the 
past year the work 
in the wards of the 
hospital has been 
particularly heavy 
and arduous. The 
small -pox epi- 
demic and other 
infectious cases 

have called for a good deal of isolated nursing, 
which throws a great additional strain on the 
staff, and I desire to express the Committee's 
appreciation of the devoted manner in which the 
nurses have met the extra strain thus thrown 
upon them. 



MISS CHARLOTTE RICHA\OND MILL. 
Kaisar-i-Hind Medal, Matron St. Qeorge's Hospital, Bombay 



on Miss Mill, the Lady Superintendent of St. 
George's Hospital. The award of the Kaisar- 
i-Hind medal is a high mark of Government's 
appreciation of her long and honourable nurs- 
ing career in India. Miss Mill was brought out 
to India with one of the first drafts of Nursing 
Sisters in the early days of plague, and she 
remained in Government service till 1902, when 
she was permitted to join this Association as 
its Lady Superintendent when it took over the 
nursing of the hospital from the Sisters of All 

Saints. The St. 
George's H o s - 
pital Nursing 
Association was 
the first of all the 
Nursing Associa- 
tions in India, and 
Miss Mill was con- 
sequently the first 
Lady Superin- 
tendent of such an 
Institution in this 
country. Her 
administration of 
the nursing staff 
during the last 
fifteen years has 
found great accep- 
tance with the 
Committee and 
the surgical and 
medical officers at 
the hospital, and 
her sense of 
equity and justice, 
combined with her 
ability in training 
the nurses under 
her care, has 
always won for 
her the staff's 
respect and 
esteem. It there- 
fore gives me 
great pleasure to 
take this opportu- 
nity of conveying 
to Miss Mill this 
Association's warmest congratulations on the 
public recognition which her services have so 
deservedly received." 



" I cannot conclude my remarks without 
referring with peculiar pleasure to the honour 
which has just been conferred by Government 



The Bloemfontein Hospital Board has (says 
the South African Nursing Record) raised the 
question of nurses' hours, and considerable 
discussion took place on the subject. There 
seemed to be a general agreement that some- 
thing on the lines of the recent Transvaal 



J 44 



Zhc Brttteb 3ournal of iRursino. 



August 31, 1918 



Ordinance was required, though the possibility 
of three eigfht-hour shifts a day was also men- 
tioned. Our contemporary continues : — ** We 
are greatly averse to excessively long hours for 
nurses, and we think that they could in many 
cases be shortened with advantage. At the 
same time we should not like to see a matron's 
powers in this direction too rigidly limited. 
Off and on duty hours could well be adjusted 
to meet the needs of the institution at any par- 
ticular time, and we do not think that either 
nurses themselves or the public will deny that 
it should be the privilege of the administrative 
head of a hospital to call upon the staff to work 
overtime if the welfare of sick people depends 
upon it, and provided that justice is always 
done. This call to self-sacrifice and the liability 
to uncertain and exhausting hours is one of the 
conditions both doctors and nurses accept when 
they take up the work, and is part of the dis- 
cipline of our profession. We know that both 
these classes of workers recognise it them- 
selves gladly." 

*' INTERN THEM ALL." 



No one who watched the procession which 
streamed down Oxford Street on its way to 
Trafalgar Square last Saturday afternoon after 
the great meeting in Hyde Park, to demand the 
internment of all enemy aliens, naturalised or 
unnaturalised, could be in any doubt as to the 
temper of the People on this question, or of the 
wisdom of the National Party in organising the 
demonstration. 

Brigadier-General Page Croft, who presided at 
the principal platform in the Park, emphasised 
his conviction that the right poUcy is to " intern 
thera all." And the Government must begin 
with the dangerons wealthy Hun. Of what use is 
it to penalise the poor when the rich, who have 
bought themselves power, and who consequently 
count, are at large ? All must be interned in the 
interests of national safety. 

Mrs. Dacre Fox was as emphatic as General 
Page Croft. She was " out for the internment of 
every alien of enemy blood, naturalized or un- 
naturalized." She moved the following resolution, 
which was carried by acclamation at all five 
platforms : — 

" This meeting, representative of all sections of 
his Majesty's subjects in the United Kingdom 
and the British Dominions beyond the seas, calls 
upon his Majesty's Government to lose no further 
time in interning every enemy alien; in de- 
naturalising those naturalised during the war or 
ten years prior thereto ; in immediately removing 
every enemy a'ien irom Government employ- 
ment, and generally in taldng diastic steps to 
eradicate all enemy influence throughout the 
country." 



Amongst the inscriptions on the banners borne 
in the procession were : 

" Before you vote for a Party ask where 

their Funds came from." 
" No German has ever subscribed to the 

National Party, can other Parties say 

the same ? " 
"The National Party has No Secret Funds." 

The Monster Petition to the Prime Minister, 
including over a million signatures, was presented 
at No. 10, Downing Street by General Page Croft, 
who subsequently leported the result to the 
waiting meeting in Trafalgar Square, on which 
the meeting passed a resolution, expressing its 
regret and dismay, that the message of the Prime 
Minister clearly indicated that his Majesty's 
Government does not appreciate the deep 
National feeling with regard to aliens at large. 
In forwarding the resolution General Page Croft, 
in an open letter, has requested the Prime 
Minister to state the earliest date on which ho 
will personally receive a deputation, and adds : — 

" On behalf of the demonstrators repre- 
senting the National Party, the British Empire 
Union, the Discharged Soldiers' and Sailors' 
Association, and many other kindred bodies, may 
I take this opportunity of impressing upon you 
the intense feeling which exists throughout the 
country on this subject, and my fear that, unless 
immediate steps are taken to intern all enemy 
aliens, whether rich or poor, confidence in your 
Government may be impaired at this time when 
nationa.l unity is essential if complete victory is 
to be secured." 



FORT-REVIVER. 

Newman's Fort-Reviver is a beverage which has 
quickly won its way to public favour, and has many 
points to recommend it. As its name implies, it is 
a stimulant, and, moreover, a stimulant which is 
non-alcoholic, which will commend it to a large 
section of the public. If taken with this object it 
should be undiluted, but it is also a pleasant " long 
drink " when taken with aerated water. It is 
obtainable everywhere, the large-sized bottles being 
5s. 6d., and the smaller 3s. gd. If any difficulty, 
is experienced in obtaining it application should be 
made to Messrs. H. & C. Newman, London Office, 
41 and 42, Upper Rathbone Place, W. i. 

The Great Northern Central Hospital has 
received from the staff of the Argentine Estates 
of Bovril, Ltd., a remittance for £^g, for the 
maintenance of the Santa Elena Bed in the 
Hospital's Military Annexe, Manor Gardens — 
as well as other overseas donations. 



The Entente Cordiale has found recent expression 
In the arrangements made with Charing Cross 
Hospital for the reception for three months of 
French nurses endorsed by the French Red Cross, 
so that they may get an insight into English 
methods. 



August 31, 1918 



(Tbe 3Brttt0b 3ournal of TRursino. 



^45 



OUTSIDE THE GATES. 



BOOK OP THE WEEK. 



WOMEN. 

The Deputy Registration Officer at Enfield, 
when asked, on August 30th, whether nurses 
in hospitals or institutions who had separate 
sleeping apartments or shared rooms in common 
with other nurses were entitled to the vote, said 
that unless it could be proved that, as part of her 
contract or engagement, a nurse was definitely 
entitled to the use of a specific room and could 
not be removed without due notice, she could 
not be accepted as occupying the room for the 
purposes of the Act. 



In view of this decision it is extremely in- 
teresting to consider the usage at Charing Cross 
Hospital in regard to the nurses' quarters. 

1. All the nurses have latchkeys to the Nurses' 
Home. 

2. Every nurse has a bedroom allotted to her 
when she enters the hospital for training, and 
keeps it throughout the period of four years, 
whether on day or night duty, except in a very 
few instances when a nurse asks to be allowed to 
change her room. 

3. The locks on the bedroom doors are similar 
to those on hotel doors. If a nurse takes her 
key out of her bedroom door it can only be 
opened by the matron with her pass key, and by 
the servant of the landing who has a pass key 
for cleaning purposes, so the nurse's room is 
really her own. 

The Town Clerk and registration officer of 
Oxford City, M-. Richard Bacon, had an important 
point to decide in the revision court on August 21st. 

A number of the wives of Oxford Dons, according 
to the Times, claimed to be on the lists, but the 
Town Clerk pointed out that Section 257 of the 
Municipal Corporations Act provided that nothing 
in that Act should entitle any person to be enrolled 
as a citizen of the city of Oxford by reason of his 
occupation of any rooms, chambers, or premises 
in any college or hall of the University . Persons 
so occupying were, prior to the Act of 1918, placed 
on the Parliamentary but not on the municipal 
list. Unfortunately, in the new Act the lady's 
vote depended on her possessing the municipal 
vote, either in her own right or that of her husband. 
In the case under consideration, if the Warden of 
Wadham admitted, as he now did, that he was not 
entitled to what was called the Local Government 
vote, which was, of course, here the burgess vote, 
his wife lost in consequence not only her Local 
■Government vote but also her Parliamentary vote. 
That, he thought, was regrettable. It could never 
have been intended by Parliament, and he thought 
the officers of the Crown in drawing the Act, or the 
Parliamentary draftsmen, must have overlooked 
this provision in the Municipal Corporations 
Act. 



"THAT WHICH HATH WINGS."* 

A book by Richard Dehan, author of " The 
Dop Doctor," is certain to be interesting and 
arresting, and " That which hath Wings " 
is true to type. It is a picture of Society just 
before and during the war, and the " Dop Doctor," 
now established in a fashionable practice in 
Harley Street, his wife Lynette, and their boy 
Bawne — the brave Boy Scout — play a prominent 
part in its pages, though the central figures are 
Francis Athelstan Sherbrand", Viscount Norwater, 
and his wife Margot, otherwise known as " Kit- 
turns." 

" It was a genuine love-match, Franky being, a 
comparatively poor Guardsman with only two 
thousand a year in addition to his pay as a Second 
Lieutenant in the Royal Bearskin 's Plain, and 
Margot a mere Cinderella in comparison with 
heiresses of the American canned-provision and 
cereal kind." 

It seemed to Franky that all his wooing had 
been done at Margot's Club, though he actually 
proposed to her at the Royal Naval and Military 
Tournament ; " and Margot, hysterical with 
sheer ecstasy, as the horses gravely played at 
push-ball, had pinched his arm and gasped out 
' Yes, but don't take my mind off the game just 
now — these dear beasts are so heavenly.' " 

" The honeymoon might have been termed ideal 
— and four subsequent months of married life 
proved tolerably cloudless — until Fate sent a 
stinging hailstorm to strip the roses from the bridal 
bower, and an unexpected, appalling, inevitable 
discovery made in Paris, in the Grande Semaine, 
utterly ruined — ^for two people — ^the day of the 
Grand Prix " — for Margot made the discovery — 
which she deeply resented — ^that the crown of 
motherhood was to be hers. 

" ' I can't bear it ! I won't bear it !' Margot 
reiterated. With her tumbled hair, swollen eyes, 
pink uptilted nose, and little mouth and chin 
that quivered with each sobbing breath intaken, 
she looked absurdly babyish for her twenty years, 
as she vowed wild horses shouldn't drag her to 
Longchamps, and railed against the injustice 
of Fate. 

" ' None of my married friends have had such 
rotten bad luck,' she asserted. She stamped 
upon the velvety carpet and flashed at Franky 
a glance of imperious appeal. ' Not Tota Stannus, 
or Cynthia Charterhouse, or Joan Delabrarld, or 
anybody ! Then why me ! That's what I want 
to know ! After all the mascots I've worn, or 
carried about with me . . . Gojo and Jollikins, 
and the jade tree-frog and the rest ! . . . Every 
single one given me by a different woman who 
had been married for years and never had a baby ! 
This very day I'll smash the whole lot !' 

" ' By the Great Brass Hat !' 

" Franky exploded before he could stop him- 
self, and laughed till the tears rolled down. So 

* Wm. Heinemann, 21, Bedford St., W.C. 7/- net. 



146 



JLbc British 3ournal of IRureing. 



August 31, 1918 



' Gojo ' the black velvet kitten, and Jollikins, 
and all the army of gadgets and netsukis 
crowding Maxgot's toilette table and seer Hair e, 
down to ' Pat-Pat,' the bog-oak pig, and 
' Ti-ti,' the jade tree-frog, were so many in- 
surances against the Menace of Maternity. By 
Jove ! women were regular children . . . And 
Margot . . . Nothing but a baby this poor little 
Margot — agoing, in spite of Jollikins and 
Gojo, to have a baby of her own. 

" ' What is one to believe ? Whom is one to 
trust in ?' 

" ' Trust in . . . My best child, you don't 
mean that you believed those women when they 
told you that such two-penny gadgets could work 
charms of — ^that or any other kind ?' 

" ' Indeed, indeed they do ! Tota Stannus 
was perfectly serious when she came to my boudoir 
one night at the club, about a week before our — 
the wedding. . . . She said — I can hear her now : 
Well, old child, you're to he married on Wednesday, 
and of course you know the ropes well enough not 
towantany tips from me. . . . Still — ' 

" ' That wasn't overwhelmingly flattering,' 
Franky commented, ' from a woman twice your 
age. What else did she say ?' 

" ' She said I must be aware,' went on Margot, 
' that a woman who wanted to keep her friends 
and her figure, simply couldn't afford to have 
kids !' 

" ' And you — ' 

" Franky no longer battled with the grin that 
would have infuriated Margot. Something had 
wiped it from his face." 

More revelations from Margot, till at length 
Franky said : " Look here, this is — strict Bridge. 
Do you loathe 'em — ^the kiddies — so horribly that 
the idea of having any is distasteful to you ? 
Or is it — not only the — the veto it puts on larking 
and kickabout and — ^the temporary disfigurement 
— ^you're afraid of — ^but the — the — ^the inevitable 
pain. . . . Tell me frankly." He waited an instant 
and then said in an urgent whisper : " Answer 
me ! . . . For God's sake, tell me the frozen truth, 
Margot !" 

Poor Margot — ^thoughtless, irresponsible little 
humming bird — ^faced with the realities of life, 
confessed to her dread of the ugliness of the thing 
and her fear of the pain — the awful pain. " ' And 
besides — my mother died when I was born !' 
Margot's voice was a fluttering, appealing whisper ; 
her great eyes were dilated and wild with terror." 

Franky, out of his love for his wife, able to 
understand something of her mental outlook, 
agreed that he was frightfully sorry for her. 
" All the more so because I can't help being 
thundering glad." Then he explained, " It's got 
to do with the Peerage . . . naturally enough — 
I want a boy to take the Viscounty when I succeed 
my father, and have the Earldom when I've 
absquatulated, just as the kiddy'U want one 
when his own time comes." 

Later, at the sight of a mother and her babe in 
the public park, " a dimness came before his 
vision, and it was as though dimpled hands 



plucked at his heart. He suffered a sudden revul- 
sion strange in a young man, so modern, so 
up-to-date and beautifully tailored. He knew 
that he longed for a son most desperately. And 
the devil of it was — ^Margot did not." 

Fate decreed that Franky and Margot should 
witness the trial ascent with a French pilot of a 
British monoplane (the Bird of War), fitted with 
an invention which the French experts were there 
to test with a view to purchase. The inventor 
was on the ground, for, as a French of&cer politely 
explained, " despite the Entente Cordiale, it 
would hardly be convenable or discreet to permit 
even an Englishman to fly over Paris or any other 
fortified City of France." 

Franky, as he watched the Bird of War through 
his pocket field glass, was sensible o* a thrill behind 
his immaculate waistcoat. 

" If the English inventor had not solved the 
baffling Problem of Stability, he had come un- 
commonly near it, by the Great Brass Hat. And 
the dud heads at Whitehall had shown the door to 
him and his invention. ' Good Christmas ! how 
like 'em ! ' reflected Franky, lowering the glasses 
to chuckle and looking round for Margot." 

We first make the acquaintance of Count von 
Herrnung, who is to play a prominent part in the 
story, at a dinner at the Hotel Spitz in the Place 
Vendome, where he had the insolence to propose 
that the guests — some of whom had been " rot- 
ting " him — should drink a toast " to show there is 
no ill will. ... It would be amusing if you would 
all join me in drinking to The I^ay." 

" Lord Norwater (Franky), lobster red and 
rather flurried, turned to von Herrnung, and said 
not loudly, yet clearly enough to be heard by every 
guest at the table — 

" ' Stop ! Sorry to swipe in, Count, but you'd 
better not order that wine, I think ! ' 

" ' You think not ? ' asked von Herrnung with 
coolest insolence. 

" ' I — don't think so ? I'm dead sure ! ' said 
Franky, getting redder. ' We Britons laugh at 
brag and blufiing ; and the gassy patriotism shown 
by some foreigners we're apt to call bad form. 
We abuse our Institutions and rag our Govern- 
ments ; we've done that since the year One — far as 
I can make out. And when other people do it 
we generally sit tight and smile. We've no use 
for heroics. But when the pinch comes — it ain't so 
much that we're loyal, we're Loyalty ; we're it 1 — 
We're ready to make allowances — too rottenly 
ready sometimes. But I read off the iddy-umpties 
to Full Stop, a minute back. Count vor Herrnung, 
when you ask English ladies and Englishmen — two 
of 'em in the Service — to drink that toast with 
you, you must know you're putting your foot in 
your hat ! ' " 

That night the Assassinations at Sarajevo were 
announced in the papers. Berlin had had the 
story with its breakfast rolls and hot creamed 
coffee. 

So the basis of the story ; and the principal 
dramatis persona — ^Lord Norwater and Kittums, 
Sherbrand (the aviator who proves to be Franky's 



August 31, 1918 



Zbc ffiritisb 3ournal of 'Wurelnfl. 



147 



cousin), Dr. Saxham and his wife and boy. 
Count von Hermung, Patrine Saxham (whose 
willing weakness was the cause o* so much sorrow 
to herself and others) play for us the drama 
which keeps us absorbed to the last page. 

According to the mental outlook of the reader, 
so will the verdict be. Some will disapprove, 
some will regard the book as a tract more powerful 
than many sermons. None can be indifferent, for 
the pen of Richard Dehan, which made " The 
Dop Doctor " one of the outstanding books of our 
time, has limned for us a living and glowing 
picture of current events, and of Society in the 
days preceding the war, which will be read by the 
children of those who fought the great fight, when 
Blue Books are buried in official departments, 
and lie unread on the shelves of the British 
Museum. So much greater the pity that the 
manner in which the Woman's Suffrage Movement 
is presented cannot be regarded as representing 
facts, rather they are so distorted as to be 
grotesque. P. G. Y. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 



WHAT TO READ. 

We recommend to the attention of our readers 
Dr. Miiehlon's Diary, published by Cassell & Co., 
Ltd. (5s. net), as a book to be read. Dr. Miiehlon 
at the outbreak of the war was a director of 
Krupp's works at Essen. He severed his connec- 
tion with the firm, left Germany, and settled in 
Switzerland. The Diary is of poignant interest. 

They should also endeavour to procure a copy of 
a pamphlet entitled " Reality : the World's Search- 
light on Germany," No. 135. It is printed by 
G. Binney Dibblee, and is obtainable in England 
and Wales through any branch of W. H. Smith 
& Son, and in Scotland through any branch of 
John Men-'ies & Co., Ltd. 



"RED-ROBED FRANCE." 

The Huns stripped off my own green gown 

And left me stark and bare ; 
My sons, they spread a red robe down 

And wrapped me in it there. 

The garb they brought was red as blood — 

The robe was red as flame ; 
They veiled me in it where I stood 

And took away my shame. 

Was ever web so costly wove. 

Or warp so glorious spun ? 
I'll wear no vestments prized above 

That wide and scarlet one. 

Though younger sons some happier day. 

Weave me a fair green gown 
Anew, or bid me don array 

Of corn-ripe gold and brown. 

The names (like beads, told one by one) 

My heart will still repeat ; 
Will call, with tears, each dear, dear son 
Whose red robe wrapped my feet. 

By Charles Buxton Going, in 
• " Everybody's Magazine." 



Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects for these columns, we wish it to be 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 

NURSERY SCHOOL. 

To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — I entirely agree with Miss 
Theresa McGrath as to the importance of nurses 
interesting themselves in the development of public 
health work, for it appears to me that such wo.k 
is of more far-reaching importance than that of 
any other department of nursing. To help in main- 
taining a high standard of health is even niore 
worth while than helping to cure disease. In the 
latter case we are trying to mend what is damaged : 
in the former, to maintain what is f>erfect in a state 
of perfection. The repair of a damaged article 
may be carried out so skilfully that few people can 
detect the flaw, but it is there all the same, and 
detracts from the value of the article in the eye of 
the expert. 

In the same way, once health has been impaired 
it is never quite the same again ; it may be most 
skilfully restored, but the flaw is there. For this 
reason it seems to me most desirable that trained 
nurses should have charge of the infants under five 
in nursery schools. These years are supremely 
important ones in the life and development of the 
child, and the daily supervision of these infants by 
a skilled nurse would have a far-reaching influence 
on their health in after life. What more worth 
while to a nurse, who sees things at their true 
value, than to fight, in the interest, not alone of 
the individual child, but of posterity, against the 
onset of a disease such as rickets, or the develop- 
ment of tuberculosis? Or, again, to build up the 
health of the child with a bad family history, so 
as to enable it to offer an effective resistance to the 
inroads of disease. 

In work of this kind there is no picturesque 
background, no spectacular triumph, but nothing 
could be more solidly fruitful in good result. But 
if the importance of the trained nurse as a factor 
in preserving the health of young children is recog- 
nized, then the most skilled workers should be 
secured, and they should be paid salaries com- 
mensurate with their skilled services. It is unfor- 
tunately a lesson which, as a nation, we are very 
slow to learn, where women are concerned. 
Yours faithfully. 

Public Health. 



OUR PRIZE COMPETITION. 

QUESTIONS. 

September yth. — What are the principal functions 
of a School Nurse? How may she assist in raising 
the standard of national health? 

September i^th. — What do you know of Exoph- 
thalmic Goitre, its symptoms and nursing care? 



m8 Zbc Br(ti0b 3ournal of 'Rurelnc Supplement, ^'^s'^f 3^, 19^8 

The 



THE CENTRAL MIDWIVES BOARD. 

At the Examination held by the Central Mid- 
wives Board (England) on August ist, in London 
and the provinces, 494 candidates were examined 
and 400 passed the examination. The percentage 
of failures was 19. 

HOSPITAL TREATMENT FOR INFANTS 
AND YOUNG CHILDREN. 

The Mansion House Council on Health and 
Housing, of which the Lord Mayor is president, 
has recently instituted an inquiry as to the 
adequacy of hospital accommodation and treat- 
ment for infants and young children in London. 

The general conclusion is that there is an 
insufficiency in most districts for the institutional 
treatment of infants and young children. Except 
in a few instances that deficiency cannot be made 
good by existing hospitals, save at the expense of 
the older children. In some cases additional 
accommodation could be provided in new buildings 
if funds were forthcoming. 

To meet the need it has been suggested to the 
committee that wards should be set aside for 
infants and young children in existing hospitals, 
or small local wards set up for minor ailments ; 
that each infant welfare centre should have 
attached to it a residential home or observation 
ward for delicate babies ; that open-air schools 
should be provided for the prevention and cure of 
consumption ; that minor operation cases ought 
not to be discharged so quickly as now ; that delay 
in performing operations should be prevented and 
long waiting at the hospital curtailed ; and that 
facilities should be available for daily attendance 
for simple treatment on the lines of school clinics. 

In regard to Poor Law Infirmary facilities the 
Council consider the results unsatisfactory in the 
case of delicate babies. They think the Local 
Government Board and Boards of Guardians 
might consider whether the arrangements could 
not be improved. 

OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM. 

By a new order of the Scottish Local Government 
Board cases of ophthalmia neonatorum become 
compulsorily notified in Scotland from November 
ist, next. The Board advises local authorities 
to take counsel with their Medical Officer of 
Health so as to ensure skilled attendance for every 
case so notified. 

VENEREAL DISEASES. 

Much attention is just now being directed to 
the question of venereal diseases, owing to con- 
victions under Clause 40D of the Defence of the 
Realm Act, and it is well that nurses and mid- 
wives should be well informed as to their chief 
symptoms. These were well described recently 



by Mr. Leonard Myer, F.R.C.S., in his course of 
lectures at^t. Paul's Hospital, Red Lion Square. 

Gonorrhoea, he said, ran a rapid and' acute 
course, the incubatiOA being three days, and it 
was a local disease.. 

Syphilis, on the other hand, was always chronic, 
its incubation was three weeks. The secondary 
stage began when the glands unconnected with, the 
sexual organs became enlarged, e.g., those in' the 
bend of the elbow. 

In regard to the early complications in both 
sexes, syphilis had very few comphcations, 
though its existence predispostd the patient 
to other diseases, i.e., phthisis, malaria, diabetes 
and Bright'^ disease, the existence of the last- 
named also precluded the patient from treatn^ent 
by mercury. 

In gonoirhoea there were a whole host of com- 
plications, some affecting the male or the female 
only, and some common to both sexes. 

Some of those common to both sexes were 
cystitis, ophthalmia, joint affection, meningitis 
peritonitis, flat-foot and blood poisoning. 

In the male, orchitis, acute stricture, prostatic 
abscess. 

?. In the female Bartolin's gland became enlarged 
and inflamed. 

USE OF ABORTIFACIENTS. 

The Local Government Board, in their Circular 
on Maternity and Child Welfare, addressed to 
County Councils and Sanitary Authorities, state 
that a report was published by the Privy Council 
Office in 19 10 on the practice of medicine and 
surgery by unqualified persons. For the purpose 
of that Report the Board obtained some particulars 
from Medical Officers of Health, which showed 
that the sale of drugs intended to procure abortion 
and practice by abortion-mongers was prevalent in 
many parts of the country. From information 
obtained by Medical Inspectors of the Board in 
connection with their inquiries Into Maternity and 
Child Welfare work and from other material, the 
Board have reason to fear that these practices con- 
tinue. One of the drugs most commonly employed 
for this purpose Is diachylon, and on April 27th, 
1917, an Order in Council was made adding to the 
list of poisons for the purpose of Part I of the 
Schedule of Poisons " lead in combination with 
oleic acid, or other highly fatted acids, whether 
sold as diachylon or under any other designation 
(except machine spread plasters)." The Board 
would urge every Local Authority to bring this 
order to the notice of the druggists and of the 
practising midwives In their area, to explain to 
their Health Visitors and to the midwives the risks 
to life and health involved In the use of diachylon, 
and In every other way to do what they can to stop 
the traffic In abortifacients and the practice of 
abortion-mongers in their districts. 




THE 



iimi 




WITH WHICH IS INCORPORATED 



EDITED BY MRS BEDFORD FENWICK 



No. 1,588. 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 7, 1918. 



vol. LXI. 



EDITORIAL. 



A MONUMENT OF GRATITUDE. 

We print in our correspondence columns 
a letter from the Right Hon. John Hodge, 
M.P., Minister of Pensions and Chairman 
of the Trustees for the King's Fund for the 
Disabled, which must go straight home to 
every one in these Realms, who lives securely, 
because others have barred the way to 
invasion by fire and sword with their flesh 
and blood, and have in consequence been 
disabled. 

Surely the first instinct of gratitude is to 
see that the men who have thus suffered on 
our behalf shall have all the assistance 
possible to start business in civil life once 
again. So urgent is the need for this that 
the Minister of Pensions began last year to 
receive contributions to a Voluntary Fund 
which he administered himself, the primary 
object of which was to help discharged 
disabled men to start business in a small 
way — and roughly 2,000 men and a number 
of women have been so helped. It is how- 
ever desirable to give more in certain 
specified cases than the £25 hitherto re- 
garded as a maximum. 

The £11^,000, which Mr. Hodge col- 
lected without any special appeal, included 
£50,000 from Sir John Leigh. The Willis 
James' bequest for widows and dependants 
brought ;{^i5,ooo, the Chapman Fund 
£10,000 for men who had trained under the 
schemes of the Ministry, and donations 
from Mr. Bosanquet and others made up the 
balance. Alongside these separate Funds 
the donations were received by the Minister, 
until the whole of the Funds amounted to 
about £115,000 (a large part of this money 
has, of course, already been spent). 

The King then took an active interest in 
the matter, and decided to hand over 
£53,000 (the City of London Silver Wedding 



Gift) and £25,000 from his own purse. The 
Duke of Connaught made this announce- 
ment at the Mansion House Meeting on the 
31st July. It was decided that the Volun- 
tary Funds, hitherto under the control of 
the Minister, should be known in future 
as The King's Fund for Disabled Officers 
and Men, to be administered by a Com- 
mittee of Trustees appointed by the King, 
and with the patronage of His Majesty, 
through the Ministry of Pensions and its 
local War Pensions Committees. 

The immediate object is to raise 
£3,000,000 to continue the work hitherto 
done by the Minister's Voluntary Funds, 
but on a more generous and wider scale. 
The existing funds are all but exhausted. 

The weekly number of applications for 
grants is rapidly growing, and has already 
risen to close upon 600. Applications for 
grants must be made to the Local War 
Pensions Committees which are in every 
district throughout the country. (Officers 
apply direct to the Ministry.) The Local 
Committee sends a recommendation if the 
case is a suitable one, and the Trustees deal 
with it. A large staff at the Ministry is 
engaged on the work, and the applications 
are expeditiously dealt with without 
" officialism " or " red tape;" Elasticity 
is the great feature of the Voluntary 
Scheme. 

The need for the Fund is urgent, and 
already the most beneficent results have 
been obtained in resettling men. If the 
taxpayers' money were to be used there 
would require to be rigid regulations of 
universal application bound by hard and 
fast rules which would destroy the whole 
idea of this scheme. 

We hope that every possible support will 
be given to this Fund, to help our disabled 
men to help themselves — a Fund which is 
not intended to be a substitute for a State 
Pension, but to supplement it. 



I50 



(Ibc Britlsb 3ournal of "Wuretng. 



September 7, 1918 



OUR PRIZE COMPETITION. 



WHAT ARE THE PRINCIPAL FUNCTIONS OF A SCHOOL 
NURSE? HOW MAY SHE ASSIST IN RAISING THE 
STANDARD OF NATIONAL HEALTH? 

We have pleasure in awarding- the prize this 
week to Miss Catharine Wright, Dryden Road, 
Bush Hill Park, Enfield. 

HRIZH PAPER. 

The principal functions of a school nurse 
cover a wide field of activities, all of which have 
for their object the raising of a higher standard 
of health among the school children, and in 
following up this ideal many other branches in 
connection with this school work have opened 
up, so that the school nurse of to-day has the 
opportunity of using her trained knowledge 
and experience, proving an invaluable help 
towards maintaining a national standard of 
health and fitness amongst the school children, 
many of whom live under the most adverse con- 
ditions of poverty, neglect, and ignorance. 

It is in the elementary schools of the London 
County Council, principally, that her work 
begins, and usually the routine visit to the 
school is notified to the heads of the school 
previously, so that absentees may be present 
for the nurse's visit. Once in each term every 
child is examined for cleanliness, the hair and 
skin are inspected, and all conditions recorded. 
Verminous children are excluded : visits paid 
to the home, and the parents instructed as to 
the best method of cleansing. If this cannot be 
accomplished, the cleansing process may be 
compulsory under the Children's Act. ' 

Any infectivity . of skin is noticed, and the 
children referred to the school doctor, who will 
diagnose, and curative treatment then follows 
at a clinic or treatment centre. 

Any eye disease, likely to be infectious, is 
also referred to the school doctor, and the same 
procedure followed, and aural disease is care- 
fully supervised under curative treatment. 
This entails many visits to the homes of the 
children, and the school nurse is brought into 
touch with the family, and is almost invariably 
taken into confidence, and her sympathy and 
helpful advice readily accepted. 

The medical inspections are of great 
importance. For these, the selected age- 
groups of children are prepared by weighing, 
measuring, and vision testing, an accurate 
record kept, which later on becomes useful for 
statistical purposes. The parents are urged to 
be present, and here again the school nurse is 
in touch with them, and has often to follow up 
the cases for curative treatment, getting 



vouchers for clinic and centre or hospital 
treatment, watching over the cases until they 
return to school. 

In various districts, school clinics and treat- 
ment centres are in active progress, a very 
large number of defects being treated with the 
best result, supervised by the school doctors. 

Dental centres are at work, the school nurse 
taking duty and helping the doctor and dentist 
in the recovery room. The X-ray department 
of a treatment centre utilizes the school nurse, 
she preparing the heads and keeping the 
children in suitable positions during the X-ray 
exposure. On certain days there are operations 
for tonsils and adenoids, the school nurses 
taking duty as in an ordinary operating theatre. 

Mentally and physically defective children 
have their own school nurses, who well under- 
stand the supervision and care these children 
need. 

The teachers of each school realise how 
beneficial the work of the school nurse has 
become, and the heads of the school nurses' 
department, realizing the many problems and 
difficulties that arise in this kind of work, are 
ever ready to receive and give suggestions 
bearing on these difficulties. 

The work is intensely interesting, and may 
be more so, if, under the new Education Act, 
the services of the school nurses are as appre- 
ciated and used to the fullest extent, for the 
younger children will specially need trained 
knowledge, and the older children guided and 
taught a hygienic value of themselves. 

With this wider knowledge the standard of 
national health will be on a good basis, which 
must result in future fitness and capacity for 
the girls and boys who are to be the parents 
of the future generation. 

HONOURABLE MENTION. 

The following competitors receive honourable 
mention : — Miss B. Courtenay, Miss M. James, 
Miss P. Thomson. 

QUESTION FOR NKXT WEEK. 

What do you know of ex-ophthalmic goitre, 
its symptoms, and nursing care? 

We desire to draw the attention of nurses to 
the Form of Petition to the Prime Minister 
which appears inside the front cover. Although 
the principle of representation of the organized 
Nurses' Societies has been inserted in the 
7th draft of the College of Nursing Bill, 
" there is many a slip between the cup and the 
lip," and the more representative the Petition 
the more influence it will have when our Bill is 
before Parliament. 



September 7, 1918 ^^e Btltieb Soumal of IRursing. 



^» 



NURSING AND THE WAR. 



The many friends of Miss Violetta Thurstan 
will be glad to learn of her safe return to this 
country after her war service in Serbia. We 
learn it is probable that after a rest she will take 
up interesting work, at home. 



The Hon. Mrs. Waldorf Astor appeals for the 
loan or gift of river canoes for the use of the 
Nursing Sisters and staff of the 15th Canadian 
General Hospital, Cliveden, Taplow, Bucks. 



Nurses of the American Army have now been 
given a definite status. They are not, how^ever, 
to be commissioned, but to be warranted, as are 
sergeants and non-commissioned officers. 



A Washington message says that orders have 
been issued by the United States War Department 
to the office of the Surgeon-General, which will 
enable coloured nurses who have been registered 
by the American Red Cross Society to render 
service to their own race in the Army. The 
nurses will be assigned to the hospitals at half-a- 
dozen camps, in which a total of about 38,000 
coloured troops are stationed. General Pershing 
has been asked whether the services of coloured 
nurses can be utilised to advantage among the 
American Expeditionary Forces. 



The Nursing Journal of India says : " Many 
names can be added to our list of heroine nurses 
by the splendid courage of those women who 
remained at the post of duty during the terrible 




THE GARDEN AT COLEBROOK LODQE. PUTNEY HEATH, THE AMERICAN RED CROSS NURSES' REST HOUSE. 



The Army regulations fixing the rank of officers 
in the Army has been amended by the insertion 
of the new grade of " nurse " below the grade of 
cadet, and above that of sergeant-major. The 
nurses are thus placed in authority over all men 
in the enlisted branch. Many of the nurses 
feel they should have commissioned rank, like 
their Canadian colleagues, thus giving them 
authority over all patients in military hospitals. 



Our illustration, from an American Red Cross 
oflBcial photograph, gives a charming impression 
of the delights of Colebrook Lodge, West Hill, 
Putney Heath, the American Red Cross Rest 
House, for its convalescent nurses. It must 
surely be a joy to convalesce in surroundings so 
healthful and beautiful. 



air raid which took place when the Germans 
bombed one of our military hospitals in France. 
The scene of the disaster was a big hospital camp 
composed of many huts and known to the enemy 
as being such, not only by its conspicuous marking 
with the Red Cross, but they had often seen it. The 
night was one flood of brilliant moonlight, when 
squadron after squadron flew over and dropped 
large bombs on the huts, which were nearly full of 
badly wounded men, who were mostly helpless to 
assist themselves and to whom movement was 
agony ; some of the raiders flew very low and raked 
the huts and staff quarters with machine guns. 
There were several hundreds of casualties amongst 
the patients, orderlies and nurses. We read with 
pride and profound emotion the description of the 
behaviour of the nurses under the terrible ordeal." 



«5» 



TTbe Britt0b Journal of fJlurainfi. 



September 7, 1918 



GALLANT SERVICE IN MESOPOTAMIA. 



FRENCH FLAG NURSING CORPS. 



GENERAL MARSHALL'S LIST OF MENTIONS. 

War Office, August 2yth. 
The Secretary of State for War has received the 
following dispatch addressed to the Chief of the 
General Staff, India, by Lieut.-General W. R. 
Marshall, K.C.B., K.C.S.I., Commanding-in-Chief, 
Mesopotamia Expeditionary Force : — 
General Headquarters, 
Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force, 

April 15th, 1918. 
Sir, — ^With reference to the concluding para- 
graph of my dispatch dated April 15th, 1918, I 
have the honour to submit herewith a list of names 
of those officers, ladies, non-commissioned officers, 
and men serving, or who have served, under my 
command, whose distinguished and gallant services 
and devotion to duty I consider deserving of 
special mention. 

I have the honour to be. Sir, 
Your obedient Servant, 
W. R. Marshall, 

Lieut.-General. 
Commanding-in-Chief, Mesopotamian 
Expeditionary Force. 

Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing 
Service. 
Walker, Miss M., Matron, R.R.C. 

Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing 
Service Reserve. 
Argo, Miss M. B., Staff Nurse ; Bottomley, Miss 
C. M., Sister; Da vies, Miss A. M., Staff Nurse; Davies, 
Miss E., Staff Nurse; De Kock, Miss D., Sister; 
Hargraves, Miss D. O., Staff Nurse; Hartrick, Miss 
A. L., Sister; Lulham, Miss E. V. J., Staff Nurse; 
Mark, Miss M., Staff Nurse; McGaughey, Miss M. A., 
Sister; McNab, Miss M. M., Sister; Millar, Miss L., 
Staff Nurse ; Rae, Miss M., Sister and A. /Matron ; Reid, 
Miss A. E., Staff Nurse ; "Robertson, Miss M. A. A., 
Sister; Stuart, Miss A. L., Sister; Wadsworth, Miss 
S. E., Sister; Wellington, Miss A., Staff Nurse; 
Wilkinson, Miss E. S., Sister. 

Territorial Force Nursing Service. 
CoULSON, Miss M. G., Sister ; Crosbie, Miss M. F. D., 
Sister; Curties, Miss N., Sister; Earle, Miss A. L., 
Matron; Emuss, Miss E. A., Sister; Hunstone, Miss 
M., Sister; King, Miss E. S., Staff Nurse; Mann, Miss 
T. J., Sister; Potter, Miss M. M., Sister; Seacome, 
Miss B. E., Sister ; Wheeler, Miss M. K., Sister. 

Queen Alexandra's Military Nursing Service, India. 

Gilmore, Miss M. G., Matron; Maclean, Miss M. E., 

Nursing Sister; Marshall, M'ss E. O., Nursing Sister; 

Wilson, Miss J. S. R., R.R.C., Senior Nursing Sister. 

Temporary Nursing Service, India. 
Burke-Roche, Miss G., T./Matron; Gaskin, Miss J., 
T. /Matron ; May, Miss T. , T. /Nursing Sister ; Minchin, 
"Miss L. L. M., T. /Nursing Sister. 

Voluntary Aid Detachment. 
Martin, Miss C. A. 

The Scottish Women's Hospitals have received 
from Major Endicott, American Red Cross Com- 
missioner in this country, the first instalment of 
a most generous grant of 160,000 dollars. 



Miss Has well, Matron in^France, has taken part 
in the Allied Women War Workers' Congress in 
Paris, which we hear w-as most interesting, and a 
very valuable exchange of opinion of those deeply 
interested in women's part in organisation and 
the relief of suffering. 



Noteworthy were the words of M. Pichon, 
Minister of Foreign Affairs, who represented M. 
Clemenceau at the great meeting at the Theatre 
Champs Elys^es and who asserted that women's 
work is inseparable from the essential work of the 
war. He paid tribute to English women spending 
their lives in succouring those in the invaded 
districts, and the American women, who, he said, 
possessed in a supreme degree the idealism which 
is the gift of their race ; and mentioned, as having 
earned for ever the admiration and gratitude of 
the nations — the Queen of the Belgians, Sister 
Julie, and Edith Cavell. " It is," he said to the 
members of the Congress, " a regular revolution 
which you have accomplished in placing yourselves 
by the side of the defenders of our soil and our 
right, and, indeed, everywhere where our deliver- 
ance and the constitution of a new society are 
being worked out. In the new society woman 
will no longer be what she was yesterday. She 
will no longer be content to leave to man affairs 
which concern her as much as him. She has 
acquired in the struggle a new role, and she will 
have had such a part in the liberation of the world 
that the world will not be able to keep her separated 
from the defence of great social causes. She will 
have penetrated further into the general organisa- 
tion of society, which will have been saved partly 
bv the action which she has exercised." 



We hear of a Med. Chef remarking to an English 
lady who has worked with him for over a year : — • 
" I like your British Nurses ; they work all day, 
running about like mice ; they don't talk, and they 
have been here a whole fortnight and I have not 
been called upon to adjust any quarrel ! " 

This same Med. Chef hopes that he will be able 
to have F.F.N.C. Sisters to work with him for the 
future. 

Sister Dora Simpson has been awarded the 
Medaille des Epidemics, which she well deserves, 
after her excellent services in nursing contagious 
diseases in the war zone. 



Members of the French Flag Nursing Corps will 
leara with pleasure that although General Vicomte 
de la Panouse is relinquishing his post as Military 
Attache to the French Embassy in London, the 
Vicomtesse de la Panouse will continue her benefi- 
cent work as President of the Comit6 Britannique 
of the Croix Rouge Francaise. 



An interesting report of Queen Mary's Hostels 
for Nurses, of which there are now three, has 
been published. 



September 7, 1918 Q^bc 36ritt0b Soumal of IJluretno. 



J53 



CARE OF THE WOUNDED. 



THE INFLUENCE OF COLOUR. 

As some people have greater perception of 
harmony and are more deeply moved by " con- 
cord of Sweet sounds " than others, so some are 
more susceptible to the influence of colour and 
more consciously take pleasure in its efEects. 
Yet subconsciously there are probably few people 
who are not influenced by it, and more especially 
the sick, who lie day after day in the same sur- 
roundings, which may depress them and retard 
their recover^"-, or inspire them to persevere on 
the road to recovery, and to- regain the mental 
poise and concentration which for a time they 
have lost. 

Nurses who have worked in a hospital where 
the walls are a drab colour, with "perhaps a dado 
of bro\vn paint chosen for its enduring quality, 
and who have escaped in their off duty time to the 
National Gallery, or one of the other great picture 
galleries, as a relief from their monotony, will 
realize their effect upon the mind, and the im'por- 
tance of the work for the sick and wounded of 
Mr. P. H. Kemp Prossor, who, having studied 
" colour-medicine " and the influence of colour 
on children and adults, is so convinced a believer 
in its benefits that he has closed down half his 
house, given up his motor car, and is devoting 
himself to arranging and supervising colour wards 
in military hospitals. Mr. Pressor's faith ex- 
tends beyond the a;sthetic effect of colour to its 
therapeutic influence. 

"We have already described the " Colour Ward " 
in the McCaul Hospital for Officers, and it was 
recently the good fortune of the writer to visit 
Section IV of the Maudsley Neurological Clearing 
Hospital at Denmark Hill, where shell-shock and 
kindred cases are received. 

Imagine the change of being transported from 
the tortured battle-grovinds of Europe, desolate, 
and reeking with the carnage of war, to these 
wards where " all the air is thrilling with the 
Spnng," for that is the message of Mr. Kemp 
Pressor's colour wards, and the colours are nicely 
adjusted to the individual neifeds. The ceilings 
are in every case a soft firmament blue, and 
there are wards with apple-blossom pink walls — 
so many people need pink, says Mr. Prossor — 
with anemone mauve curtains, introducing the 
note of concentration and maybe Spring-green 
quilts, the bedsteads being painted the same 
colour, even the regulation army lockers are 
coloured to harmonize ; and the picture-frames 
are the same tone as the walls ; white sheets are 
not yet abolished, but that may come. Incident- 
ally Mr. Prosser believes that much of the bad 
eyesight of to-day is due to the fact that so many 
people are constantly looking at white. No 
browns or mauves or reds are permitted ; " the 
men have seen far too much of those colours," says 
Mr. Kemp Prossor. Just at that moment the 
discordant note of red is introduced in the regula- 
tion red-bordered cape of the Territorial Sister, 



which sets one wondering why the War Office does 
not invite him to design a uniform for Sisters 
whose work lies amongst the mentally sick, which 
shall suggest peace and not war. 

Why not ? 

In a corridor on the officers' floor one gets a 
charming effect of sunlight and brightness. But 
the corridor really is dark, and it has been .obtained 
by the sunlight yellow curtains to the window at 
the end, and will be further accentuated when the 
walls have been coloured a primrose yellow. 

It should be knowTi that Mr. Kemp Prossor 
is prepared to supervise a colour ward in any 
hospital, and under no circumstances will a fee 
be charged. All success to him in his important 
contribution to the work for the healing of the sick. 
He tells of a sleepless patient who fell asleep 
at once in a colour ward, and a letter received 
from a sergeant was eloquent in appreciation of 
the benefit he had received. The colours are all 
washable. Lastly, it is essential that they should 
be blended " with brains." ^ " 

Lest it should be thought there is anything new 
under the sun, it may be mentioned that Aristotle 
was acquainted with the therapeutic influence of 
colour. 

A BLACKGUARD NATION. 

The German Army (says the British Medical 
Journal), which we are often told is one with the 
German people, is filling up the cup of its iniquities. 
When the Germans bombed hospitals the excuse 
was made for them that the buildings were not 
properly marked with the Red Cross, though the 
apologists forgot to add that the Germans used 
the Red Cross to protect their corps headquarters. 
A month or two ago an order was found to have 
been issued directing troops in the advanced line 
to shoot down stretcher parties collecting the 
wounded, not so much with the object of killing 
them, but, as was explained, to ensure that the 
wounded were left out so long that they would be 
beyond the reach of the surgeon's art. In this 
way it was sought to diminish allied effectives. 
The Ministry of Information has now sent through 
its wireless service particulars of certain gross 
outrages committed by the Germans upon British 
prisoners and wounded in March last. The stories 
have no doubt been seen by all readers, and it is 
only necessary to say that the sworn statements of 
soldiers belonging to a Scottish regiment are to the 
effect that, under the orders of a German officer, a 
a soldier who accompanied him turned a stream of 
liquid fire down the trench in which prisoners and 
wounded (16 men, of whom 10 were wounded) had 
, been lined up. Some of the unwounded escaped, 
but all the wounded must have been either suffo- 
cated or burnt. The British Government has 
caused to be conveyed to the German Government 
a protest against the offences described, but, as 
they appear to be part of a deliberate policy, it is 
hardly to be expected to have any effect. The 
Cologne Gazette recently said that the Germans 
are a blackguard nation, and the epithet seems 
well chosen. 



m 



Hbc Brttieb Journal of Bureing. September 7, 1918 



Ropal Britlsl) nurses' Hssociatloti. 



(Iticorporatea Dp 




Ropal Charten) 



THIS SUPPLEMENT BEING THE OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE CORPORATION. 



COMPOUND FRACTURES OF THE 
HUMERUS. 



By Miss M. C. Sinzininex, A.R.R.C. 

Diploma of the Royal British Nurses' Association ; 
Matron of Queen Alexandra's Hospital for Officers. 

PART II.— DRESSINGS AND DRAINAGE. 

In cases of compound fractures the wounds are 
usually kept open by means of drainage tubes. 
In war fractures the break is not an ordinary one, 
but in most cases the bone is badly shattered, and 
for months, possibly a year, pieces of bone that 
will not unite die and consequently come aws.y 
or have to be removed, so there will, for a long 
time, be a septic wound, as where there is dead 
bone there is always sepsis. Experience has 
shown that if a wound be allowed to close too 
quickly it invariably has to be re-opened to admit 
of the removal of dead bone. 

The Carrell-Dakin method of drainage and 
irrigation (not the solution) was used at Highgate 
long before it penetrated to the hospitals in 
France. At first normal saline was run through 
the wounds by means of a piece of bandage 
drawn through the arm and out at the counter 
opening, the solution draining into a pail below. 
Later on small bore tubes, tied at their lower ends, 
were inserted into the wounds, and an antiseptic 
solution, which was syphoned from an overhanging 
flask, was run into the wounds at intervals of 
about two hours, the flow b'eing regulated by a 
screw tap on the connecting tube. 

(It is important in inserting the tubes to see 
that all the small perforations are enclosed in the 
wound, or else, when the tap is turijed on, the 
fluid will escape before it reaches the depth of the 
sinus.) 

The Carrell-Dakin fluid was not used for several 
reasons. It requires very expert preparation, 
does not keep good for many days, and has an 
injurious effect on the skin around the wound, 
necessitating a protective form of dressing on the 
surrounding parts before the solution can be used. 
After trying various antiseptic solutions, Mr. H. 
J. Paterson, the Honorary Surgeon in Charge at 
Highgate, decided on using a preparation of 
sodium mono borate. This can be easily pre- 



pared from the . crystals, and ' will keep almost 
any length of time, so that a large quantity can 
be made at once. Ninety grammes of the crystals 
are dissolved in 3,000 c.c. of warm sterile water, 
the water being only sufficiently warm to melt 
the crystals. A little of any colouring matter 
added distinguishes the solution from saline or 
any other fluids in stock. Sodium mono borate 
is not nearly so expensive as the Carrell-Dakin 
solution, also it does not injure the skin unless 
used continuously for months, when, in some cases, 
the patient has developed a kind of wound eczema. 
A change ol dressing and an application of Cala- 
mine lotion soon relieve matters. Sodium mono 
borate encourages a goodly flow of lymph to the 
wound and so " washes it out, ".carrying with it 
the pus. So quick and effectual is its action that 
sometimes within twenty-four hours of its appli- 
cation thick lymph will be seen mingling with the 
pus which is draining from the wound. 

A solution of aluminium acetate was also tried, 
and is still used for the dressing of superficial 
wounds. It cleans up a large septic area in a 
marvellously short time, but it is not so good for 
irrigation purposes, as it seems to form a kind of 
crust in the wound which blocks up the smaller 
perforations of the tubes. The sodium mono- 
borate and the aluminium acetate are both used 
mixed with the thick medicinal parafi&n, and 
make an excellent dressing for wounds that do 
not need drainage, or are past the irrigation stage. 
This preparation has one very valuable asset — it 
prevents the gauze and wool from sticking to the 
wound, and so greatly lessens the pain and dis- 
comfort of a dressing. 

In these days, interest is centred on anti-sepsis, 
so that asepsis, the most important factor of all 
in surgical cases, is a little apt to be pushed 
into the background. It should be borne in mind 
that the solutions used have quite enough work 
to do to kill the germs which are already in the 
wound, and it is the nurse's business to see that 
none are unnecessarily added. One is a little 
apt to think of war wounds as " dirty cases " 
and not to take the care one should with them. 
A nurse should always remember that she is 
dealing with open tissue, and her surgical cleanli- 
ness should be as punctilious as if she were dressing 
a clean abdominal case. 



■September 7, 1918 ^f)e Bttttsb Joumal of •Rureing. 



155 



Another important point which should be 
remembered, especially with irrigation cases, 
is that germs travel up a moist track, and if, 
through a little over irrigation, the dressing 
becomes wet to the outside and has to be packed, 
the packing should be done with sterile pads and 
surgically clean hands. All the foregoing may 
be small points in themselves, but they are links 
in the chain that draws the patient to re- 
covery. 

In one's pre-war hospital day€, simple fractures 
■were the rule, compound ones the exception. Now 
the position is reversed, and not only are the 
majority of the fractures with which one meets 
compound, but comminuted as well. 



APPOINTMENT. 

Miss Florence Carver has been appointed 
Matron at the Military Hospital, Palavas, France, 
and writes that she finds the work there most 
interesting, and tells of the splendid surgery 
accomplished in this French hospital, in which 
there are a hundred and fifty beds. Miss Carver 
was trained at St. George's Hospital and became 
a member of the Association in 1905. 

MARRIAGE. 

On Saturday, August 24th, Miss Emily Young 
was married quietly to Mr. Ernest Henry Collins, 
of 35, Bloomsbury Square. For a year. Miss 
Young has been working for the Association at a 




HEADQUARTERS OF THE SOUTH AUSTRALIAN BRANCH OP THE R.B.N.A. 



The treatment of compound fractures of the 
humerus and their attendant wounds is an especi- 
ally interesting study. The arm is of such 
inestimable value to the patient that there is 
the greatest possible satisfaction in saving a badly 
smashed upper limb. Although the amputation of 
a leg may be a greater shock to the patient at 
the time than is the removal of an arm, the 
comparative loss in after life between the two 
limbs is enormous. A man with two arms and one 
leg will have a very much better prospect of a 
useful life than a man with one arm and two 
legs, even if fitted with the wonderfully efi&cient 
artificial limbs that are now in use. Therefore 
any extra trouble and patience expended in 
saving an arm is always repaid. 



military hospital in Yorkshire, and has also done 
a considerable amount of private work for it. 
She became a member in 19 15. 

OBITUARY. 

It is with regret that we have to report the death 
of Miss Mary Seamark. 

Miss Seamark died in the Bush Township of 
Murat Bay, South Australia, in .April last. She 
was trained at St. Thomas' Hospital, and, after 
holding several appointments in England, she went 
out to South Australia, where she did work for the 
Australian Branch of the Royal British Nurses' 
Association. 

(Signed) Isabel Macdonald, 

Secretarv. 



X56 



Zbc Brittsb 3ournal ot TRursiUQ. September 7, 1918 



APPOINTMENTS. 

MATRON. 

St. John's Hospital Charity, Winchester. — Miss 
Annie Manning has been appointed Matron- She 
was trained at the Hackney Union Infirmary, 
London, and has been Superintendent Nurse at 
Oulton Infirmary, near Lowestoft, and at the 
Union Infirmary, Basingstoke, Hants. 

OUT-PATIENT SISTER. 

Great Northern Central Hospital, HoUoway Road, 

N. — Miss Amy Martin has been appointed 
Outpatient Sister. She was trained at the Royal 
Free Hospital, and has been Sister at the Royal 
Albert Hospital, Devonport ; and at the National 
Hospital, Queen's Square, W.C. 

QUEEN ALEXANDRA'S IMPERIAL MILITARY 
NURSING SERVICE. 

Sister Mrs. E. Grazebrook resigns her appoint- 
ment (August 26th). 

THE NATION'S TRIBUTE TO IRISH 
NURSES. 

The Fund for tha Tribute to Irish Nurses is 
progressing slowly, not more than half the amount 
required being so far subscribed. The Fuad, 
which wi^l be administered by an Irish Committee, 
is intended to benefit civilian as well as war nurses. 

LEGAL MATTERS. 

The trial of Eva Grace Thompson, who claims 
to be a trained nurse, on a charge of wilful murder 
will take place at the Old Bailey, and may come on 
for hearing next week. 



MURSlNti ECHOES. 



A serious charge was preferred against a woman 
named Tomkinson at the West Ham Police Court 
on Monday, namely oi attempting to procure 
abortion in six cases. She is not a certified mid- 
wife, but was at one time assistant to a chemist. 

LECTURES TO MASSAGE STUDENTS. 

Masseuses, and nurses who are studying for their 
massage certificates •will be glad to know that a 
series ©f classes in Anatomy for Massage Students, 
beginning on Monday, October 7th, have been 
arranged at the London (Royal Free Hospital, 
School of Medicine for Women, 6, Hunter Street) 
Brunswick Square, W.C. i. Demonstrations on 
the cadaver will be given on Mondays, Tuesdays, 
Thursdays and Fridays at 5.30 throughout the 
Autumn term, under -the direction of Dr. Mary 
Lucas-Keene, and Dr. Joyce Partridge. Further 
particulars may be obtained from Miss L- M. 
Brooks, Warden and Secretary. 

RESIGNATION. 

Many nurses and midwives who appreciate the 
excellence of the training they have received at 
the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, under the able 
Superintendence of Miss L. Ramsden, will learn 
with regret of her resignation of this important 
position, after over 20 years* service in the insti- 
tution, for a short time as Assistant to Miss 
Hampson and then as Lady Superintendent. 



At the recent Annual Meeting of Princess 
Christian's District I^ursing and Maternity 
Home at Windsor a letter received from the 
Town Clerk of Windsor proved how much the 
work of the Home is appreciated in the town. 

The letter stated that it has been decided to 
give a donation of ;^io los. per annum to the 
funds of H.R.H. Princess Christian's Mater- 
nity Home as a recognition of the excellent 
work which the nurses of the Home are doing, 
and the great use that their services are to the 
poor of Windsor. 



We continue to receive enquiries as to the 
prospects for those who undergo a course of 
training with the view of faking up laboratory 
work as described 'by Dr. Kynvett Gordon in 
this Journal, and we are informed that Dr. 
Gordon has also been " inundated " with 
enquiries. After a course of training extending 
over three months, the prospects for a candi- 
date who successfully passes the subsequent 
examination are good, as she would probably 
easily obtain the post of junior assistant at a 
commencing salary of ;^2 2s. a week. 



The National Union of Women 'Workers of 
Great Britain and Ireland has issued a pam- 
phlet on the National Health Insurance Act of 
1918, which sets forth clearly and concisely the 
most important of the changes effected by the 
Act. Nurses who are insured under the Act 
would do well to obtain and study this leaflet. 
It is obtainable from Miss Norah E. Green, 
Secretary National Union of Women Workers, 
Parliament Mansions, Victoria Street, London, 
S.W. I, price ^d. per copy, or id. post free, 
or 4s. 6d. per 100, post free. 



The question as to whether hospital nurses 
who have latch keys are entitled to the Parlia- 
mentary Franchise is one upon which a decisive 
decision should be obtained, and we advise all 
nurses who are provided with latch keys to 
rrake a point of inquiring from the proper 
authorities whether or not they are entitled to 
a vote. We learn that the private nurses on 
the staff of St. John's House, Queen Square, 
Bloomsbury, each have the use of a latch key 
when in residence between their cases. What 
is the position in this case? 



At Omagh Revision Sessions the claim of 
Miss L. H. Hayes, Matron of the Tyrone 
County Hospital, for a vote out of apartments 
in that institution was admitted, whilst the 



September 7, 1918 ^j)e BHtisb Soumal of IRiirsino. 



»57 



claims of Sisters Clarke and Brown, one of 
whom belonged to each side, were also ruled 
on without prejudice, but the claims of a dozen 
of the regular nursing staff were disallowed. 



A contemporary says : — '* If the service 
franchise does not apply to' nurses, it is difficult 
to see to whom it would apply, and it is to be 
hoped that nurses in hospitals and institutions, 
if refused their vote by the local authority, will 
appeal to the county court." 



It is stated that Lady Rhondda has definitely 
decided to claim a seat in the House of Lords 
as a peeress in her own right. 



SUMMER SCHOOL OF CIVICS AND 
EUGENICS, 1918. 



The above school, held in Oxford during the 
last fortnight in August, proved of the greatest 
interest to those few members of the nursing 
and midwifery professions able to attend, among 
them Miss Olive Haydon (lately Sister Olive of 
York Road), Miss Palmer (Senior Health Visitor 
for Brighton), Miss Tipper (Organiser for the 
National Council for Combating Venereal Disease), 
and several members of the National Union of 
Trained Nurses. 

Beside the lectures, a considerable number of 
discussions — more or less informal — were held, 
on such subjects as " The Problem of the Un- 
married Mother and Her Child," " Police Women 
and Women Patrols as regards Prostitution," 
" Treatment for Habitual Criminals," together 
with countless smaller discussions held on every 
opportunity by the " workers " themselves 
on their own particular subjects. And, as one 
nurse student remarked, " No matter what 
subject is under discussion, nursing seems to 
come into it ; one can always either give some 
special piece of information .required, or get 
information oneself on some point that has 
puzzled one in dealing with social problems." 

Certainly, one seldom has the opportunity of 
meeting so many intelligent and keen workeis — 
all interested in the same great subject, namely, 
y The Betterment of the Race and how to obtain 
it." If one must select subjects which were of 
special interest to nurses, those on Venereal 
Disease and the great campaign to educate the 
civilian population; a.]so" Fatigue and Efficiency 
by Professor Stanley Kent, showing how long 
hours and insufficient rest affect the output of 
good work, came home to many a nurse. This 
subject had previously been dealt with in a 
" Psychology Lecture," showing a series of most 
interesting charts and experiments, given by 
Miss May Smith. 

If one may ciiticise — " The Work of the Oxford 



Infant Welfare Association," though most interest- 
ing as given by Mrs. Wells, who openly stated she 
was only an amateur, made some of the pro- 
fessional nurses wish the lecture had been given 
by a leader on the subject — more especially as 
Sister Olive was amongst the audience ! ,. i ^, 

Both Sister Olive, who spoke on the great 
need of an expert being in charge of and giving 
all the advice at all centres, and Miss Cancellor, 
who spoke of the value of the voluntary workers 
being trained and also encouraged to learn the 
management of infants, so that the centres could 
spread knowledge into the nurseries of the educated 
as well as the poor, made their points, and were 
asked many questions later by students interested. 

Another interesting suggestion was made by 
Mr. Peake, i.e., that both in the study of regional 
survey and in the collection of folk-lore. Health 
Visitors and District Nurses would find a great 
interest and also be able to collect many interesting 
facts ; he suggested that folk-lore societies would 
be very pleased to send particulars and forms to 
any nurses ready to take up this fascinating 
study. 

The School broke up with a delightful im- 
promptu party ; with " Story-telling " at its 
best, by Miss Elizabeth Clark, and lightning 
sketches of dream-creatures seen after the Biology 
Lectures, given by another talented student, 
Professor Laurie, who had given the lectures, 
joining in the laugh more heartily than anyone. 

If the Summer School meets next year, nurses 
are most strongly advised to take this chance of 
meeting so many other workers and hearing all 
the most recent discoveries made on all social 
progress. 



WAR NURSING. 

An interesting book on War Nursing by Professor 
Richet, of the University of Paris, translated by 
Helen de Vere Beauclerk, is published by Messrs. 
Heinemann, 21, Bedford Street, London, W.C., 
price 3s. 6d. It deals with the elementary data 
of medical physiology, and the subject > discussed 
ara anti-sepis,anaesthesia,foods, haemorrhage, fever, 
and asphyxia. It is primarily intended for Red 
Cross Workers, and is admirably designed for 
this purpose. 



A WORD TO THE WISE. 

Nurses in the Marylebone district will be well 
advised to pay a visit to the establishment of 
Messrs. Gayler & Pope, Ltd., at 11 2-1 17, High 
Street, Marylebone, W. i, w^here are to be found 
uniform coats and cloaks and bonnets to suit 
diverse tastes and purses. The present is an 
opportune moment for the renewal of uniform, 
both because the advent of September reminds 
us that it is time to think about winter garments, 
and also because prices are certain to mount 
higher than at present, and the wise are those who 
provide for their needs forthwith. 



158 



^bc British 3ournal of IRuretng. September 7, 1918 



BOOK OF THE WEEK. 



"CAPTAIN DIEPPE."* 

It is a long time sin.ce we have enjoyed any long 
story from Mr. Anthony Hope's pen. 

" Captain pieppe " is a romance peculiar to 
his style, and written with his peculiar grace. 

It is not perhaps on as high a platform of merit 
as some of his earlier works, but he cannot help 
being charming, nor can his characters fail to 
either attract or repel . 

" Captain Dieppe " is full of improbabilities and 
impossible situations ; were it not so it could not 
be the product of Mr. Hope's pen. Its plot is 
elusive, and dif&cult to bring into the matter-of- 
fact atmosphere of criticism. 

Who and what Captain Dieppe was doesn't seem 
to matter much, suf&ce it to say he was an attrac- 
tive, so it is implied, gentleman in the thirties, 
who carried on his person papers of importance. 
Our readers will learn as much about him as we 
know ourselves from the following paragraphs. 

Fresh from the failure of important plans, if 
not a fugitive, still a man to whom recognition 
would be inconvenient and perhaps dangerous, 
with fifty francs in his pocket, and his spare ward- 
robe in a knapsack on his back, without immediate 
prospect of future employment or replenishment of 
his purse, he marched up a long, steep hill in the 
glowing dusk of a stormy evening. 

The Captain whistled and sang. What a fright 
he had given the ministers, how nearly he had 
brought back the Prince, what an uncommon and 
intimate satisfaction of soul came from carrying 
under his wet coat lists of names, letters and what 
not, all capable of causing tremors in high places. 
He broke off whistling to observe aloud : 

" Mark this, it is to very few there comes a life 
so interesting as mine," and his tune began again 
with almost rollicking vigour." 
Thus Captain Dieppe ! 

The drenched, but unquenchable Captain finds 
himself shortly afterwards entertained in a hand- 
some house, and quite easily became the guest of 
the young Count Fieramondi. 

" Stay with me," said the Count, " for to-night 
at least, and as much longer as you will. Nobody 
will trouble you. I live in solitude, and your 
society will lighten it. Let me ring and give 
orders for your entertainment." 

Dieppe looked up at him. ," With all my heart, 
dear host. Your only dif&culty shall be to get rid 
of me." 

He was accommodated in the " Cardinal's 
Room," which his host informed him he had 
himself until lately occupied. 

" I left it owing to — er — circumstances." 
" His Eminence is restless ? " 
" I beg pardon ? " 
" I mean — a ghost ? " 

" No, a cat I " was the Count's surprising 
answer. 

• Skefl&ngton & Son, Ltd. 6s. 



And the cat was connected with a lady, and the 
lady was the Count's wife, and the relations 
between them were somewhat strained. 

" My wife and I are not in agreement. She 
lives in the right wing with two servants, and I 
live in the left with three." 

Captain Dieppe being of an enquiring turn of 
mind is not long before he makes {sub rosa) the 
acquaintance of the lady in the right wing, and 
the meeting is described in Mr. Hope's best 
inconsequent manner. 

" Sir," said a timid voice at his elbow. 
Dieppe shot round, and then and there lost his 
heart. One sight of her a man might endure and 
be heart-whole — ^not two. There, looking up at 
him with the most bewitching mouth, the most 
destructive eyes, was the lady he had seen at the 
end of the passage 

" Madame la Comtesse ? " stammered the 
dazzled Captain. 

" Yes, yes ; but never mind that. Who are 
you ? " ■ 

" My name is Dieppe, madame. Captain 
Dieppe at your service." 

As the gallant Captain had surprised an inter- 
view between the lady and a young man, evidently 
of a secret nature, he is sharply rebuked for his 
blundering. 

" Tell me what I must do," implored the Cap- 
tain. 

She looked at him kindly, partly because he 
w;as a handsome fellow, partly because it was her 
way, and she said with the prettiest, simplest air, 
as though she were making the most ordinary 
request and never thought of refusal : 

" Will you give me fifty thousand francs ? " 
To this modest request the Captain replied that 
he had but fifty in the world, but he set himself to 
retrieve the compromising papers from Paul de 
Roustache, by more exciting and decidedly less 
dull means than by merely paying the price in 
cash. 

And these two went through a wild adventure 
to attain their object, and Dieppe having done his 
part handsomely found himself in the extremely 
awkward position of being deeply and profoundly 
in love with his host's wife. 

And then comes the grand finale, when Dieppe 
discovers that his charming lady is not the Countess 
after all, but her cousin ; and that she and the real 
Countess have for involved reasons of their own 
been hoaxing both him and the Count. 

" I am the happiest fellow in the world," he 
declared ; " and that," he added, as though it 
were a rare and precious coincidence, " with my 
conscience quite at peace." 

As to the consciences of the two very ingenious 
young ladies — ^the Countess of Fieramondi and her 
cousin. Countess Lucia — the problem is more 
difi&cult. The Countess never confessed and 
Lucia never betrayed the secret. 

What their secrets really amounted to we must 
beg our readers to discover for themselves. 

H. H. 



TTie Prttish Journal of jVurtmn, Seistrmber 7. 19J8. 



" Science is, I believe, 
nothing but trained and 
organized common-sense, 
differing from the latter 
only as a veteran may 
differ from a raw recruit : 
and its methods diffc 
from those of common- 
sense only so far as the 
Guardsman's cut and 
thrust differ from the 
manner in which a savage 
wields his club." 

Profeaor Huxley. 




The Basis 
of 
Science 



BOOTS PURE DRUG COMPANY LIMITED wish to draw the 
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Vida B.M.J.. May, 1917. 

The action of Halazone is positive, and may be relied upon for crudest waters. Each tablet is sufficient to 
sterilize one quart of contaminated water, but in cases of extreme contamination a second tablet may b« 
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i6o 



Zbe British 3ournal of flureinfi. 



September 7, 1918 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 



Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects for these columns, we wish it to be 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 

THE KINO'S FUND FOR THE DISABLED. 
WHO WILL FOLLOW HIS MAJESTY 5 LEAD ? 

To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Madam, — His Majesty the King has been 
graciously pleased to give not only his name, but 
also the magnificent sum of ^^78,000 to the Fund 
which was recently inaugurated to assist disabled 
ofi&cers and men of the Navy, Army and Air Force 
to become useful members of the community 
again. 

We, the Trustees of the Fund, for whom I sign 
as Chairman, appeal to the humanity, the grati- 
tude, of every one of your readers — man, woman 
and child — ^for a subscription which will help to 
find a new place in civil life for officers and men of 
His Majesty's Forces disabled in the War, and for 
the widows and children of officers and men who 
have given their lives for us. 

" Why doesn't the Government do that ? " 
some readers will ask. 

Briefly, a State Pension scale must be hard and 
fast. Outside that scale there is a great human 
field which the King's Fund can cover in which 
the officer, the man, or the dependent can be put 
on his or her feet, and given a sound re-establish- 
ment in civil life. 

A State Scheme must be a classification according 
to the type ; the King's Fund passes beyond 
classification, and acts, not as a public official, but 
as a private friend. 

The present facts are : — 

We are receiving 600 applications a week. 
2,500 cases have been dealt with thus far. Where 
the officer or man has been trained by the 
Ministry of Pensions or where there is a business 
given up for War Service, which he can restart, an 
adequate grant can be made. 

The Fund is a Monument of Gratitude. 

It will cheer our gallant fighters to see that 
monument rising to ;/^3,ooo,ooo — ^the amount 
aimed at. 

So let us, therefore, have the money — and 
quickly. Urgent cases are waiting. | 

The King leads off with his great gift of ;^78,ooo. 

Who will follow the King's lead ? 

Contributions should be sent to The King's Fund 
for the Disabled, Westminster House, Millbank, 
S.W. I. 

All cheques and postal orders should be crossed. 
For the Trustees, 

John Hodge, Chairman. 

AN INTERESTINQ COMPARISON. 

To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — The paragraphs with regard to 
the Royal Air Force Nursing Service in The 



British Journal of Nursing and F.S. Form 144 
make a very interesting compaiison and provide 
a very clear answer to why there is such a serious 
shortage of probationers. Most parents are now 
carefully considering such information and invesi i- 
gating conditions of service and possible chances 
in the professions open to their daughters. 

The following information does not include the 
Matron s-in-Chief or highest officers in either 
department : — 

OFFICERS OF WOMEN'S ROYAL AIR FORCE. 

Nursing Service after Three Years' 
Training. 
Matron . . . . ^75 



Sjpt. Sister 
Sisters 
Staff Nurses 



£50 
/40 



Board and lodging pro- 
vided and a yearly 
increment. 



General Service after Three Weeks' Training 
Area Inspector , .;^20o 



Quarters provided and 
/40 6s. deducted for 
board. Outfit allow- 
ance, ;^20. 

First-class travelling 
expenses and 15s. per 
day when on duty 
away from Head- 
quarters. 



Hostel Administra 
tor .. '•£'^75 

Deputy Hostel Ad- 
ministrator . ./150 

Assistant Hostel^ 
Administrator . .£120 

Technical Adminis- 
trator . . . •;^I50 

Assistant Technical 
Administrator . .^120 

Is it any wonder that it is necessary to inform 
nurse-^ in Military and Civilian Hospitals that they 
will not be accepted without perriiission from 
employers ? 

Yours faithfully. 

Interested. 

AN AUSTRALIAN POINT OF VIEW. 

To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — Please find enclosed postal note 
for subscription for British Journal of Nursing. 
I am always very pleased to get the Journal, as 
I consider it the most reliable nursing paper, all 
matters in it being handled by professional nursing 
experts not by lay people. I hope your State 
Registration Bill will soon go through, then your 
power as a woman voter registered nurse will be 
greatly increased. We are trusting our Bill will 
come on during the Session which opens soon. 
We think most of the members, both Liberal and 
Labour, are sympathetic in their views re our 
request. 

Wishing your Journal continued success ajid 
power. 

I am, faithfully yours, 

Gretta Lyons. 

Melbourne, Victoria. 



OUR 



PRIZE COMPETITION. 

QUESTIONS. 

September 14th. — ^What do you know of Ex-oph- 
thalmic Gditre, its symptoms, and nursing care ? 

September 21st. — ^What is the function of the 
blood ? Why may hiemorrhage cause death ? 



September 7, 1918 ji\)c »rttt0b Soumal of fluratna Supplement i^r 

The Midw^ife. 



THE CENTRAL MIDWIVES' BOARD. 



LIST OF SUCCESSFUL CANDIDATES. 

At the examination of the Central Midwives' 
Board, held on August ist, in London and the 
Provinces, 494 candidates were examined and 
400 fJassed the examiners. The percentage of 
failures was ig. 

^ London. 

British Hospital for Mothers and Babies. — 

D. A. Braithwaite, L. M. Stock. 

City of London Lying-in Hospital. — D. M. 
Amos, E. M. Gaskell, M. Griffiths, F. A. Hewson, 
R. E. Langridge, C. F. Longstreeth, K. E. McCon- 
ville, J. McDougall, M. A. Neville, A. F. Smith, 
B. Wade. 

Clapham Maternity Hospital. — D. W. Adims, 
L. E. M. Bruno, I. J. Chilton, E. Doulton, A. W. 
Freke, L. M. Lott, P. A. Thorpe. 

East End Mothers' Home. — ^M. Anderson, D. 
Bartlett, M. T. E. Collard, S. E. Derrick, E. 
Dickin, M. McR. Djgtid, N. D. Jones, J. 
Llewellyn, D. L. Metzgar, A. M. Pape, E. Smallev, 
A. M. M. Stone, R. M. Strudwick, L. Welsh." 

Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital. — F. E. 
Nicholson, A. H. Turner. 

General Lying-in Hospital. — C. Bream, R. E. 
Cole, F. S. Cox, M. C. Edwards, K. M. Forwood, 
M. E. Giles, A. L. Glover, E. L Harker, J. E. 
Heywood, A. Husband, A. A. Kendall, F. E. 
Kewley, E. M. Lyth, C. Montrose, D. J. Mortinore, 
M. L. Newsome, H. Pea.te, N. Pleydell-Bouverie, 
F. E. Sampson, E. K. Seamer, R. O. Wall, J. 
Westnidge. 

Greenwich Union Infirmary. — A. R. Hainan, 

E. A. Huggett, L. M. B. Nawells. 

Guy's Institution. — J. Murray, E. M. Patrick, 
S. A. Taylor, L. D. Whartcn. 

Hackney Union Infirmary. — D. E. Martin, 
,L. E. Townshend. 

Kensington Union Infirmary . — N. Clogg, E. A. 
Haggett, M. P. Northrop. 

Lambeth Parish Workhouse. — E. M. Bate, A. 
Stock. 

London Hospital. — J. L. Abraham, G. M. Cook, 
M. E. England, M. M. Grand, A. John, A. H. 
Norrish, R. A. Thompson, M. J. Wilson. 

Maternity Nursing Association. — L. K. Banwell, 
A. A. Curie, E. B. Dawson, E. Hurlstone, M. A. 
Joiner. 

Middlesex Hospital. — D. M. Badock, H. M. 
Barber, D. W. Hay. M. Leaver, A. L. Read, M. 
Waterton. 

Plaistow Maternity Charity. — E. Benson, F. H. 
Bridges, M. A. Broomfield, N. Dibble, A. H. 
Duffield, C. N. Golde-, D. C. Hawson, M. A. Hill, 
M. E. Hughes, P. Isaac, E. C. Jackson, H. E. 
Jackson, J. Liens, E. Long, E. F. S. Mackenzie, 



A. A. Martin, E. Meredith, M. A. J. Mills, M. 
Morgans, A. Newton, F. Oxtoby, E. G. Payne, 
G. M. Roberts, V. Roberts, E. A. Simmons, 

B. W. Smith, E. Tointon, E. A. Townell; E. True, 
M. A. Watson, N. A. M. Webb, M. W. Wellard, 
L. Booth. 

Queen Charlotte's Hospital. — L. M. W. Bower, 
L. S. Church, M. G. Church, L. Coates, L. M. Cole, 
M. A. Cooper, O. M. Cooper, M. L. Gill, K. M. 
Hawkins, A. M. K. Hewitt, E. Hey, H. E. Jones, 
E. G. Kay, H. MacGregor, A. N. Menzies, M. K. 
Millard, M. J. Phillips, M. E. Simpson, D. Swain, 
A. M. Tester, W. P. Tollman, E. Wilkes, E. 
Wi'Iiamson, N. Woodward. 

Salvatioft Army Mothers' Hospital. — ^M. E. 
Drury, E. J. Finley, E. Long. 

St. Thomas' Hospital. — J. A. Breach, H. D. 
Campbell, K. M. R. Carmichael, D. J. Cass. 

University College Hospital.- — G. Dale, D. Eden- 
borough, A. J. M. Twine, C. A. Wetherspoon. 

Wandsworth Union Workhouse. — ^W. B. Dann, 

C. Walker. 

West Ham Workhouse. — F. I. More, K. S. 
Whitehead. 

Whitechapel Union Infirmary. — ^M. A. Brown, 
E. O'Connor, R. WiHgrees. 

Provincial. 

Aldershot, Louise Margaret Hospital. — ^M. E. 
Nuttall. 

Birkenhead Maternity Hospital. — E. Dugdale. 

Birmingham Maternity Hospital.. — M. A. Bailey, 
H. B. Campbell, M. Ellis, M. N. K. V. Haise, W. A. 
Hyde, S. E. Jones, W. M. Lardixci, G. M. Gates, 
E. E. Thirkell, M. Wallis, K. A. Warren, A. H. 
Williamson. 

Birmingham, Selly Oak Union Infirmary. — E. 
Beddoe. G. T. B. Leach. 

Birmingham Workhouse Infirmary and Aston 
Union Workhouse. — E. E. Golby, A. M. Hall. 

Birmingham Workhouse Infirmary . — A. M. Pack- 
wood. 

Bradford Union Hospital. — H. Whalley. 

Brighton Hospital for Women. — E. C. Cameron, 
G. Carter, M. Rist, J.. Rook, L G. Scott. 

Bristol General Hospital. — D. M. H. Michell, 

D. A. Russell, L. M. A. Smith. 

Bristol Royal Infirmary. — E. A. Butt, A. M. 
Farrant, H. K. Halls. 

Cheltenham District Nursing Association. — A. 
Bradley, M. P. Cross. 

Chester Benevolent Institution.— K. Griffiths, 

E. E. Owen. 

Derby, Royal Derbyshire Nursing Association. — 
C. E. Baxter, H. M. Burnie, S. Evans, L. Heslop, 
E. Rose, E. S. Souch, L. J. Timm. 

Devon and Cornwall Training School.— ^A. Batten, 
M. J. Brown, A. J. Gurrowich, E. B. Hilt, E. E. 
Mawdsley, L. Pethybridge, M. E. Striplin. 



'62 zbc 3Briti0b 3ournal of "Wurelnc Supplement September 7, 191^ 



Devonport, Alexandra Nursing Home. — B. M. 
Dickson, E. M. Dunning, M. Hamilton, H. 
Sercombe. 

Eccleshall Bierlow Union Infirmary. — E. Watson. 

Gloucester District Nursing Society. — S. Colier, 
Lewis, S. Thomas. 

Herts County Nursing Association. — C. Lister, 

. Tunwell, E. M. Vincent. 

Huddersfield District Nursing Association and 
Huddersfield Union Infirmary. — ^M. E. Armitage. 

Htill Lying-in Charity. — E. M. Petty. 

Ipswich Nurses' Home. — C. Clark, E. Raven, 
A. B. Taylor. 

Leeds Maternity Hospital. — F. Abbott, J. A. 
Bell, M. A. Carr, C. W. Cowan, D. S. G. Hirst, A. 
HoUiday, E. Holmes, E. Johnson, M. E. Margeri- 
son, O. N. Musgrave, E. Oldfield, M. K. Parke, 
M. J. Rolling, E. Rowe, E. Southworth, L. C. 
Spice, M. A. Warlow, I. Woodall, I. A. Woodley, 
H. T. Young. 

Leeds Union Infirmary . — E. Chippendale. 

Leicester Maternity Hospital. — G. E. Barnett, 
/ E. Bowen. 

Leicester Union Infirmary. — L. M. Fudge. 

Liverpool Maternity Hospital. — L. Alderdice, 
M. A. Bodey, F. Chadwick, L. Cragg, F. A. Ind, 
L. V. Johnston, A. Jones, A. D. Kinghorn, M. D. 
Macdonald, S. G. Newman, E. O'Callaghan, B. L. 
Rogers, M. A. Schoapper, M. A. Wadsworth, 
M. Yorke. 
''Liverpool Workhouse Hospital. — D. Girdlestone. 

Manchester : St. Mary's Hospitals. — A. M. 
Barnes, E. A. Billington, M. Brocklehurst, E. A. 
Bruce, F. J. Burgess, H. Clegg, E. Cooper, S. S. 
Dixon, D. C. Jackson, M. Lewis, F. S. Mitchell, 

E. Shelmerdine, S. A. Watt, E. T. Wignall. 
Northampton, Q.V.N.I.—G. A. Morrell, S. E. 

Preece, A. Weall. 

North Bierley Union Infirmary. — ^M. Ash, E. Lee. 
Nottingham Workhouse Infirmary. — F. T. Ford, 

F. Reeves,' B. C. Roberts. 

Portsmouth Military Families Hospital. — ^M. 
Russell. 

Portsmouth Workhouse Infirmary. — E. M. Brown. 

Preston Union Workhouse. — M. Murray. 

Staffs Training Home for Nurses- — M. E. 
Hughes, M. E. Kirkby, H. J. Mackenzie, M. Mill- 
ward, E. M. Pile, A. F. Snedden 

Sheffield, Jessop Hospital. — M. D. Eastburn, 
S. Shiliitlo, F. A. Shuker, E. Thomas 

Sheffield Union Hospital. — E. Fleming. 

Stoke-on-Trent Umon- Hospital. — E Hulme, 
A. Taylor. 

Wallsall Union Workhouse. — ^M. M. Mason, 
E. Riley. 

West Derby Union Infirmary, Walton. — ^A. 
Clayton, E. Dunn, F. Dyke. 

West Riding Nursing Association. — M. E. Lee, 
I. Ross. 

Wilts Nursing Association. — E. A. Shaw. 

Worcester County Nursing Association. — S 
Davies, Z. V. Hamilton, A. Harris. 

York Maternity Hospital. — A. Hare, H. 
Wilson, 

York Union Hospital.— M. Garbutt. 



Wales. 

Cardiff Q.V.J. N.I. — E. Chapman, E. Evans, 
K. N. Jones, R. Rowles. 

Merthyr Tydfil Union Infirmary. — ^M. Walters. 

Monmouthshire Training Centre. — ^A. E. Comley, 
E. M. Evans, M. M. Gale, C. Harrison, A. Hughes, 
E. A. Morgan, M. Peters, M. Ware, M. Watkins, 
S. J. Winston. 

Scotland. 

Dundee Maternity Hospital. — A. E. Davison, 
T. R. Mullan. 

Govan Nurses' Home. — ^M. Costella, A. A. Ions, 
J. B. Leishman, M. Stoddart. 

Glasgow Royal Maternity Hospital. — B. Melville. 

Ireland. 

Belfast Union Maternity Hospital. — R. Beattie, 
M. Frazer, F. Thompson, J. A. Wiley. 

Dublin Rotunda Hospital. — ^M. A. E. Andrew, 
M. E. Delahunty, H. M. Dixon, E. M. Gorman, 
E. J. Morgan, B. Mort. 

Dublin : Coombe Hospital. — E. M.Jaques. 

Private Tuition. 
S. O. AUaway, A. J. Allison, C. H. Chappell, 
E. Coyne, L. Cross, F. Flint, E. W. Jones, M. G. 
Maries, E. M. Oxle^., J. G. Raisbeck, M. E. Render, 
M. J. Roberts, S. E. L. Stowe, A. Ward, E. A. 
Whitworth, L. Wilkinson. 

Private Tuition and Institutions. 

Kensington Union Infirmary. — B. C. Babbage. 

General Lying-in Hospital. — ^M. G. Bennett, 
A. Heatley, E. E. Hubbard, M. J. Kinsey, M. C. 
Stokes. 

Mansfield Union Workhouse. — ^W. Burkinshaw. 

Royal Derbyshire Nursing Association. — ^M. Cope, 
L. M. T. Fearn. 

Essex County Nursing Association. — ^M. C." 
Crown, E. F. Davis, E. Rodgers. 

St. Mary's Hospital, Manchester. — ^M. Davis. 

Fulham Midwifery School. — G. L. Dobinson, 
A. E. Pellow, W. E. Turner. 

Nottingham Workhouse Infirmary. — ^V. G. Gill- 
more. 

Stoke-on-Trent Union Workhouse Hospital. — " 
M. E. Grundy, E. Withington. 

Birmingham Maternity Hospital. — E. B. Guest, 
C. Harris. 

Jewish Maternity District Nursing Society. — 
E. Hyams, E. A. Kent. 

Elizabeth Garrett Anderson Hospital. — ^M. J. 
McNeil. 

East End Mothers' Home. — G. E. Parry. 

Croydon Union Infirmary. — B. H. Pickering. 

Liverpool Maternity Hospital. — ^M. E. Russell, 
L. E. Di Gennaro. 



M. 



M. 



An interesting course of Elementary Lectures on 
Infant Care, to be held at i, Wimpole Street, W., 
from 5.30 to 6.30 p.m. On Mondays from September 
30th to December i6th, has been organised by the 
National Association for the Prevention of Infant 
Mortality. 




THE 

WITH WHICH IS INCORPORATED 




iBic; 



EDITED BY MRS BEDFORD FENWICK 



No. 1,589. 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 14, 1918. 



Vol. LXl 



EDITORIAL. 



THE WAR COUNCIL SHOULD TAKE 
ACTION. 

It will surprise none of those who, at the 
outbreak of the war in 1914, desired to see 
the nursing service of this country put upon 
a war footing as a whole, that there is at 
the present time a very serious shortage of 
nurses and probationers in our civil hospitals. 
If thousands of nurses are taken out of 
these institutions to care for the sick and 
wounded it is evident that there will be 
many vacancies on the nursing staffs of 
such hospitals. But because the best must 
be available for our sick and wounded 
sailors, soldiers, and airmen, there is no 
valid reason why a comprehensive survey 
should not have been taken, with the object 
of filling these vacancies, or that it should 
not be taken even now in this fifth year 
of the war — late as it is to begin work 
that should have been inaugurated as soon 
as war was declared, in an international 
conflict which was bound to affect the 
furthermost ends of the world. 

Had recruits been calle'd for for our 
civil hospitals in the early days of the war, 
had the untrained enthusiasm of many 
ardent young women who desired to nurse 
our wounded soldiers been directed to 
hospital training as a means to attain this 
end, the probationary service in our civil 
hospital wards would not have been starved. 
As it was, short courses of a few weeks' 
instruction were inaugurated, and many 
young women were permitted at their 
conclusion to proceed on active service, 
whilst numbers of fully qualified nurses 
were turned down. 

The National Council of Trained Nurses 
of Great Britain and Ireland presented a 
Memorandum on the Care of the Sick and 
Wounded to the Director-General of the 



Army Medical Service in December, 1914, 
prepared by the President, Mrs. Bedford 
Fenwick, which advocated the formation 
of an expert committee " representative of 
the various departments which are now 
engaged in organising the nursing of sick 
and wounded soldiers, and including inde- 
pendent experts on military nursing." Had 
such a committee been formed one of its 
first acts no doubt would have been to 
safeguard the sources of supply of military 
nurses, to see that the needs of the civil 
hospitals were met, as far as possible, 
while providing for the emergencies caused 
by the war. This statesmanlike course 
was not pursued, nor was it endorsed by 
the heads of the military services, and 
organisation proceeded in water-tight com- 
partments. Unfortunately none of the 
heads of those departments had attended 
international conferences of nurses, or 
learnt what their colleagues of other 
nations were doing, and their outlook was 
very restricted. 

One of the first acts of the nursing pro- 
fession in the United States of America on 
the entry of that country into the war has 
been the formation of an expert committee 
composed of the heads of the naval and 
military nursing departments as well as 
other leaders of the nursing profession, with 
the result that attention is being directed 
to nursing as a field for national service, 
and 25,000 young women are asked for to 
join the United States Student Nurse 
Reserve, and thus to be ready, as trained 
nurses are drafted to the front, to fill up the 
ranks by entering the training schools as 
student nurses for the full term course. 

This country might have led the way. It 
is now too late. But it is not too late to 
follow where the United States of America 
have led, and even now to organize a 
Student Nurse Reserve. 



164 



ITbe 3Britl0b 3ourital of Vlureing. September 14, 1918 



We hear of 600 nurses being needed in 
the hospitals of the Metropolitan Asylums 
Board alone, of wards in children's hospitals 
being closed for lack of probationers. There 
are still many employable women who are 
unemployed. Surely the need has only to 
be understood to be met. 

The bureaucratic nursing committees in 
connection with the War Office have proved 
themselves totally incapable of elasticity 
of mind and action, and it is high time the 
Minister of National Service called in the 
aid of experts possessing creative faculty 
and power of organization. 



OUR PRIZE COMPETITION. 

WHAT DO YOU KNOW OP EX-OPHTHALMIC OotrRE, 
ITS SYMPTOMS AND NURSING CARE? 

We have pleasure in awarding the prize this 
week to Miss M. D. Hunter, Section Hospital, 
Kineton, near Warwick. 

PRIZE PAPER. 

Ex-ophthalmic goitre or Grave's Disease is 
due to excess of secretion of the thyroid gland. 
It is commonest in girls of from 18 to 25 years 
of age. The chief symptoms nearly always 
appear in the following order : — 

(i) The heart is quickened, therefore these 
cases have a quick pulse due to the frequent 
heart action. Pulsation of the carotids will be 
noticed. Usually, too, there are sweats and 
hot flushes. 

(2) Protrusion of Eyeballs is very noticeable, 
and this, ex-ophthalmos, suggested the name 
of the disease. It is supposedly due to dilata- 
tion of vessels and increased connective tissue 
and fat of the orbit. By holding up a finger 
and telling the patient to look at it while 
g-radually bringing it lower, the eyelid will not 
quite follow the eye, but lags behind, thus 
proving " Von Graefe's sign " to be present. 
If there is weakness of the convergent muscles, 
it is known as " Mobius' sign." 

(3) Swelling of the Thyroid occurs, but not 
till some months later than the two previous 
symptoms. If the hand is placed over it a 
thrill can be felt. The enlargement is quite 
symmetrical. 

(4) Fine Tremor is present, and also extreme 
nervousness and excitability. The tremor is 
best seen by telling the patient to hold out her 
arms straight in front of her, when it will be 
easily detected in the fingers. 

Other minor symptoms are headache and 
giddiness. The patient feels languid Snd has 
little appetite. She is usually anaemic and thin. 
The skin will feel quite moist, which is, of 



course, the exact opposite to that found in 
myxoedema. Nearly always there is acute 
constipation, and some doctors have a theory 
that this is the primary cause of the disease. 
The voice is often feeble. In rare cases vomit- 
ing occurs, and is a serious symptom, as it 
has been known to persist in spite of all treat- 
ment, thus eventually causing death from 
exhaustion. 

The nursing care is likely to be very pro- 
longed, as the treatment takes a long while. 
Rest in bed is essential, with plenty of fresh 
air and no excitements. In fact, a sort of 
modified rest cure is needed, but isolation is 
not necessary. Sometimes electrical treatment 
is ordered, consisting of prolonged daily 
applications of a moderate faradic current to 
the neck. Cold applications are best applied 
by Leiter's tubes, which in many cases are very 
effectual in reducing the thyroid swelling. 
Surgical interference is not generally recom- 
mended, as in mild cases medical treatment 
answers best, and in severe cases operative 
measures are so risky, and therefore inadvis- 
able. The only operation generally possible 
is a partial re-section of the gland and 
ligaturing of two or three of the thyroid 
arteries. Feeding is very important, and 
plenty of milk must always be given — the con- 
stipating effects counteracted by suitable 
aperients. Tea and coffee should not be 
allowed, but cocoa is an excellent substitute. 
When possible, it is a good plan to give the 
patient the milk of goats from which the 
thyroid gland has been removed. The diet 
should be light, and fruit is generally allowed. 
As the most usual drugs g^iven are arsenic or 
belladonna, the nurse should be well acquainted 
with symptoms of overdose. Belladonna is a 
great sedative, but if the patient complains of 
dryness of mouth, the medical man should be 
informed at once. 

HONOURABLE MENTION. 

The following competitors receive honour- 
able mention : — Miss M. Cullen, Miss S. 
Simpson, Mrs. Farthing, Miss P. Thomson, 
Miss J. Robinson, Miss E. Bleazby. 

Miss Cullen writes : — Anaemia, also debility, 
are present, and a feeble action of the heart. 
The stomach in many cases becomes irritated, 
causing vomiting, and sometimes diarrhoea. 
The urine should be frequently tested, as some- 
times sugar and albumen are found to be 
present. This disease is most common in 
women between the ages of 20 and 30 years. 



QUESTION FOR NEXT WEEK. 

What is the function of the blood? 
may haemorrhage cause death ? 



Why 



September 14, 1918 



CEbe 36riti9b 3ournal ot flurelno. 



165 



A VISION. 

^' And they shall be mine, saith the lord oj 
hosts, in that day when I make up my jewels." 

— Malachi iii. 17. 
Dawn stole again above the battle plain 
When its mad din had ceased. Stretched at my 

feet 
In all appealing- silence lay the slain 
Wrapt in the sunrise for their winding sheet. 
And ONE arrayed in gleaming white, and 

crowned — v 

Each thorn point a lit star — stood at my side. 
Awhile HE looked upon the stricken ground 
Death's piteous dominion spreading wide — 
Then turned and spake, triumphant eyes ashine, 
" I have them now and all their souls are 



C. B. M. 



August 26th, 191 8. 



NURSING AND THE WAR. 

The King has been pleased to award a Bar 
to the Royal Red Cross to the folIowiiQg lady, 
for devotion to duty on the occa>ion of damage 
by enemy action to a hospital ship : — 

BAR TO THE ROYAL RED CROSS. 

Cashin, Miss A. E., R.R.C., Matron, Q.A.I. M.N.S.R. 

Amongst the Honours and Awards for war 
services, the London Gazette of September 4th 
contained the following announcement : — 

ROYAL RED CROSS. 

Second Class. 

Farrar, Miss J. F., Nursing Sister; Perdue, Miss 
F. L., Nursing Sister; Grosvenor, Lady A., Com- 
mandant, Red Cross Hospl., Oakfield, Upton Heath, 
Chester. 

Captain W. Girling Ball, R.A.M.C.T. Surgical 
Specialist in a General Hospital, B.E.F., some- 
where in France, \\Tites in an extremely interesting 
article on "Some Experiences in a Base Hospital," 
in the St. Bartholomew's Hospital Journal, " I 
cannot finish^without referring to the great ad- 
miration which I learned to acquire for our sisters 
in the nursing profession. In their hospital work 
they are doing extraordinarily well, and no praise 
of mine can be too high. Not only is this true of 
those who have fulfilled their full training as 
nurses in our ovvti hospitals at home, but also of 
those belonging to the V.A.D. The conditions 
under which they have to live are the same as those 
of the men, and it is a marvel to me that they 
work as well as they do. The British Tommy has 
much to be thankful for, if he really appreciates 
all they are doing for him." 



Cotterets, where a hospital had been established, 
of which she was acting Matron. This was an 
offshoot from a now famous hospital. 

In the days preceding the evacuation " the stafE 
was simply magnificent," she writes, " and not 
even the youngest girl out from home was 
' panicked,' they all went on doing their bit. We 
were raided every night for three solid weeks 
without fail, so there might have been an excuse 
if anyone had been nervous." 

" The attack started on May 27th, and from 
that time until we cleared out on the 31st I do 
not think anyone of the staff got a sleep. 

" We had two thousand beds in our camp. 
We were told to evacuate ; then came a counter 
order to stay one more night, as they had no other 
means of getting the wounded away. I shall never 
forget that night. In the afternoon there was 
a magnificent aeroplane fight just over our camp, 
and the French brought dowTi two German 
machines. Then, as soon as it got dark, they 
started in earnest. We had to put out all lights 
and go on receiving a steady flow of wounded in 
the darkness. 

" About 2 a.m. I paid my visit round the w-ards, 
and not a single girl seemed nervous ; they were 
all so busy cheering the patients and comforting 
the dying. One of the orderlies called me to come 
to a man who was dying. I asked him if there 
were anything he wanted, and he replied with a 
smile, ' Oh, no ; I have a little mother sitting 
beside me.' It was like that all night, with the 
bombs Clashing around us. Then a munition 
train went on fire, and the whole town was a bright 
target, to which the enemy came back and back. 

" The next day we started to get away. The 
Boches commenced shelling us about 4 o'clock in 
the afternoon, but by that time we had all the 
staff away except the Sisters. I got them off 
about 8 o'clock, and left myself in an American 
ambulance about 8.30. We raced from Villiers 
Cotterets with tin helmets on, and by the time we 
reached Senlis we had got into another raid. We 
stayed in Senlis until next morning." 



In a recent letter to a friend, Sister Gertrude 
Lindsay, of the Scottish Women's Hospitals, a 
daughter of ex-Provost Lindsay, Broughty Ferry, 
gives a vivid account of the retreat from Villiers 



OUR ROLL OF HONOUR. 
NURSING SERVICE. 

Wounded. 
Brain, Sister R., T.F.N.S. 
Dickenson, Miss D. M., V.A.D. 
Larsen, Miss A. O.. V.A.D. 
Pleydell-Nott, Miss V., V.A.D. 
Wood, Miss H., V.A.D. 

Miss Katherine Connelly, army nurse, who was 
buried in New York recently, received full military 
honours. This is the first military funeral ever 
accorded to a New Jersey Irish woman. The body 
was accompanied to the cemetery by a guard of 
honour of seven army nurses, a band, an escort of 
the State Militia, and a detachment of the Women's 
Motor Corps. Miss Connelly was a graduate of 
St. Elizabeth's Convent at Madison. 



'66 zbc Britisb 3ournal of "Wureing. September 14, 1918 

FRENCH FLAQ NURSING CORPS. AT THE FRENCH FRONT IN ITALY. 



Miss Alice Jane Harley Williamson has joined 
the French Flag Nursing Corps, and left for 
France on Saturday last, Miss Williamson is 
well known in Scotland as the Superintendent of 
the Training Home of the Scottish Branch of 
Queen Victoria's Jubilee Institute, Edinburgh, 
since 191 3. ■ She was trained at the Royal Infir- 
mary, the Colinton Fever Hospital, and in district 
nursing, and at the Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, 
and was a member of] the Colonial Nursing 
Association from 1909 to 1912. 

Miss Williamson, 

therefore, is a very 
highly qualified nurse, 
holding certificates 

from leading training 
schools in general, 
fever, and district nurs- 
ing and midwifery. 

Miss Williamson is 
anxious, like so many 
patriotic women, to 
take part in military 
nursing during the 
great war. 



Queen's Nurses at- 
tached to the three 
branches of the Jubilee 
Institute have won 
golden opinions in 
France as members of 
the F.F.N.C. Their 
district training, appa- 
rently, especially quali- 
fies them to overcome 
the difficulties of initia- 
tion in a foreign land. 
If it were not hard upon 
our poor at home, we 
should urge more 
Queen's Nurses to join 
the Corps. 




MISS ALICE J. H. WILLIAMSON, F.F.N.C 



Miss Grace Ellison is 
still sufEering from the results of her very serious 
illness, and after a visit to Paris and Evreux, she 
has returned to BagnoUes for further treatment, 
from which it js hoped she may benefit 
considerably. 

Miss Ellison, when sufficiently recovered, hopes 
to continue to work in France, so that her many 
friends will not lose sight of her. 



Lindsay.— On August 8th, abroad, of broncho- 
pneumonia, James Basden Lindsay, Sec. Lieut., 
A.S.C. (late Canadian Infantry), of Edmonton, 
Canada, brother of M. O. Lindsay, nursing sister, 
8th Canadian General Hospital, France. (Canadian 
and Indian papers, please copy.) 



In Mr. Laurence Binyon's wonderful book " For 
Dauntless France," of which I have so far only seen 
reviews, there is, I fancy, one small sectior of 
Britons privileged to help the French who are not 
mentioned. 

Our numbers are very few. I believe we could 
be counted on the fingers of one hand, but our work 
has a charm all its own. It is so unlike anything 
else. A French doctor patient recently said to the 
present writer : " Pour vous. Mademoiselle, 
puisque vous avez le goftt des a ventures et des 
langues barbares, il n'y 
a que vous proposer 
pour la Colonne Volante 
du Maroc ! " Meanwhile 
there is a suf&cient 
variety of material 
gathered together in 
this charming little 
Italian town (which 
must be nameless), and 
the medical section of 
a French ambulance 
provides varied and 
interesting work. 

At first sight one 
would .think it almost 
impossible to " over- 
take " .the work, one 
nurse to 100 patients 
being quite usual, and 
the various wards will 
be tents, wooden huts, 
or rooms in a school, 
and may be scattered 
up and do^vn stairs 
and all over the place, 
but the probationer' 
work is all done by the 
orderlies (Infirmiers), 
who are also responsible 
for filling in the charts 
and diet sheets from the 
doctor's orders and 
making out dispensary, 
laundry and clothing store lists, all the clerking and 
copying work over which we have all wasted so 
many hours ; so that here we are really able to 
devote ourselves to the actual nursing and tr\ing 
to make the patients comfortable and happy. 
They do not expect much. They and' we have to 
do without a great deal that is taken for granted 
in an English hospital. Medicines are given in 
their ordinary tin drinking cups (or old Nestl6's 
milk tins), frequently prof erred for the dose, with 
the remains of coffee or milk in them ! " N'im- 
porte," says the cheerful poilu. No knives are pro- 
vided in hospital, and if he has not a clasp knif^ of 
his own he borrows his neighbour's, or tears up his 
meat with a spoon ! (The two Sisters, too, one 
French, one English, had only one tin plate each, 
one fork and one tin cup for all meals until a 



September 14, 1918 ji\)c Bttttab Joumal of flurstng. 



167 



generous British Red Cross Depdt presented them 
■with china tea cups for their morning coffee and 
actual knives and forks of their own, along with 
many other most welcome gifts.) In this par- 
ticular ambulance there was a complete absence of 
dressing trays, bowls, forceps, probes, _ razors. 
Syringes, scissors, &c. Lucky the Sister who had 
brought everything of hej: own ! 

Material of every sort is also lacking. When 
the doctor ordered a wet pack for a case of con- 
gestion of the lungs and very high fever, all the 
orderlycould produce was an extra large and ragged 
fcheet (which must on no account be divided) and a 
piece of mackintosh, stained all the colours of the 
rainbow, which had obviously already done its 
" Military service " and ought to have had several 
ribbons, certainly the one denominated " fatiche 
di guerra." Swollen ankles have to be swathed in 
wet bandages simply, and for an ordinary foment 
the only thing is to take the man's own towel, if he 
happens to have one and it is clean. Failing that. 
Sister must sacrifice something of her own. Socks 
might as well be served out singly. They never 
match either in colour or size, and always have 
holes. Handkerchiefs are non-existent, but a 
brilliant idea was to hand out to one ward of sick 
prisoners the calico squares in which the American 
packets of compresses arrive. " Fala lepa," the 
Croatian " thank you," echoed all around, and a 
request for " igla i konatz " (needle and thread) 
being complied with, they were soon all neatly 
hemmed, and even marked with the initials of the 
happy owners ! 

These so-called Austrian prisoners were found 
to be almost universally ignorant of the German 
tongue, but almost all — Bohemians, Hungarians, 
Bosnians, Poles, Roumanians and Croats — speak, 
or at least understand, the language of the last- 
named, which seems to be a kind of debased 
Russian, written in Latin characters, though, as, 
the present writer had, in the first instance, to 
acquire it without a book, that was little help ! 

To one to whom familiar ideas clothed in other 
languages are a never-ending source of delight, a 
morning which includes the following incidents is 
distinctly interesting. 

On issuing from the parent hospital to do duty 
among the tents and barracks, one is met by a 
Croat ex-patient, now a prisoner on fatigue duty 
(which means sweeping up leaves and carrying 
buckets !), who explains that his shoes let in the 
water with which he is swilling the steps and hall. 
He has to be accompanied to the Vestiare, inter- 
preted for and satisfied with a fresh pair (it woxild 
be a misnomer to call them new !) 

Next, one meets that rara avis, a prisoner who 
really speaks German (he is a Hungarian). His 
grievance is that, having been discharged as a 
patient and retained at work, he is still on the 
halbes-brod which went with his " light diet " 
(petit-regime for " la didte " in French hospitals 
means nothing to eat at all). This has to be 
translated to the orderly concerned and remedied. 

Next comes one of the French cooks asking to 
have his ailments attended to before the day's 



work begins and probably two or three of his 
satellites, of varying nationalities — rush up with 
cut fingers, burns and other trifles. One of the 
Italian " chars," who corresponds to a ward-maid, 
has to be listened to while she explains at length 
how she had " febbre " last night and must 
positively have some remedy or she cannot work. 
If she receives the least encouragement she will 
probably ask for advice and free medicines for 
all her family, down to the latest grandchild. 
At last one gets to the wards proper and starts 
dressings and treatments. Sometimes out-patients 
come in, once or twice English chaufieurs or 
post ofl&ce of&cials ; and the little French orderly 
paid the neatest possible compliment by exclaim- 
ing on the first occasion, with apparent genuine- 
ness : " Mais, mademoiselle, parle aussi I'Anglais, 
c'est qu'elle est tres instruite." 

The work itself is not very different to work 
anywhere else when one has become accustomed 
to the French medical procedure of treating 
everything with " piqures and ventouses." 

To the simple Croatian and Bosnian, who had 
probably never been ill and certainly never been 
nursed before, it was a daily joy to feel his own 
and see his neighbour's back decorated with rows 
of little forcing glasses, which he gaily calls 
" chalitza " (the word is probably not spelt at 
all like that, but that is how it sounds !) 

The prisoners are all painfully thin and give 
graphic descriptions of the hardships they have 
been through in the last few months and years ; 
and they enjoy their simple rations whole-heaxtedly. 
It was a middle-aged Frenchman, however, who 
asked the Sister anxiously whether the piqures of 
Cacodvlate de Sonde were to take the place of 
food ! ' 

The food in question, being mostly preserved, 
is dry and tasteless and sometimes none too 
plentiful, but that, and the extreme heat, and 
the smells and the insects are all hardships of war 
we will gladly endure as long as we are allowed 
to be useful in our present sphere. H. T. 



CARE OF THE WOUNDED. 

The Queen, accompanied by the Princess Mary, 
visited the St. Andrew's Hospital, Clewer, last 
week. The hospital is under the charge of the 
Sisterhood of St. John the Baptist. 

The Bishop of Peterborough last week dedicated 
his palace at Peterborough as a military hospital. 
Over a thousand pounds has been subscribed 
locally for the hospital equipment. 



Captain Malcolm Ross, War Correspondent with 
the New Zealand Forces, in a message dated 
September 3rd, describing the scene at Haplin- 
court, says : " On the edge of our sector was a 
hospital hurriedly vacated two days ago. It was 
furnished with old beds and bedding left behind 
by the British in their last retreat. Two wounded 
Germans on stretchers were left. There was even 
a wounded German on the operating table." 



169 



Zbc IBvitiBb Journal ot IRuretng. 



September 14, 1918 



AMERICAN RED CROSS HOSPITAL, 
TOTTENHAM. 



The American Hospital, which has been estab- 
lished in the buildings of the M.A.B. Fever 
Hospital, known as the North Eastern Hospital, 
Tottenham, is now in full swing — at least so far 
as present capacity allows. \ The equipment of 
the former hospital, however, provided only for 
a thousand patients, and the present one eventu- 
ally will accommodate three thousand — so that 
much strenuous effort is still needed before the 
additions can be com- 
pleted. Those who are 
acquainted with M.A.B. 
institutions will be aware 
that their buildings 
maintain a high standard 
of efficiency, and the 
American staff now in 
occupation fully appre- 
ciate the nucleus which 
it is their part to develop 
to three times its original 
size. Though their occu- 
pation is still counted 
in weeks, the necessary' 
work is in evident pro- 
gress, and already the 
spacious tennis court is 
marked out for a staff 
mess room of forniidable 
dimensions and the 
necessary operating 
theatre is in process of 
making in another part 
of the building. In 
addition to these, huts 
are to be erected to pro- 
vide for the full com- 
plement of beds. 

The Matron of this 
busy colony of buildings 
is Miss Laura A. Beecroft. 
She was trained at the 
Western -Pennsylvania 
Hospital, Pittsburg. For 
eight years she was 
Superintendent of the 
Minnequar Hospital, 

Pueblo, Colorado. She 
was a member of the 
Colorado State Registra- 
tion Examining Board for Nurses. This appoint- 
ment is made by the Governor for five years, and 
Miss Beecroft was appointed a second time — ten 
years in all. She was also an Army Nurse for 
three years in the Spanish- American War. 

The unit she has brought over is known as the 
Denver Unit (Colorado) Base Hospital 29. It has 
been fully equipped by the Denver Red Cross 
Chapter at a cost of 78,000 dollars. So tar, how- 
ever, none of its equipment has arrived in Eng- 
land, and the Matron awaits its perfect and 




MISS LAURA A. BEECROFT, R.N.. 

Matron, American Red Cross Hospital, Tottenham, 

formerly Member of the Colorado State Regristratlon 

Examining Board for Nurses. 



complete machinery with some impatience. Its 
medical staff arc members of Denver University ; 
and the nurses, numbering one hundreH, are all 
graduates of Colorado State. In addition, there 
are 150 corps men drawTi from the best families 
in Denver. These men correspond to our orderlies, 
and do the needful work in ward, kitchen, office 
and ambulance. The nurses are of one grade, and 
with the exception of one head nurse to each 
ward all work on equal terms. The uniform of 
matrons and nursing staff shows little variation, 
and is designed from a practical and economical 
point of view. The dresses are of grey linen 
with aprons made with- 
out waist-bands, and of a 
pattern easily laundered. 
The caps ar^ of a modified 
" Sister Dora " type, 
with the Red Cross in 
the centre of the band. 
The wide turnover collars 
give?a picturesque finish 
to the whole. Every 
nurse is provided by the 
Red Cross with a grey 
sweater, and we were 
reminded of the touch 
of autumn in the air by 
many of their number 
availing themselves of 
their comfort. Very 
necessary, , too, v.heii one 
remembers the long open- 
sided corridors. 

Though it was a busy 
time in the morning on 
the occasion of our visit 
Miss Beecroft received us 
with great kindness and 
courtesy, and personally 
showed us the many 
interesting features of the 
hospital. 

The nursing staff are 
enjoying the many 
domestic privileges which 
the M.A.B. had installed 
for their own staff — 
separate bedrooms, large 
and numerous bath- 
rooms, comfortable sit- 
ting and mess rooms. 
The cubicles hitherto 
assigned to the domes- 
tic staff are now ear-marked for sick nurses. 
One hundred and fifty beds are told off for this 
purpose, as all sick nurses from the base hospitals 
are to be drafted here. We observed in the nurses' 
rooms that they had no use for bolsters, and these 
British articles were dressed up in ornamental 
coverings and were serving as chair cushions. 

The kitchen is in charge of a lady dietitian, 
who is a graduate of Columbia University ; they 
have.also a skilled chef, and the food is pronounced 
" excellent." Here we noticed the " Corps " 



September 14, 1918 ^\yc ®rltt0b Soumal of "nurstno. 



169 



referred to before, busy in compajvy with English 
domestics, attending to various culinary matters. 
The wards have been coloured a delicate shade 
of green, very restful to the eyes. Some' of them 
are furnished with the high American beds, while 
others still retain the British variety. One ward 
is entirely devoted to fractures, and here the 
surgeons were at work attending to their patients. 
Everywhere we noticed homely comfort and the 
absence of red tape and pomposity. Matron and 
staff and patients were entirely at their ease with 
one another. We were pleased to notice that the 
men were allowed to smoke in the wards, and so 
alle\date the tedium of their position. The con- 
tagious cases are nursed in cubicle wards, which 
plan appears to economise the nursing power. At 
present wards of forty beds are staffed by four 
nurses, but the Matron does not anticipate that 
the staff will be increased as the number of patients 
grow, so that the proportion of patients per nurse 
will be gradually increased. As there are t?p 
untrained women in the American Red Cross 
system, the trained nurses can entirely concentrate 
on their patients, and the result must be that 
more efficient work can be done in less time than 
where they have to be constantly supervising and 
undoing the work of the unlearned and ignorant. 
Would that this were the case in uU Military 
hospitals. One could not be long in Miss Bee- 
croft's company without realising that any work 
she had in hand would spell efficiency. 

H. H. 



THE COLLEGE OF NURSING, LTD., 
AND THE EXAMINATION OF NURSES. 



THE MEDICAL TREATMENT OF 
DISABLED MEN. 
Mr. John Hodge, Minister of Pensions, is hoping 
to introduce on the first day of the autumn 
session a Bill to give the Ministry of Pensions 
greater powers. One scheme he has in view is to 
enforce a certain degree of medical treatment on 
discharged and disabled mer^. Thousands of dis- 
charged men do not accept treatment — ^which is 
bad for themselves and for the nation. He con- 
siders they should only be discharged when the 
medical profession has done everything possible 
to restore them to their old condition. 



Opening an exhibition showing th) methods of 
treating disabled men at Birmingham on Monday, 
Mr. Hodge said he wanted to give every man who 
needed it a spare limb, so that he would have 
it to fall back uf)on when the first one was being 
repaired. 

THE QUEEN'S HOSPITAL FOR 
^ CHILDREN, HACKNEY ROAD. 

A letter in the press by the Bishop of London, 
drawing attention to the closing of two wards 
(twenty-four beds) at the Queen's Hospital for 
Children, Hackney Road, owing to the lack of 
probationers, and a paragraph in the press on 
the same subject, have resulted in applications 
for probationers' posts. 



On behalf oi the Executive Committee of the 
Society for the State Registration of Trained 
Nurses the following circular letter was addressed 
to the Secretaries of the principal nurse-training 
schools in the United Kingdom early in May last : 

Dear Sir,- — Considerable apprehension is felt by 
nurses who hav^e not yet qualified for their certificates 
in London and other training schools, at the rumotir 
that in future their examination will be conducted by 
the College of Nursing, Ltd. — a Limited LiabiUty 
Company which claims disciplinarj' powers over its 
nurse-members, and to the autocratic constitution of 
which many trained nurses take very strong exception 
— and not by their' own training schools, or by a 
Statutory Authority set up by Act of Parliament. 

My Committee would be obliged if you would, at 
your earliest convenience, inform me whether this 
rumour is correct, in so far as it applies to the proba- 
tioners at . 

I am. Dear Sir, 

Yours faithfully, 

Margaret Breay, 

Hon. Secretary. 

Replies have been received as follows : — 
Mr. Thomas Haves, St. Bartholomew's Hospital : — 

" I have your enquiry of the 4th inst. and can only 
say that I have no know- ledge of the rumour to which 
you refer. 

" The training of Probationers here is, as it always 
has been, under the direction of the Governors cf the 
Hospital, and the examinations for certificates will 
continue as hitherto to be conducted by the officially 
appointed ' Instrvctors of Probationary Nurses,' and 
the Matron." 
Mr. G. Q. Roberts, St. Thomas' Hospital : — 

" The question you raise has not been considered by 
the Governors, but I venture to think that whatever the 
' one portal ' may be, there is no doubt that just as the 
students of our great Universities are able to take a 
University degree, in addition to their Conjoint 
Qualifications, so it will be perfectly consistent for 
nurses to qualify at the College of Nursing, and to hold 
the Nightingale Certificate which -will be jealously 
guarded for the benefit of all probationers trained in 
the standard required to gain it." 

There can be no analogy between an examina- 
tion instituted by a Limited Liability Company 
which claims disciplinary powers over its nurse- 
members, and which is prohibited by its own 
constitution from conferring diplomas, and the 
honourable degree conferred by a great University. 
Were an examination leading to a degree inaugu- 
rated by a University the position would be 
entirely different. 
Sir Cooper Perry, Guy's Hospital : — 

" I am directed by the House Committee to inform 
you that no proposals have been hitherto made either 
by Guy's Hospital to the College of Nursing, or by 
the College of Nursing to Guy's Hospital, for the 
holding of Ni'rsing Examinations." 
Miss M. Heather- Bigg, R.R.C. Charing Cross 
Hospital : — 

" Our Secretary has given me , your letter of 
May 9th. So far "we have not been approached by 



170 



^be Brttteb 3ournal of "Kuretna. September 14, 1918 



the College of Nursing on the matter referred to in 

your note. No discussion has taken place on this 

matter." 

Mr. Sidney M. Quennell, Westminster'^ Hospital : — 

" In reply to your letter ^^of yesterday's idate, I 
find upon enquiry that the apprehension you 
mention does not obtain amongst the probationers 
training at this hospital." 

Mr. Richard Coles, King's College Hospital : — 
I. 

"I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your circular 
letter of the gth inst. with reference to the examina- 
tion of Probationers, which I will place before the 
Committee at their next meeting." 
II. 

" I am directed to inform you that there is no 
intention of changing the Nurses' Examination." 

Mr. Walter Kewley, Middlesex Hospital : — - 

" I beg to acknowledge and thanfc you for your 
letter of the gth inst. which will be submitted to 
my Board at its next meeting." 

No further communication has, so far, been 
received. 
Mr. Reginald R. Garratt, Royal Free Hospital : — 

" In reply to your letter of the gth inst., I beg to 
inform you that so far as I am aware, no apprehen- 
sion is felt by nurses with whom I am in contact on 
the subject to which you refer. It is fully realized 
by them that the College of Nursing will be of great 
value to the Nursing Profession, and will also be 
well able and desirous of protecting thftir interests in 
all respects." 

In answer to this, the Hon. Secretary of the 
Society for the State Registration of Trained 
Nurses wrote :— 

" I beg to acknowledge your letter of May loth. I 
shall be obliged if you will be so kind as to answer the 
question contained in my former letter, i.e., whether 
the rumour is correct that in future the examination 
of probationers at the Royal Free Hospital will be 
conducted by the College of Nursing, Ltd., and not 
by their own training school ?" 

Mr. Garratt replied : — 

" Will you please inform me by what authority 
your Committee seeks the information referred to 
from the Board of this Hospital. It is not customary 
to supply information to unauthorized persons." 

The letter addressed to Mr. Garratt was written 
on official paper bearing the names of the of&cers 
of the Society for the State Registration of 
Trained Nurses, the membership of which includes 
over 4,000 certificated nurses, presumably the 
unauthorized persons referred to by Mr. Garratt. 
Mr. a. Betteridge, West London Hospital : — 

" In reply to your circular letter, dated May, I beg 
to inform you that the examinations of probationers 
are still conducted by the hospital." 
Mr. J. Courtney Buchanan : — ■ 

" In reply to your circular letter I beg to say that 
the rumour is incorrect in so far as it applies to 
the probationers at the Metropolitan Hospital." 
Mr. Gilbert G. Panter, Great Northern Central 
Hospital : — 

" In reply to your letter of the gth inst., I beg to 
inform you that no communication has been received 
from the College of Nursing by this hospital on the 
subject to which you refer." 



No replies have been received from St. George's 
Hospital, the London Hospital, St. Mary's 
Hospital, and University College Hospital. 
(To he concluded.) 

APPOINTMENTS. 

SISTER. 

Children's Hospital, Hull. — Miss Florence Jones 
has been apponted Sister of the Medical Wards. 
She was trained at the Royal Infirmary, Halifax, 
where she held the positions of Sister of the 
Children's ward, and also of Night Sister. She 
has recently been Holiday Sister at the Children's 
Hospital, Hull. 

Erdington Infirmary, Birmingham. — Miss Mabel 
Annie Barham has been appointed Maternity 
Sister. She was trained at the Dudley Road 
Infirmary, Birmingham, and has been Sister in a 
medical ward at the Erdington Infirmary. 

Royal Infirmary, Truro. — Miss Gertrude Far- 
rington has been appointed Sister. She was 
trained at the Lake Hospital, Ashton-under-Lyne, 
and has been Staff Nurse at the New Hospital 
for Women. She is a certified midwife. 

QUEEN ALEXANDRA'S IMPERIAL IVIILITARY 
NURSING SERVICE. 

Staff Nurse C. E. Bray resigns her appoint- 
ment (August 24th). 



AN APPRECIATION. 

Widespread regret is expressed throughout the 
nursing world in Ireland at the resignation of 
Miss- Lucy Ramsden, Lady Superintendent of the 
Rotunda Hospital, Dublin, which post she has 
held for over 20 years, for it means not only 
severing her connection with the hospital, but 
leaving Ireland. Only those who have worked 
intimately with Miss Ramsden on the several 
Boards and Associations of which she is a member 
can realise how great her loss will be. Her sound 
judgment and keen sense of justice made her an 
invaluable colleague, one not easily replaced. 
Her work in the Rotunda Hospital has had a 
world-wide influence, as candidates for training in 
midwif^y come from all quarters of the globe. 
Some months ago Miss Ramsden was chosen as 
one of the representatives to act on the Central 
Mid wives Board (Ireland), and her appointment 
was only waiting ratification by the Local Govern- 
ment Board. Miss Ramsden has now withdrawn 
her name and this new Board will suffer accord- 
ingly, as her experience and advice would have 
been invaluable. Miss Ramsden is an active 
member of the Irish Nurses' Association, of which 
she has been twice President ; also of the Irish 
Matrons' Association (twice President), a Director 
of the Nurses' Hostel, and a member of the Irish 
Nursing Board. Her name was found on every 
Committee that was formed in connection with 
nursing affairs, and no matter how busy she was. 
Miss Ramsden always found time for a " little 
more." Is it any wonder that the coming loss 
of such a faithful ally is deeply regretted ? 



September 14, 1918 ^jfy^ Brtttsf) 3ournal of "Rursm©. 



171 



NURSING ECHOES. 



At the quarterly general court of the 
Governors of the London Hospital last week 
the Committee announced that some beautiful 
gifts had been received for the sitting- 
room in the new Nurses' Home, includ- 
ing a bust of Edith Cavell by Sir George 
Frampton, who also collected engravings for 
the decoration of the walls from his private 
friends, and Mr. Foster, a member of the Com- 
mittee, had given sorne fine reproductions of 
old masters. 

The chairman, Mr. W. T. Paulin, also men- 
tioned that the Committee had been informed 
that, as their nurses each occupied a separate 
room, they were entitled to have their names 
on the register, and to vote both in borough 
and Parliamentary elections. 

If the nurses at the London Hospital are 
entitled to have their names on the Parlia- 
mentary Register, then the same must hold 
good for other nurses occupying separate 
rooms. We should advise all so qualified to 
make sure forthwith that their names are on 
the Register. 



The pretty badge of the David Lewis 
Northern Hospital, Liverpool, may be pur- 
chased by any nurse who has successfully 
passed the final examination at the end of her 
third year. It is about the size of a florin, and 
is suspended by a gilt bar pin. The badge is 
enamelled white, and has a deep blue border 
edged with gilt, on which the name of the 
hospital appears in gilt let'ters. In the centre is 
a shield of alternate diagonal bars of red, gilt, 
and blue, effectively thrown into relief by the 
white background. A similar badge in gold and 
enamel is given as a first prize in the final 
examination held twice a year, and the nurse 
who has first place in the junior division 
receives a book or books to the value of 25s. 



Miss Genevieve Cooke, R.N., of San Fran- 
cisco, who is well known to many of our 
readers, writes that she has now moved from 
Leavenworth Street to an attractive lower flat 
at the north-west corner of Clay and Webster 
Streets, where she plans to give home nursing 
to convalescent patients, p>ost-operative or 
others, in separate rooms, in addition to her 
Gymnasium work. Her sister, Mrs. Thomp- 
son, who is noted amongst her friends for the 
good meals she prepares, is with her, and in 
charge of the housekeeping. We wish them 
every success. 



A WI5E POLICY. 

Sir Henry Morris will preside at a meeting of 
the medical profession at Steinway Hall, on 
October ist, at 5.30, which will be addressed by 
Dr. Addison, Mir.istcr of Reconstruction. The 
object of the meeting is to secure the election of 
representative medical men to the House of 
Commons, so that expert advice may be available 
on vital questions concerr.ing the national health. 



CONFERENCE UNDER AUSPICES OF 
LABOUR PARTY. 

At a National Conference of Women to be held 
under the auspices of the Labour Party in the 
Caxton Hall, Westminster, on October 15th and 
1 6th, a resolution will be submitted demanding that 
the Giovernment at once pass a Bill enabling women 
to be elected to the House of Commons, that 
further legislation admitting women to professions 
from which they are now excluded shall be passed, 
and that the Representation of the People Act be 
amended so as to give votes on a short residential 
qualification to all men and women of 21 years of 
age. Another resolution calls for the establishment 
of a Ministry of Health. 



Mrs. Gwynne Vaughan, C.B.E., D.Sc, has been 
appointed Commandant of the Women's Royal Air 
Force, in succession to the Hon. Violet Douglas- 
Pennant. The new Commandant was a Professor 
at King's College before her appointment, and is 
one of the few women whose pre-war work is being 
kept open for her by a man. Let us hope, there- 
fore, that she brings knowledge and administrative 
ability to deal with the task before her, and will 
command the confidence of those working under 
her. Experienced women workers, trained before 
the war in good methods of organization, find the 
task of working under women whose social In- 
fluence Is their chief qualification a heart-breaking 
one, and it is not surprising If they decline to make 
bricks without straw. 



THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN 
OF GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

The Annual Meeting of the National Council of 
Women- — the governing body of the National Union 
of W^omen Workers — will be held at Harrogate this 
year, beginning on October 8th. We shall refer 
again to the programme in a future Issue. 



WOMEN WAR WORK EXHIBITION. 

An exhibition of women's war work will be 
opened at the Whitechapel Art Gallery next 
month, when every branch of women's activities 
in connection with the war will be shown — in 
hospitals, on the land, on relief funds, and on 
munitions. 

Following a visit which the Queen paid to St. 
Mark's Court, St. Johi's Wood, the first block of 
flats for officers' widows and disabled officers pro- 
vided by the Housing Association for Officers' 
Families, the King and Queen have each subscribed 
/loo to the funds of the association. 



173 



Hbc Brttteb 3ournal of IRuretno. September 14, 1918 



BOOK OP THE WEEK. 



"THE HUNTER."* 

" Louis Buttress was the nobody of Ala man ca 
Creek He was best described by his own remark, 
' I'm^a natural soit o' man.' " He lived near the 
water in an excuse for a cabin, which had cost 
about a dollar in the making, and he spent his life 
with the dumb creation. 

Money-making had no pleasure for him at all ; 
but the eyes of a coon, a fox, a ground hog or a 
mouse had power to arrest the whole man. 

" Silvia Lak3 was the beauty of Alamanca Creek, 
and her father, Sylvester Lake, had endless callers 
at their home at Creek Point. He took th 3 honour 
to himself, being an important feeling man ; but 
Silvia had reason to know that she was the star 
for pony-riding boys to dream of." It seemed a far 
cry from pretty Silvia to Louis Buttress, but it is 
the unexpected that happens. 

He came upon her one day inadvertently as she 
was bathing in the pool. " Plumb as the Almighty 
planned her." . . , ,• 

"A water hen, disturbed by his intruding and 
unguarded feet, called loudly, and went into the 
lake. The girl looked in that direction, and her 
eyes met the man's just as a fox's eyes had done a 
minute ago. 

" Her eyesreached him with their force, and she 
gave him her whole attention. Buttress put it in 
one word, ' trust.' , , ^ , 

" Great God in Heaven, she's clothed from my 
poor eyes by that faith of hers," he said. He 
waved his hand to her and disappeared amongst 

the brush. .i,- ' 

" 'Tis true," he said to himself, I saw nothing 
but her beautiful soul after that first look when she 
was unknown of my presence." _ 

Hitherto the wild hunter had kno-w^-n nothing ot 
women ; but from that moment he was obsessed 
wdth the thought of Silvia. . 

Silvia was under no illusion concerning Louis 
or his antecedents, when she decided to listen to his 
primitive wooing and run away and marry him. 

Previously he had told her : " My father was a 
poacher ii Lincolnshire. The vicar of the parish 
had said that he was ' cureless,' so he said to 
mother ' You take father where poachin' is right, 
and thus you stop the sin. Father said he'd rather 
go once or twice to gaol and stop in England, but 
he says the Church and the woman were too much 
for any man to fight alone, and he found himself 
at last in U.S.A. But the queer thing is that 
father don't like it when it's lawful. ' Drat it, 
Louis,' he says to me, ' there's nothing to run up 
against, the hul thing's as stupid as a suet 
pudding.' " 

The nature studies in the book are a most 
attractive feature. 

" Sometimes Louis and Silvia sat outside the 
cabin watching evening as it melted into night. 

* By Watson Dyke. (Putnam's Sons : 24, 
Bedford Street, Strand, London, W.C. 2.) 



The sky might be studded by stars ; it might be 
swept by the moon ; it might be soft and misty, 
with some orange-hued dusky cloud where the 
sun had set ; but it was received with 
pleasure." 

Married life with them began as an idyll, but 
tragedy was not long before it clouded their 
happiness. Silvia had been promised to Bill Din 
the pony boy before Louis swept her off her feet 
and she had neither told Louis of her entanglement 
with Bill, nor Bill that she intended to break 
faith with him. It was when Louis discovered 
what he had done to the man who was his friend 
that "he came slowly home with an indifferent 
listless movement, which even the shadows of 
evening could not disguise. 

Silvia lit the lamp, putting it on the table. She 
looked at Louis after she had done it. The light 
showed the man's face, and his blue eyes were 
strange looking. His hair was dishevelled. He 
took up her crochet work and began to un- 
ravel it. 

Silvia got the supper ready and put coffee on 
the table. Louis continued to unravel the 
work. 

Silvia moved away from him and went to the 
door. Night had descended ; the sky was brilliant 
with stars ; the dog was barking." 
All night these two kept vigil. 
The cocks crowed at three o'clock, then stopped 
as if they had made a mistake ; and did it again, 
with more life, at five." 

Louis, like many g'intle men, was implacable at 
the thought of her want of trust in him ; and for a 
while they parted, but only for ? while, for these 
two were predestined for each other. 

She tells him " You gave me peace when I 
looked at you, even after I started to make 
mistakes. It got to be a prayer with me to hold 
this feelin' of beauty about why we was made 
different from each other, and how it was our 
part of God. I can't tell you how it came to be a 
prayer, but it grew out of the silence, and I 
wanted to make sure that the deep, deep voice 
was the real one. 

" Sol was a-watchin' for a man — watchin' with 
my soul dependin' on it, instead of believin' and 
waitin' on God to show me. That's how I started 
goin' with the boys. Yet there was no fire in 
them — no love of God's works. I wanted the 
man whose soul would rage when God's laws w^ere 
mocked in either word or action. Creation ain't 
a crumpled leaf turned down to be hidden or 
despised. I wanted the man who thought it was 
a perfect law, because it was the law that created 
the best thing on earth— souls. And then, Louis, 
out of the silence of Ari-wa-kis North Bank spoke 
to South Bank. You were close by all the time. 
You were there, feelin' it perfect 1 " 
" It was God, Silvia." 

" Don't I know it ! You was my answer." 
" Silvia, paradise, ain't it ? " 
A really refreshing book, which we can heartily 
recommend to all nature lovers. . H. H. 



septemher 14, 1918 j^y^ Biltisb Joiimal of IRursinQ. 



173 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects for these columns, we wish it to be 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 

AN INTERESTING, COMPARISON. 
To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — I have been reading the most 
excellent and sensible letter in your issue of this 
week, under the heading of " An Interesting Com- 
parison," and am now writing to take the liberty 
of suggesting that it should be sent for publication 
to the Times ; for in a general daily paper it would 
necessanly come to the notice of a larger number 
of readers than in a nursing paper. It deals with 
such a very important point that it is a pity it 
should not come bef oie as large a number of people 
as possible. 

Apologising for troubling you. 

Believe me, • 

Yours very faithfully, 

Irene B. Cunningham. 

Christchurch, Hants. 

[We have advised the writer of the letter 
referred to to communicate with the Times. — ^Ed.] 

THE INFLUENCE OF COLOUR. 

To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — I was exremely interested in 
the article on " The Influence of Colour " in last 
week's British Journal of Nursing, for I am 
quite sure that colour has a great effect on 
patients, though all may not be conscious of it. 
Most nurses, in this country, recognise it by the 
pains they take to obtain flowers for their wards, 
and the brightness and homeliness of our wards 
are much commented upon by visitors from 
abroad. The patients also Appreciate the floral 
decorations, and so do their friends, for there are 
few who do not bring some flowers on a visiting 
day, while a former patient paying a visit to the 
ward will not unfrequently bring a flowering 
plant. So great indeed is the demand for flowers 
that on visiting days flower-sellers stand with 
their baskets outside the gates of hospitals and do 
a flourishing trade. 

Oa the other hand very little consideration is 
given to the colour scheme for the decoration of 
hospital wards, and I do not think there will be 
much progress in this direction until we have 
women on hospital boards. Even the colour of 
the walls, if unobjectionable in itself, may clash 
with the colour scheme of quilts and screens and 
be a source of irritation and discomfort to a 
patient vvith an eye sensitive to colour harmonies. 

Of the influence of colour from the therapeutic 
standpoint I, with I fancy most nurses, am very 
ignorant, but I can imagine it would be a fasci- 
nating study, and one that one might pursue with 
pleasure to oneself, and profit to one's patients. 
Perhaps the Journal will some day tell us more 
about it. 

Yours faithfully, 

A Colour Lover. 



THE ROYAL NATIONAL PENSION FUND 
FOR NURSES. 

A Certificate of Existence. 

We have received a letter from Miss Christina 
Forrest, in reference to her last communication 
published in our issue of August 17th, desiring to 
have it made quite plain that, according to the 
letter of the Secretary of the Royal National 
Pension Fund for Nurses, which she quoted, 
it was September, 191 9, and not this month, 
that it might be necessary to ask the policy 
holders for another certificate of existence. 

The Royal National Pension Fund is an Insur- 
ance Society — and not a Pension Society — for 
which policy holders pay business prices. There is 
no reason, therefore, why they should claim to be 
exempt from business methods. We have always 
said, and shall still continue to hold the same 
opinion, that the title of the Society is mis- 
eading to the community. 

KERNELS FROM CORRESPONDENCE. 

Army Reserve Sister writes : — " Many of us have 
come to the conclusion that government by 
Matrons is not to our interest. We Reserve Sisters 
have to sign the ' Serf clause ' before we are eligible 
for a rise of salary and bonus, the Matrons on the 
Army Nursing Board agreed to it. Then the 
Matrons on the College Council have agreed to its 
penalising Corstitution — to special facilities for 
the London Hospital sweating system, and to 
preference for V.A.D-s in Q.A.LM.N.S. Also in 
the last draft of the College Bill the whole fabric of 
the three years' general training is undermined by 
the new Clause 4, providing for the setting up of 
Registers of Specialists, who of course can compete 
' as registered nurses ' with the thoroughly trained. 
Seems to me the Matrons have betrayed our 
interests all along the line." 

[Having closely watched for the past two years 
the conduct of business by the College Council we 
regretfully agree with the opinion that either 
through arrogance, ignorance or incapacity it has 
failed to protect the interests of the nursing profes- 
sion ; but the nurse members of the College who 
join the institution without reading the constitu- 
tion, and who permit rules and Registration Bills 
to be drafted without their being consulted, are 
just as much to blame, and their betrayal of the 
interests of their colleagues is equally repre- 
hensible. — Ed.] 



OUR PRIZE COMPETITION. 

QUESTIONS. 

September 21st. — What is the function of the 
blood ? Why may haemorrhage cause death ? 

September iSth. — How would you recognize per- 
foration in a case of enteric fever? What imme- 
diate action would you take, and how could you 
temporarily relieve the patient? 



^74 Zbe 3Brttl0b Joitrnal of •Wuretnc Supplement September 14, ^918 

The Midw^ife. 



THE CASE FOR A MINISTRY OF HEALTH. 

The National Baby Week Council (27A, Caven- 
dish Square, London, W. i) have done wisely to 
place on record, in pamphlet form (Leaflet No. 13), 
the case for a Ministry of Health as stated in the 
House of Lords on July 17th by Lord Willoughby 
de Broke, and accepted by that House. 

Lord Willoughby de Broke 's resolution was : — 
_'* That this House urges His Majesty's Govern- 
ment to introduce at an early date a Bill to con- 
stitute a Ministry of Health." 

In his foreword to the Leaflet Lord Willoughby 
de Broke says that the resolution was accepted by 
Lord Peel on behalf of the Government, and passed 
by the House of Lords without a dissentient. He 
continues : — 

In its unanimous desire to create a Ministry of 
Health, the House of Lords is fortified by the large 
mass of enlightened public opinion. There is one 
voice that must be heard above all. The formation 
of a Ministry of Health in this country had long 
been the nearest project . to the heart of Lord 
Rhondda. He has told us that the Prime Minister 
was heart and soul in favour of the movement. 
Had he lived. Lord Rhondda was to have intro- 
duced the Bill in the House of Lords. 

The revision of the draft, after much postpone- 
ment, has been completed, but Parliament has risen 
and the Bill has not been introduced ; nor has Mr. 
Bonar Law mentioned it as part of the business 
after, the adjournment. No one who wishes to see 
a Ministry of Health created will be wise to relax 
the utmost efforts until the. Bill is introduced and 
passed. The chief difficulty is the adjustment of 
departmental authority. It may be natural that 
those who take pride in duties long and faithfully 
performed should be reluctant to abandon them to 
others. There may even be a legitimate rivalry 
between Departments for the honour of being 
associated with the Ministry of Health. But all 
th^s will surely give way to something more im- 
portant. The true servant of the public will be the 
first to agree that the pathway of knowledge should 
not be barred by an entanglement of Red Tape. 

The War has taught us that science has been 
given too low a place in the service of the State. 
It is hoped that this Bill will promote Medical 
Science and skill to the high places of responsibil-ty 
and power, so that they may direct and prosper the 
most important aspect of National Welfare. 

A CONFERENCE. 

A Conference convened by the National Baby 
Week Council will be held on Wednesday, Sep- 
tember i8th, at 5 p.m., at Bedford College, York 
Gate, Regent's Park, N.W., the chief object of 
which will be to provide speakers in the Autumn 
Campaign with the arguments for, and the possible 
solution of, the problems involved in the creation of 
a Ministry of Health. Amongst them, of course, 
the work of midwives finds place. 



DEATHS OF INFANTS IN REGISTERED 
HOMES. 

The fact that four infants have died in the 
course of a week at a home registered under the 
London County Council, in Courthill-road, 
Lewisham, was mentioned at Lewisham, on 
Saturday, when an inquest was held on the body 
of one of them, Bertha Pawfey, aged three 
weeks, the daughter of a parlourmaid. 

Mr. H. R. Oswald, the coroner, said the death 
had apparently resulted from enteritis, but the 
cause of the trouble being uncertain, the people 
keeping the home were anxious for a public 
inquiry. 

It was stated in evidence that on August 29th 
the baby was suddenly seized with sickness and 
died on September 3. She had been fed on milk 
and barley water like the other children. 

Mrs. Johnson, certified midwife, who keeps the 
home, said the home was registered under the 
London County Council. Three children, she 
stated, including Beitha Pawfey, died after sick- 
ness, and another, two months ola, from convul- 
sions. There were five other children in the 
home, but they were not affected. 

The coroner asked if there were many flies 
about, and witness replied. " We are rather 
bothered with flies, but I take special care that 
the milk is not contaminated by them." 

Dr. R. V. Donnellan, police divisional surgeon, 
who made a post-mortem examination, attributed 
death to syncope following acute diarrhoea. He 
said at this time of year very rapid changes took 
place in the condition of milk, and although it 
might be sterilised and taste sweet it was difiicult 
sometimes to detect mischief in it. If it were all 
curdled it would set up trouble in a very young 
infant. It might be that an unlucky consign- 
ment or two of mi'k had caused the trouble in 
the home. 

Dr. LP. Kelly, of Lee, corroborated Dr. Don- 
nellan's evidence. He added that he had attended 
the children in the home, and when the second 
one died had sent the sample of the milk to the 
public analyst, but had not yet received his report 
on it. 

The jury returned a verdict of death from 
natural causes. 



Well deserved sentences of twelve months' and 
four months' imprisonment in the second division, 
were passed at Wood Green on Monday on James 
Ellsnore and Alice Hanley, alias Benson and 
Stanton of Westbury Avenue, Wood Green, who 
pleady guilty to advertising for babies for adop- 
tion for a sum of money, and then readvertising 
them for other people to adopt for a sma'ler 
sum. In one case £45 was received with a baby, 
and on the same day it was surrendered for ;^i 5. 
In sentencing the prisoners, Mr. Biron described 
the fraud as most heartless and cruel. 




1^ THE >Bv V—? 

IflSiWIliiLo'lmG 



WITH WHICH IS INCORPORATED 
EDITED BY MRS BEDFORD FENWICK 



No. 1,590. 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 21. 1918. 



Vol. LXI. 



EDITORIAL. 



NURSES IN THE LAW COURTS. 

The fact that twice within the last 
fourteen months trained nurses, or women 
assuming to be trained nurses, have been 
tried at the Old Bailey on a charge of 
murder affords evidence to the public, if 
evidence is needed, of the peril to which 
it is subjected through the lack of any 
system of State Registration of Nurses. 

In the first of the cases referred to the 
capital charge was withdrawn by the 
Crown, but the women were sentenced to 
terms of imprisonment for offences com- 
mitted under circumstances which demon- 
strated their unfitness for the responsibilities 
of trained nurses. In the most recent case, 
that of Eva Grace Thompson, indicted on 
September 13th, before Mr. Justice Darling, 
for the murder of two children at the 
Sydenham Welfare Centre, and with causing 
grievous bodily harm to two others, the 
prisoner was found guilty, but insane at the 
time, so as not to be accountable for her 
act. She was therefore ordered to be 
detained until his Majesty's pleas\ire be 
known, which, the Judge pointed out, 
meant detention as a criminal lunatic, and 
added that there was not the slightest 
doubt that she had brought herself to that 
pass by the continued taking of drugs, or 
that she had fractured the skull of one baby 
and killed the second. One of the best 
results of that inquiry would be to show a 
large number of people the state and the 
position to which they could bring them- 
selves by drug-taking. 

The case is specially important, because 
the victims of this drug maniac were 
helpless infants, and in view of the fact of 
the great increase in the number of insti- 
tutions for the treatment and care of infants, 
a number which will certainly be augmented 



when a Ministry of Health is set up, it is 
most essential that the records of nurses 
to whom their care is entrusted should be 
readily available. Had an efficient system 
of State Registration of Nurses been in 
force, is it credible that a drug-maniac, 
with homicidal impulses, would have been 
able, with ease, to obtain employment in 
sole and responsible charge at night of a 
ward of sick babies ? 

So far as the published reports of the 
trial go, the police did not produce evidence 
of the professional training of the prisoner, 
but a police officer did state that he had 
received a report that from 1909 to 191 2 
she was in a home suffering from the result 
of drug taking. In the case of a regis- 
tered nurse such an episode in her career 
would certainly be known. Moreover, 
the State Register, and the Official 
Directory based upon that Register, would 
be available to employers, and would also 
be at the disposal of every police court in 
the Kingdom as are the Medical Register 
and the Midvvives Roll. We wonder how 
many sick people have been victimised by 
this criminal before her murderous mania 
brought her within the arm of the law. 
We understand that she was trained at a 
provincial fever hospital, and also for two 
years in a London hospital, the certificate 
of which she does not hold. 

If public authorities in the near future 
are, as seems likely, to be increasingly 
responsible for the treatment and care of 
helpless infants and young children, public 
safeguards must be provided as to the 
competence and trustworthiness of the 
nurses in whose care, and at whose mer<Sy, 
they are placed, and the foundation of such 
safeguards is the passage of the Nurses' 
Bill for their State Registration — opposed 
so bitterly and long by the Governors cf 
Training Schools for Nurses. 



176 



^be 36ritl0b Sournal of Wurelnfl. September 21, 1918 



OUR PRIZE COMPETITION. 



WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE BLOOD? 
WHY MAY H/EjnORRHAOE CAUSE DEATH? 

We have pleasure in awarding the prize this 
week to Miss J. G. Gilchrist, Guiespie Crescent, 
Edinburgh. 

HRIZB fAPEK. 

The function of the blood is of a twofold 
nature— I.e., absorption and distribution : (a) 
the absorption of oxygen necessary to the lite 
or vital power of the body ; {b) the absorption 
of nourishment derived from tood materials for 
the growth and repair of the tissues of the 
body. Ihis process of absorption has also the 
dual capacity of conveying to the tissues the 
material necessary for repairing the waste 
engendered by the work done by them, and 
removing from them the waste products caused 
by their activity. This balance of absorption 
and distribution is brought about by the cir- 
culation of the blood throughout the body 
through the medium of the heart and blood 
vessels, the complete circuit being made by the 
action of the heart sending the blood through 
the arteries to all parts of the body, and return- 
ing it to the heart through the veins, the con- 
necting link between the arteries and veins 
being the capillaries, extremely minute vessels 
linking the smallest arteries to the commence- 
ment of the veins, and enabling the exchange 
of waste and repair products to take place. 
This process of absorption, or "osmosis," as 
it is technically called, also furnishes the 
various glands with the special secretions 
necessary to their particular functions, the rela- 
tive lymphatic system collecting and storing 
up the surplus nourishment, to be gradually 
re-introduced into the blood stream by w^ay of 
the thoracic duct. By the circulation also fluid 
(water) and heat is distributed equally through- 
out the body. The blood, if in a healthy con- 
dition, contains immune bodies, and the white 
corpuscles, called leucocytes and phagocytes, 
have the power of protecting the body from 
disease, and, when such is present, of combin- 
ing in large numbers to attack and overcome 
the morbid processes brought about by foreign 
elements. The natural power of the blood to 
coagulate, to form a clot at the end of an 
injured blood vessel on exposure to air, is 
another function which protects the body from 
the possibly fatal results of haemorrhage. In 
exceptional cases, known as " bleeders " — 
I.e., persons having the haemorrhagic diathesis 
or suffering from hemophilia — this protective 
power of coagulation is not present to a suflfi- 
cient degree to arrest haemorrhage, so that they 



bleed easily, even a very small wound making 
a fatal result possible. 

The importance of hygienic living if the 
blood is to perform its function satisfactorily 
cannot be over-estimated, especially in regard 
to the allied systems of respiration and diges- 
tion ; the necessity of breathing continuously 
fresh air, in the former, and of choosing a mixed 
diet, containing the elements of food which can 
be converted into nourishment in a simple form 
capable of assimilation through the blood 
stream, in the latter. 

Haemorrhage may cause death by actual 
failure of blood pressure and exhaustion of the 
nervous system. Thus serious haemorrhage is 
treated by infusion or transfusion of a fluid, 
such as saline solution, to keep up the rush of 
fluid through the blood vessels, and so keep 
the heart beating. There are three kinds of 
haemorrhage, each having a peculiar danger. 
Such are (i) arterial, (2) venous, (3) capillary. 

(i) Arterial haemorrhage is usually the result 
of a wound ; the blood spurts out in jerks, and 
is scarlet in colour. The danger hes in the 
rapidity and violent nature of the haemorrhagic 
attack. The force of the blood from the heart 
hinders the formation of clotting, so that direct 
pressure of the artery concerned against a bone 
between the heart and the bleeding part, and 
treatment is essential. It should also be 
remembered that the natural process of arrest- 
ing bleeding is in this case that the heart beats 
less strongly after a time, which produces 
fainting. Therefore it is unwise to give stimu- 
lants, as such will cause the blood to flow again 
with increased force ; rather employ cold, pres- 
sure and raised position. 

(2) Venous haemorrhage flows in "a steady 
stream, is dark purple in colour. It may result 
from ulcer in the leg or varicose veins, when it 
is difficult to control, owing to the damaged 
vessels. The quantity lost may bring about 
heart failure, especially as it is usually un- 
accompanied by pain. 

(3) Capillary haemorrhage may be dangerous 
on account of the prolonged time the oozing of 
blood may last and the amount of blood lost. 
It may occur in ulcerated surface, such as 
cancer in the late stages, when the tissues have 
become softened. Capillary or oozing haemor- 
rhage is best treated by the application of ice 
w^ith pressure. 

HONOURABLE MENTION. 

The following competitors receive honourable 
mention : — Miss Alice M. Burns, Miss R. E. S. 
Cox, Miss Clive M. Balderstone, Mrs. J. 
Gotlob, Miss J. Robinson. 



September 21, 1918 j^y^ ffinUsb Soumal Of "Wursiiifl. 



177 



NURSING AND THE WAR. 



The King held an Investiture in the Quad- 
rangle of Buckingham Palace on September i ith, 
when His Majesty conferred decorations as 
fol'ows : — 

ROYAL RED CROSS. 

First Class. 

Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service. 
— Matron Kate Roscoe, Sister Helen Dey. 

Territorial Force Nursing Service. — Matron Sarah 
CocKRELL, Sister Jessie Cardozo. 

Second Class. 

Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service, 
— Sister Dora Grayson. 

Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service 
Reserve. — Sister Lily Jenkins and Sister Mary Wedder- 

SPOON. 

Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service 
for India. — Matron Marion Knapp. 

Territorial Force Ntirsing Service. — Sister Annie 

GiBBINS. 

Civil Nursing Service. — Matron Annie Rastall, 
Assistant Matron Edith Cockeram, and Assistant 
Matron Jean Dumble. 

British Red Cross Society. — Sister Lily Griffiths and 
Sister Ruth Nicholas. 

Voluntary Aid Detachment. — Miss Bertha Cattell, 
Miss Maude Epps, and Miss Elizabeth Sinclair-White. 

Canadian Army Nursing Service. — Sister Gwendolen 
Spalding. 

THE MILITARY MEDAL. 

Territorial Force Nursing Service. — Sister Winifred 
Hawkins. 



The King has awarded the Royal Red Cross> 
2nd Class, to Miss Letitia Reeves, Australian 
Auxiliary Hospital, Welwyh, for valuable nursing 
services in the war. 



Recently in a crowded motor-bus two wounded 
soldiers rose politely from their seats to offer 
them to two women, one in nursing uniform, who 
promptly took the place without even a word of 
thanks. The other, an elderly woman, exclaimed 
" No, not the seat of a man in blue. We ought 
to stand for you." We should have supposed 
that the nurse was merely one of the many women 
who don our uniform mthout the right to wear 
it ; but alas ! her uniform was that of the Terri- 
torial Force Nursing Service. 



The hea.dquarters of the American Red Cross has 
received from Havre an announcement that the 
Queen of the Belgians will apply a part of the gift 
of T, 000,000 fr. recently made to her by the 
American "Red Cross, to the payment of the 
" household expenses " of a rest home for Belgian 
nurses, which Her Majesty will open at Cannes. 
It will be in the famous " Villa Henri IV," and the 
Queen has named it the " Royal Elisabeth Club." 
The fresh air and sunshine of the C6te d'Azur 
afford ideal surroundings for convalescing to 
wounded and overworked nurses. 



An Army Order just issued states that the con- 
ditions governing the award of the Silver War 
Badge to disabled men (including officers) have 
been amended. Under the new conditions the 
Badge, subject to the consent of the Army Council, 
will be issued to the undermentioned p>ersons 
(amongst others) who have served with the military 
forces subsequent to August 4th, 1914 : — 

Female nurses and members of Voluntary Aid 
Detachments and Queen Mary's Army Auxiliary 
Corps who have been discharged or have relin- 
quished their duties on account of physical disabili- 
ties, such as would render them permanently unfit 
for further service in their respective corps. 



A friend writes from Paris : " Everything here 
is for the Americans. They are spending tons of 
money, and so welL Fancy, I have a little 
friend from the U.S.A. here in the Y.M.C.A.* 
Bureau ; she has 600 francs a month for expenses 
The volunteer Red Cross Workers get 750 francs 
a month for expenses. No salaries ! None 
of them possess very extensive Continental 
experience. 



". The American Red Cross are now calling upon 
the V.A.D. Department for workers in their 
hospitals in this country, as, owing to transport 
difficulties, it is impossible to bring the required 
number of workers from the United States. We 
\\onder if they are to be paid at the same rate 
as in France ; for, if so, there will be an economic 
upheaval at Devonshire House. The high prices 
paid to American women worldng in France have 
caused a sense of alarm amongst those who fear 
this liberal recognition may be demanded by 
French women. In our opinion, anything which 
sweeps away the old miserable swea.ted rates for 
which European women w^ere expected to work 
before the war will be a boon and a blessing ; and 
the first step to a higher moral standard of living 
throughout the community." 



A contingent of Japanese nurses has been sent 
to Vladivostock by the Japanese Chapter of the 
American Red Cross. 



FRENCH FUQ NURSING CORPS. 



Miss Haswell and the Sisters have presented to 
Miss Grace Ellison a very charming handbag in 
green morocco and fitted with gold, accompanied 
by the following letter ; — 

" Miss Haswell and the Sisters of the F.F.N.C. 
beg Miss Ellison to accept the accompanying gift 
as a small token of their recognition and gratitude 
for all she has done for them. They regret 
extremely that her health compels her to withdraw 
from the active work of the corps, and they wish 
her a speedy recovery." 

Naturally, Miss Ellison is deeply gratified by 
this mark of affection from her fellow workers. 



178 



ZTbe Britiab 3ournal of 'Wurgino. September 21, 1918 



THE ODYSSEY OF FRANCESCA. 



Part I. 



Francesca left Rome one night for a certain 
Italian port on her way to the Near East. Her 
manner of arriving at the port, was a strange one, 
for she was promptly put under arrest and for- 
bidden to leave the station. Some little cabalistic 
sign which should have been on her passport was 
missing, and the Italian authorities let loose vials 
of^wrath on Francesca' s innocent head. She was 
not perturbed — she felt no responsibility for that 
document. Had she not sat for hours at 83, Pall 
Mall waiting for that magic book in the chaste 
dark blue binding, which had been vised by the 
Consul of nearly every country in Europe ? And 
had not the Powers that Be assured her that all 
was in order ? So she sat peacefully all day in the 
R.T.O.'s ofi&ce (which was an empty railway van) 
and read the new book of Georgian verse, and 
lo ! by the evening all was well, and Francesca 
free to depart on her way. 

Her destination for the next few days was a 
certain camp on the coast some miles away, and 
she went down to the quay and embarked on 
someone's picket boat to get there. 

It was just getting dusk, and so warm and still 
one could not have believed it was December. 
As Francesca left the quay the sun was setting 
over the harbour and the sky was all afire with 
apricot colour and rose and gold. The sea was 
the deepest sapphire blue until it met the sky, and 
then it glowed with the reflection from it like the 
heart of a flame. Soon the sky faded into a warm 
velvety darkness powdered with stars. There 
were no lights anywhere, and the only sound to be 
heard was the throb, throb of the engine as the 
little picket boat made her way through the water. 
It almost seemed as though they were alone on the 
sea. They went on and on and Francesca began 
to experience that queer, uncanny sensation that 
one gets when one goes to an unknown destination 
at night. Presently they came to a tiny jetty and 
stopped. Francesca was landed, and began to 
climb a precipitous hill, stumbling along in the dark 
as best she could, not knowing where she was 
gcing. A sailor followed behind carrying her 
luggage. Ten minutes' walk brought her to the 
British Hospital Camp, where she was to stay, 
and the first sight of this prosaic institution 
dispelled at once all mystic dreams and visions. 
A long baraque with 28 beds all in a row and no 
other furniture save two iron camp washstands is 
enough to quench any romance. And, alas ! 
there were 27 other unknown females sharing 
this chaste retreat. Army Sisters are sometimes 
haughty and look down their noses at members of 
other units who are not of the elect as they, but 
those particular ones were very nice to Francesca 
and she enjoyed her sojourn with the British 
Army. 

On the third morning a signal message came to 

say that Francesca was to be on the Wharf 

in half an hour's time, when a boat would convey 
her to a certain French transport which, in its 



turn, would take her to a certain Greek port. 
Francesca made her adieux, and presently the 
little boat pulled out and took her off to a great 
grey troopship which was lying outside, sur- 
rounded by her escort. She was crowded with 
French troops, mostly permissionaires returning 
to their units, and they were busy in trying on, 
with loud guffaws of laughter, the enormous life 
belts which had to be worn throughout the voyage. 
There were only eight officers on board — six 
French and two English. It is not permitted to 
describe how the ship was escorted, or where she 
went, but on the second morning Francesca found 
herself at anchor between the island of Corfu and 
the coast of Albania. No one was allowed to land, 
which was a great affliction. There was nothing 
to do on board but to eat, and this particular 
ship only rose to two meals a. day — luncheon at 
10.30 and dinner at 6.30 — so however long they 
were spun out there were long gaps of time in 
between. Francesca would have been quite 
happy, but men are such restless beings that they 
probably infected her. 

About 9.30 she was sitting on deck, watching 
the doings of the variegated crowd below, when a 
sailor brought a cow on to the lower deck. Fran- 
cesca innocently thought they were going to milk 
it, and was not at all prepared for what followed. 
A blow, the flash of a knife, and the poor cow was 
no more. Some of the poilus standing round were 
also taken by surprise and were spattered with gore 
from head to foot. 

Luncheon followed quickly on this sacrifice, 
but Francesca could not bring herself to look at 
the beefsteaks which had been walking about on 
deck an hour before. This ceremony was repeated 
every morning, but Francesca took care to be out 
of tlie way at that hour afterwards. The ship 
sailed away in a golden sunset mist, and the next 
morning found them again at anchor in a secluded 
little bay close to a rocky forbidding coast. A 
ship is like a village for rumours, and an interesting 
one spread quickly round that there was a sub- 
marine waiting outside, and that it might be a 
week before they could go on. So after lunch 
they settled down to a bridge party in the saloon, 
when suddenly they started, and presently were 
zig-zagging down the Gulf of Corinth. So much 
for rumour? ' 

Francesca thought it incredibly beautiful. The 
coast-line, stretching away into space, could be 
seen on both sides. Far to the south the peaks 
of dream-like unsubstantial mountains caught 
the last rose rays of the setting sun. The sea was 
a deep ultramarine blue, just flecked w^th white, 
and there were fishing boats about, with russet 
sails and Greek sailors singing melancholy songs 
in the bows. 

Just as it grew dark the ship approached the 
nameless port that was their destination, and 
Francesca was delighted to see a motor-boat at 
once skim out to meet them. It turned out to 

be for Lieut. X , but he most nobly persuaded 

the captain to allow Francesca to go ashore with 
him, or she would have had to wait till the morning. 



September 21, 1918 ^f)e Brlti6b Soumal of IRuratng. 



179 



It is dif&cult to describe the thrill Francesca 
had when she first touched Greek soil. She did 
it quite consciously, putting dow-n first her right 
and then her left foot, arid saying to herself : 
" Now I am in Greece." It was quite dark then 
and she waited a long time alone on the quay 

while Lieut. X went to find the landing of&cer. 

The darkness and loneliness gave her a feeling 
of mystery which added to the joy of it. How 
she uished she hadn't forgotten all the little 
Greek history she ever knew. The very names cf 
the places excited her beyond measure ; she 
seemed to taste them and turn them over on her 
tongue and enjoy their flavour. Fi lends seemed 
to spring up by magic at this place, which shall 
be nameless, and a Idndlj' doctor whisked Fran- 
cesca off to an empty cottage — which was available 



CARE OF THE WOUNDED. 

A regimental badge souvenir, embroidered by 
crippled South Africans at Richmond Park 
Hospital, has been accepted by Princess Mary, 
who sent a most appreciative letter of thanks to 
the givers. 

No class of Sufferers in this war require more 
skilled and tender treatment and care than those 
suffering from shell-shock. In our illustration is 
shown a group of convalescing shell-shock patients 
at the Seale Hayne hospital helping their nurse to 
gather in the beans for the day's supply. 

What we enjoy about the Americans is their 
creative faculty, and whilst other nations go 
jogging on, or what they call " muddling through," 




SOLDIER PATIENTS WHO ARE RECOVERING FROM SHELL-SHOCK AT SEALE HAYNE 
MILITARY HOSPITAL HELP A NURSE TO GATHER BEANS IN THEIR OWN GROUNDS. 



for such waifs and strays — ^to spend the night, 
A fat, smiling British orderly turned up, made 
up a bed and produced bread, sardines and much 
strong tea for an evening meal. 

And from her bed the next morning Francesca 
watched the sun rise over the peaks of Mount 
Parnassus. V. T. 

{To be "continued.) 



The Ministry of Pensions has now decided to 
extend the benefits of the Country Host Institution 
for the treatment of war neuroses or. of "shell 
shock," to pensioners in all areas of the United 
Kingdom. The success of the scheme, which 
originated in a letter to the Times about a year ago, 
is further shown by the fact that the Director- 
General of the Medical Department of the Navy 
approved of it some three months ago for undis- 
charged naval ratings suffering from war neuroses. 



the American evolves a good idea and puts it into 
practice. Quite simple things are often of 
immense value, especially in times of war. For 
instance, one difficulty of the walking wounded 
at the front is to determine the direction or location 
of the nearest first-aid station. The American 
Red Cross is furnishing to the American Army 
several thousand small cloth signs, the distribution 
of which will follow the advance of every American 
attack. Red Cross men, stretcher-bearers, and 
runners will carry them, and they will be tacked 
on trees and posts, or on the ground in the wake of 
the advancing men. The markers are of white 
cloth with a large Red Cross at one end and a red 
arrow at the other to indicate the direction. The 
American Red Cross has been told by Army 
officers that these markers uill save untold suffer- 
ing and even the lives of some men, as the serious- 
ness of any wound depends largely upon the 
promptness with which it receives attention. 



i8o zbc Britleb 3ournal of IRureiug. September 21, 1918 

Ropal BritisD nurses' ll$$oclatioii« 



(Incorporated bp 




\^ Ropal CDarlcn) 



THIS SUPPLEMENT BEING THE OFFICIAL ORGAN OF THE CORPORATION. 



THE HOUSEKEEPER'S DEPARTMENT 
AS A SPHERE FOR SPECIALISATION. 

By Agnes Pavey, M. R.B.N. A. 



Much has been written lately on the subject 
of what should or should not be included in the 
curriculum of a training school for nurses, in 
order that the instruction given in all branches 
shall be productive of the best possible results, 
and that the nurses may be fully equipped for 
appointments for which they may compete in 
the future. The career of a nurse should 
always receive a certain amount of considera- 
tion both from herself and those responsible for 
her training, so that the ever-widening scope 
for her abilities may be duly lecognised and 
provided for. 

Many of our leading hospital schools have, 
in recent years, given to suitable nurses, during 
the last year of training, a three months' course 
of work and instruction in the pathological 
laboratories or in some other department, not 
directly connected with nursing work, thereby 
stimulating an interest in some special branch 
of work which may prove of incalculable value 
to the nurse in the future. To the nurse who 
possesses a faculty for organisation perhaps 
the least help is given. She will probably 
become a ward sister and reach her zenith in 
training probationers, and perhaps she, more 
than anyone else, will influence the ideals and 
attainments of those who pass through her 
ward. All of us cherish memories of some 
Sister, all honour to her, who by her sweetness 
enabled us to retain our early ideals, and whose 
sterner qualities helped to develop an apprecia- 
tion of the value of efficiency, method, and dis- 
cipline. But what of the Sister herself? One 
hears much of the inadequacy of the remunera- 
tion paid to a Sister of a hospital ward, and the 
impossibility of providing for old age or a 
premature breakdown while "passing rich " 
on a salary of £40 a year. Be she the most 
devoted and altruistic of Sisters, it is still prob- 



able that she must consider her financial posi- 
tion, and very often she is forced to the decision 
that she must seek another and a better post, 
and the one she is most likely to aspire to is a 
matronship.' It is on arriving at this conclusion 
that she begins to realise her limitations, and 
there is perhaps no subject upon which she is 
so profoundly ignorant as hospital housekeep- 
ing and the management and training of a 
domestic staff. Yet to all who desire to attain 
to the higher posts in the profession such know- 
ledge and experience is indispensable. How is 
the difficulty to be met and overcome? There 
are several hospitals in London where pupil 
housekeepers are received for a course of three 
or four months' training, but ' their number 
could be counted on the fingers of one hand, 
and the majority take only one pupil at a time. 
Yet where could one expect to learn better the 
administrative work of a hospital than in the 
administrative department itself? Why, there- 
fore, should nurses not be allowed to have a 
certain amount of training there? It would 
tend. to enlarge the scope of the profession, and 
would open up many administrative appoint- 
ments, quite outside the hospitals, to nurses. 

For the first week or two in the new depart- 
ment the nurse would probably do little more 
than weigh and give out stores, copy menus, 
and record tradesmen's deliveries. This, with 
all the bookkeeping involved, and the work of 
issuing from different departments foodstuffs, 
surgical stores, hardware, cleaning materials, 
&c., would be as much as she would grasp 
thoroughly at first. Later she could take a part 
in the management of servants, and success in 
this direction is sometimes only gained after 
long striving and many mistakes. Often it 
requires almost superhuman tact in these days 
to ensure the smooth working of the domestic 
machinery, and yet the most troublesome maid 
will often work the best when rightly handled, 
for it is frequently the one who has most 
character, energy, and latent possibility of 
better things who is the most hard to manage. 



September 21, 1918 ^f:)^ BtUisb Soumal of IRureino. 



181 



Towards the end of the course the nurse might 
be allowed to arrange all the menus and reckon 
out the cost per head. This involves consider- 
able work and thought, for there are so many 
sections to be catered for — patients, doctors, 
the matron, sisters, day and night nurses, 
secretaries, and clerks, and sometimes a private 
staff. 

The keeping of the various official books and 
accounts, and preparing reports, based on 
those, for the finance committees, would prove 
very valuable experience, and many nurses 
would welcome, as a part of the-r training, such 
a course of hospital housekeeping. 



A USEFUL ASSOCIATION. 

Princess Christian and the Duke of Connaught 
were patrons of the very successful carnival and 
fete held in the gardens of Belgrave Square on 
Saturday last, in aid 01 the Belgravia War Hospital 
Supply Depot, of which Her Royal Highness is 
President. 

PRINCESS CHRISTIAN SETTLEMENT HOME* 

A room is now available for one of the retirod 
Members of the Association at the Princess 
Christian Settlement Home. Nurses who may 
decide to make application for this vacant room 
should write to the Secretary for the official prin*^ed 
form, which should be filled in and returned. A 
copy of the rules and other particulars will be 
supplied with this form. 

APPOINTMENTS. 

Miss Mary M. Smith, M.R.B.N.A., has been 
appointed Sister at Lagos Hospital, Southern 
Algeria. She was trained at Crumpsall Infiimaiy, 
Manchester. 

Miss Elizabeth Todd, M.R.B.N.A., has been 
appointed Sister-in-Charge of the Military Hospital, 
Aylesbury ; and Miss Bridget Weever, M.R.B.N.A., 
as Sister at the Military Hospital, Endell Street. 

DONATIONS. 

The Honorary Treasurer of the Corporation 
acknowledges with thanks a donation from the 
following : — 

To the General Purposes Fund. — ^Miss Beatrice 
Kent, £1. 

CORRESPONDENCE. 



Whilst welcoming communications from its 
Members the Corporation does not hold itself 
responsible for individual expressions of opinion. 

PROFESSIONAL WRITERS. 

To the Secretary, R.B.N. A. 

Madam, — I should like to thank both Miss 

Atherton and Miss Sinzininex for their very able 

articles. Both of these ladies I have long known 

to be " past masters " in their own particular 



branches, and I am glad that such up-to-date 
articles do appear in the nurses' own paper — the 
only journal controlled and written by members 
of our profession. I hope that more and more 
we will learn to use the B.J.N., therefore, as a 
medium for developing the profession of nursing. 
If I may be permitted to, I should like to ask 
Miss Atherton one question. Would not such 
an automatic obedience as her article seems to 
aim at, tend to stultify the child's ability to 
reason out points for himself, and prevent him, 
to a great extent, from acquiring a freewill of 
his own in the choice of right or wrong ? This is 
just a point that my interest in the article in 
question has aroused, and I should be glad to 
know Miss Atherton's viev^s. 



I am, &c.. 



M. E. Nash. 



THE NATION'S FUND FOR NURSES. 

To the Secretary, R.B.N. A. ' 

Madam, — As a Scottish nurse I should like to 
protest against the hideous posters tha,t line the 
London streets. Have the English nurses ■ no 
spirit, no self respect, that they allow them to 
remain ? Quite apparently they have less of 
the sturdy independence of us who live over the 
border, for, so far, I have seen no such deface- 
ments in our Scottish streets. As a member of a 
great profession, I feel that I can never be in- 
different to anything that affects its honour or its 
prestige, and I feel very strongly that the British 
Women's Hospital Committee and the College 
Company are insulting a self-respecting, hard- 
worlang body of women, never before regarded as 
objects for charity. " What does this appeal 
really mean ?" is a question I often ask myself, 
but I can find no definite answer to it. Am 
I myself or any qualified nurse a fitting object for 
charity ? Believe me, I am not against bene- 
volence for nurses, but any appeal for benevolence 
should be issued in a proper and dignified way ; 
our supposed poverty and dependence should iiot 
be paraded through the advertisement columns of 
the daily Press and the hoardings of the streets. 
Such an appeal should be strictly limited to the 
probable needs of the nurses who are in distress 
or ill-health. Again, I ask myself, how far dees 
this appeal camouflage for the other object for 
which it is launched ? In other words, what 
proportion of the money collected is to go for 
buildings for the College Company, and what 
proportion to relieve sick nurses ? 
Yours, &c., 

E. Kelly. 

APPLICATION FORMS. 

Application forms for Registration (5s.), Mem- 
bership (Annual, 5s. ; Life, £2 2S.), and the 
badge of the Corporation (4s.), can be obtained 
from the oJSice of the Association, 10, Orchard 
Street, Portman Square, W. i. 

(Signed) Isabel Macdonald, 
Secretarv. 



l82 



^be British 3ournal of IRureino. September 21, 1918 



THE COLLEGE OF NURSING, LTD., AND 
THE EXAMINATION OF NURSES. 

(Concluded from page 170.) 



The following letters have been received by the 
Hon. Secretary of the Society for the State 
Registration of Trained Nurses in reply to the 
letter which we published last week enquiring 
whether the examination of nurses in the training 
schools concerned would in future be conducted 
by the College of Nursing, Ltd., which claims 
disciplinary powers over its members under a very 
autocratic constitution, 

Provinces. 

Mr. a. H. Laney, General Hospital, Birmingham. 

" I have discussed your letter of the i6th inst. with 
Matron, and find that the rumour is without foundation 
so far as this hospital is concerned." 
Mr. Harry Johnson, Royal Infirmary, Leicester. 

" I have received your letter of the 9th inst., and 
beg to inform you that no suggestion has been made 
to the Board of Governors of this Institution for any 
alteration in connection with the examinations for 
Probationarj' Nurses on the stafE of this Institution." 
Mr. Frank G. Hazell, Manchester Royal Infirmary. 

" I am in receipt of your letter of the 9th inst., for 
which I thank you. I regret I have no information to 
afford you relative to the subject matter of your letter." 

It will be remembered that the curt refusal by 
Mr. Frank Hazell, of the Royal Infirmary, Man- 
chester, to afford any information on this matter 
of public importance was criticised on a previous 
occasion. 

Mr. C. Amason, Royal Sussex County Hospital, 
Brighton. 

" I am directed by the Board of Management to 
acknowledge receipt of your letter of May 9th in 
reference to the training of Nurses." 
Mr. J. G. HowiTT, Cumberland Infirmary, Carlisle. 

" I am in receipt of your circular letter of the 9th 
inst. in regard to the examination of Probationary 
Nurses by the College of Nursing, Ltd., and in reply 
have to inform you that as far as this Infirmary is 
concerned no arrangements have been made. We are 
at the present time continuing the teaching and exami- 
nation of our Probationary Nurses as formerly." 
Mr. Samuel Cole, Royal Devon and Exeter Infirmary. 

" I am duly in receipt of your circular letter dated 
9th inst., and in reply to your enquiry the rumour that 
Nurses not yet qualified for their certificates will have 
to be examined by the College of Nursing, Ltd., is 
incorrect as far as it applies to the Probationers at the 
Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital." 

Mr. Frank Inch, Norfolk and Norwich Hospital, 
Norwich. 

" In reply to your circular letter of the 9th inst., I 
beg to inform you that I have no knowledge of the 
rumour that in future the examination of Nurses who 
have not yet qualified at this Hospital for their certifi- 
cates will be conducted by the College of Nursing, Ltd." 
Mr. Fredk. Neden, The County Hospital, York. 

" In reply to your letter of the 9th inst., the report 
to which you refer has not reached us. 

" The examination of our Probationers is under- 
taken by members of our Honorary Medical Staff and 



by a Matron of another Hospital, who visits the Hos- 
pital for the purpose, and there is no' present intention 
of making a change."fj If •-]•;- 

Mr. R. Orde, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle-on- 
■ Tyne. 

" I beg to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of May 9th, and in reply to inform you that we have 
no information on the subject referred to." 

Wales. 
Mr. Leonard D. Rea, F.C.I.S., King Edward VII's 
Hospital, Cardiff : — 
" In reply to your letter of 9th inst., I am able to 
assure you that the rumour is not correct, so far as 
applying to the probationers in this Hospital." 

Scotland. 

Mr. R. Morrison Smith, C.A., Glasgow Royal Infir- 
mary : — 

" I have received your letter of 13th inst., and in 
reply have to say that it is not contemplated in the 
meantime to make any change in our training or 
examination of nurses." 

Mr. J. Matheson Johnston, Western Infirmary of 
Glasgow : — 

" I have to acknowledge receipt of your letter of 
13th inst". At the Western Infirmary we have no 
knowledge of the rumour to which you refer." 

Mr. a. Scott Finnie, Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen :— 
" I have received your circular letter, dated 13th 
inst., with reference to the examination of nurses. 
As this is a matter coming within the Matron's depart- 
ment, I have sent the communication to her." 

Miss E. Edmondson, Acting Superintendent, Royal 
Infirmary, Aberdeen : — 

" In reference to your letter of the 13th inst., 
which has been forwarded to me, I beg to inform you 
that no definite communication has been received by 
the Board of Directors of the Aberdeen Royal Infir- 
mary from the College of Nursing. I do not think 
ths rumours which you mertion are worth attention, 
as such examinations would only be compalsory for 
those who wish to become members of the College. 
The confidence of the trained nurses in the College 
is clearly seen by the large number of members at 
the present time " 
Mr. G. B. Brough, Royal Infirmary, Dundee : — 

" No alteration is in contemplation on the existing 
arrangement by which the Dundee Royal Infirmary' 
continues to grant certificates signed by the Hospital 
authorities to nurses who have satisfactorily com- 
pleted their course of three years' training." 

Ireland. 

Mr. E. B. Armstrong, Royal City of Dublin Hospital : 

" In reply to your letter of the 13th inst., I beg 
to say that as far as this hospital is concerned, the 
rumour that in future nurses' examinations will be 
conducted by the College of Nursing, Ltd., and not 
by our own training school is unfounded and in- 
accurate." 
MissM. C. Hill, Matron, Adelaide Hospital, DubUn : — 

" In reply to your letter with reference to the 
qualifying examinations to be held in future for 
probationers at the Adelaide Hospital, I am directed 
by the Nursing Committee to inform you that should 
the Nurses' Registration Bill, drafted by the College 
of Nursing, Ltd., become law, the probationers at 



September 21, 1918 q:i>c jBrttlsb 3ournal of TRursmg. 



183 



this hospital will enter for examinations conducted by 
the Statutory Authority set up by that Bill. In the 
event of the Bill not passing into law, the nurses of 
this hospital will have the option of entering for the 
examinations of the College of Nursim;, Ltd. The 
Board of Governors will retain the final qualifying 
examination of the hospital as at present conducted 
until such time as they deem it advisable in the interest 
of the nurses and the public that such examinations 
should be abrogated." 
Lieut. -Col. Deane, Royal Victoria Hosp., Belfast : — 

" Re State Registration of Trained Nurses : In 
reply to your letter of 13th inst. on the above subject, 
I beg to inform you that the matter you allude to has 
not been considered by my Committee, and as I do 
not know whether the report you have heard is correct 
or not, I am sorry I cannot give you any information 
about it." 

No replies have been received from the Royal 
Infirmary, Liverpool ; the Royal Infirmary and 
the Geneial Hospital, Bristol ; the General 
Hospital, Nottingham ; the Royal Hants County 
Hospital, Winchester ; the Royal Devon and 
Exeter Hospital ; the Royal Infirmary, Edin- 
burgh ; Sir Patrick Dun's Hospital ; the Rich- 
mond Hospital ; the Meath Hospital ; and Dr. 
Steevens' Hospital, Dablin. 



The Secretary- Superintendent of the Middlesex 
Hospital states : " Our nurses' examinations for 
the Hospital's certificate of training are conducted 
by the teachers of our own Training School." 
The enquiry of the Society for the State Registra- 
tion of Nurses was, however, designed to ascertain 
the procedure in the future. 



When the letter of the Society was sent out in 
May last, the then draft of the College of 
Nursing's Registration Bill compelled registered 
nurses to become members of the College, and to 
subscribe to its autocratic constitution as a 
condition of registration. 

Some slight modification has been introduced 
into the seventh draft of its Nurses' Registration 
Bill, which does not make it compulsory'' for 
nurses to become members of the College in 
order to be registered under the Act, but the 
Memorandum and Articles of Association of the 
College are still to remain " in full force and 
effect." 

Our contention is that the examination and 
registration of Trained Nurses should be con- 
ducted by an entirely independent body, under 
the authority of the State, and not by a Union 
of persons who train and employ nurses. 

UNJUSTIFIABLE PRESSURE. 

From all sides we hear of pressure being brought 
to bear by Matrons upon their young nurses to join 
the College of Nursing. They are handed applica- 
tion forms and told to fill them in, and, as far as 
we can gather, the Constitution of the College 
is never mentioned ; so these inexperienced young 
nurses sign a form to agree to Rules and Regula- 
tions — -mainly framed by laymen — which they have 
never seen. 

This unjustifiable pressure is for the second time 



being brought to bear upon the members of the 
Guy's Hospital Nurses' League, to whom a printed 
letter is being sent, signed by S. A. Swift (past 
Matron), L. V. Haughton (past Matron), M. Hogg 
(Matron), and F. A. Sheldon (Lady Superintendent 
of the Guy's Hospital Nurses' Institution), from 
which the document is addressed. With the letter 
are included an Application Form, and Reasons for 
joining the College, but not a copy of its 
Constitution. 

The gist of the letter is practically a demand 
upon the part of Guy's officials nominated on to 
the College Council, that an electorate should be 
provided amongst the nurses of the League. It 
is written: — " On the Council of the College, 
Guy's ought to be well represented amongst other 
hospitals, and the votes of Guy's nurses are needed 
to place their representatives there." 

It is well known tfiat the extremely autocratic 
Constitution of the College, which practically sup- 
presses all professional liberty of the nursing pro- 
fession as a whole, emarrated from the reactionary 
policy of Sir Cooper Perry, the Medical Super- 
intendent, and Miss Sarah Swift, the Matron of 
Guy's Hospital in 1905, when this Constitution 
was submitted to the Board of Trade, as suitable 
for a governing body for fre^ British women, and 
was defeated by the progressive and conscientious 
supporters of the State Registration movement. 



A special meeting of the College of Nursing, Ltd., 
to consider the formation of a London Centre, is 
to be held at the College of Ambulance, 6, Vere 
Street, on Wednesday, September 25th, at 7 p.m. 
Let us hope an opportunity^ will be afforded the 
members of discussing its constitution, and the 
Bill for their registration promoted by the 
College. No such discussion has, so far, been 
arranged for on these vital matters. 

A local centre has oeen formed at Newcastle-on- 
Tyne. .^ 

APPOINTMENTS. 

^MATRON. 

Cray Valley Hospital, St. Mary Cray. — ^Miss Jessie 
D. Milner has been appointed Matron. She was 
trained at the Hampstead Gencal Hospital and 
the North- West London Hospital, and has been 
Sister of the Private Wing in the former institu- 
tion, Sister at the King George Hospital, Stamford 
Street, as a member of Q.A.I.M.N.S.R., and Home 
and Housekeeping Sister at the Hampstead 
General Hospital. 

Elder Cottage Hospital, Govan, Glasgow. — Miss 
Mary Taylor has been appointed Matron. She 
was trained at the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, 
and has held an appointment at the Military 
Hospital, York. 

SUPERINTENDENT SISTER. 

Queen Mary's Hospital, Carshalton, Surrey. — 

Mrs. Hilda M. Smerdon (w^.? White) has been 
appointed Superintendent Sister. She was trained 
at the Evelina Hospital and at King's College 
Hospital, and has been Theatre and Ward Sister 
at the former institution and elsewhere. 



TTie Brt*tifi Journal c^ Nurttna, Sei>tember 21, 1918. 



" Science is, I believe, 
nothing but trained and 
organized common-sense, 
differing from the latter 
only as a veteran may 
differ from a raw recruit : 
and its methods diffc 
from those of common- 
sense only so far as the 
Guardsman's cut and 
thrust differ from the 
manner in which a savage 
wields his club." 

ProftiiOT Huxley. 



The Basis 
of 
Science 




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September 21, 1918 ^^e BHtisb Soumal of BursuiQ* 



185 



NURSING ECHOES. 



With the next issue Mrs. Bedford Fenwfck 
will have acted as Hon. Editor of The British 
Journal of Nursing for .twenty-five years, so 
that the professional nurses of this country 
may have freedom of expression in the press. 
With three organs at the disposal of their 
employers, and many newspapers subsidised in 
opposition to their interests, how valuable such 
an asset has been will only be realised by a 
future generation of nurses. 



We wonder if committees of district nursing 
associations have taken into consideration the 
cost of nurses' shoe leather. In the pre-war 
days the problem of keeping herself shod, in 
boots or shoes which were weather resisting, 
on the small salary she received, was a diffi- 
cult one to many a district nurse, and now, 
with deterioration of materials, and prices 
soaring upwards, it is most acute. Yet, if 
nurses are to keep in good health, it is impera- 
tive that they should be well and comfortably 
shod, and committees, in arranging war 
bonuses, and increases of salary, will do well 
to take the question into consideration. 



Strikes are in the air, and the asylums staffs 
in the London area recentlynotified the London. 
County Council that unless their demand for an 
all-round advance of 25s. a week on pre-war 
wages, and other grievances were redressed, 
they would hand in their resignations. The 
women were said to be particularly determined 
in their attitude. We understand that sub- 
stantial concessions have been made. 



On Saturday the General Purposes Com- 
mittee of the Metropolitan Asylums Board sub- 
mitted a report, which was agreed to, dealing 
with staff petitions for increase of salary. 

The first came from the male attendants at 
Tooting Bee Asylum, asking to be placed on 
the same scale of remuneration as that adopted 
for L.C.C. workers. The next was a similar 
petition from the National Asylum Workers' 
Union, representing the employees at other 
asylums of the Board ; and the third a petition 
of the Municipal Employees' Association, re- 
presenting the staff of the Board at all institu- 
tions except asylums, and asking for an 
increased war bonus, with a flat rate of ;^i per 
week. 

The Committee are reconsidering all scales 
of salaries, and will report to a meeting of the 
Managers on October 12th. As regards war 



bonuses, they advise the Managers to adopt an 
award made by the Conciliation and Arbitration 
Board for Government employees as applicable 
to Civil Servants with salaries not exceeding 
;^5oo per annum. They recommend that the 
bonus for the female staff should be at the flat 
rate of ;^i8 per annum. 



The strike of Asylum workers in two of the 
Lancashire Asylums was settled at the meeting 
of the Lancashire Asylums Board on Thursday 
in last week, when the matters in dispute were 
referred to arbitration. 

The attendants and nurses at Prestwich 
Asylum had left work on Wednesday morning, 
and in the afternoon the Whiitingham em- 
ployees followed suit. On the Thursday after- 
noon, following a special meeting of the 
Asylums Board, which agreed to submit the 
demands to arbitration, the workers had 
returned to duty. 

The following is a statement of the claims 
of the Asylum workers : — On January 7th last 
they made application to the Asylums Board 
for 5s. a week permanent advance in wages for 
all attendants and nurses ; for a 60 hours' work- 
ing week ; for wages to be paid weekly instead 
of monthly ; to be allowed to put union notices 
up in the messroom for the benefit of members ; 
for the married staff who are called up to 
sleep in the asylum to.be paid is. 6d. per night 
for doing so ; for the outside artisans to be paid 
within a halfpenny of the district rate per hour ; 
for men who earn the certificate for mental 
nursing to be paid ;^2 per year extra ; and for 
the month's wages so far kept in hand to be 
paid up. 

This was replied to in June, when 5s. per 
week bonus instead of an increase was given, 
and the month's wages kept in hand was paid 
up. No other concession was made. 

At the present time (it is stated) the working 
hours average 72 per week. The staff is pre- 
pared to work overtime if necessary, provided 
overtime pay is forthcoming. The current 
wages worked out at about 6^. to 6fd. per 
hour for men, and 2d. to 3d. less for women. 

On August 9th the original application was 
renewed, and the Asylums Board was given a 
14 days* ultimatum. The reply to this was that 
the matter would be considered at the next 
meeting of the Finance Committee. This was 
not satisfactory to the Asylum union officials, 
as the Committee only meet quarterly, and 
about five months had elapsed between the 
application being made and the first reply. 

Accordingly the strike began. The safety of 
the patients was seen to by a minimum staff 



186 



Cbe British 3ournal of iRuramo, September 21, 1918 



being left on duty. The number of hours was 
said to be the greatest difficulty, as it. happened 
not infrequently that men and women were kept 
on duty from 6 a.m. to lo p.m., with if hours 
off for meals. 

No complaint was made against the officials 
of the asylums; the whole of the workers' 
troubles were with the Board. . 



The Lancashire Asylums Board met in Com- 
mittee last week at the County Offices, 
Preston, when Mr. Shaw, General Secretary of 
the National Union of Asylum Workers, was 
called in, and stated that the minimurr on which 
his members would return to their duties was 
the acceptance by the Board of arbitration. 

The Chairman, Sir Norval W. Helme, M.P., 
said that until the 9th of August, when the 
letter from the Union was received, the Board 
was not aware of any such feeling as unfortu- 
nately existed and had been developing 
amongst the members of the Union. 

The Board had met in Committee, and con- 
sidered the situation, and having a strong con- 
fidence in their own case, were prepared to ask 
the Board to formally approve a resolution 
accepting arbitration. 

Replying to questions, Mr. Shaw said he was 
prepared, as far as it was possible for him to 
do so, to pledge his members to abide by the 
decision of the arbitrator and to resume their 
duties at once. 

The Board then passed a resolution agreeing 
to the application of the National Union of 
Asylum Workers being referred to arbitration, 
the Ministry of Labour to be requested to 
appoint an arbitrator. 

MEDALS FOR NURSES. 



BRADFORD ROYAL INFIRMARY. 

On Wednesday, September nth, the annual 
interesting occasion of the presentation of medals 
to successful nurses took place. The Chairman, 
Mr. George Priestman, gave a short account of the 
year's work of the Nurse Training School, and 
said that it was a matter for congratulation that, 
despite many difficulties, the standard of training 
had been kept up and the necessary lectures had 
been given to qualify for the medals. 

To obtain the gold medal, a first class must be 
obtained in each subject, with a percentage of at 
least 80 for the total number of marks gained. The 
silver medal is awarded to the candidate who 
obtains second highest marks. Nurse Kathleen 
Digney Is this year's gold medallist, and Nurse 
Margaret Waterston was awarded the silver medal. 

The Matron, Miss Davies, pointed out that since 
the re-organisation of the training in 19 13 the gold 



medal had been awarded each year. She con- 
sidered this very creditable with regard to the 
circumstances under which the nurses worked at 
present, and the small amount of time available 
for study. The best thanks of the nursing staff 
were due to Dr. West Watson for the able lectures 
he had given, in spite of the pressure of his pro- 
fessional work. 

The Chairman then called upon Alderman Moor- 
house to present the medals. Several nurses who 
had completed their training were also awarded 
certificates of merit. 

Roll of Honour. 
Louisa Charlotte Chamberlain, R.N.N.S.R., 
accidentally killed at sea, August loth, igi8. Sister 
Chamberlain was trained at Bradford Royal 
Infirmary, where she was doing Sister's duty when 
called up to join the Naval Nursing Reserve in 
August, 1914. 

1 m m 

OUTSIDE THE GATES. 



THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF WOMEN OF 
GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND. 

The Annual Meeting of the National Council of 
Women of Great Britain and Ireland will be held in 
Harrogate on October 8th, 9th and loth, at 10 a.m. 
and 2.30 p.m., when the Annual Report and 
Annual Statement of Accounts will be presented, 
and the Report of the Committee for the Revision 
of the Constitution. From this report, which has 
\>een circulated, we gathc- that it is j5roposed that 
the National Union of Women Workers shall 
become the National Council of Women of Great 
Britain and Ireland, and that the Governing Body 
shall be called the Representative Council of 
Women. 

This Council is to meet annuplly to receive 
reports, transact business, and elect the Execu- 
tive Committee. It is, however, proposed that 
the Resolutions for the Representative Council 
nhall first be submitted to the Executive, which 
Committee " shall group the resolution j according 
to subjects, and shall select or draw up one resolu- 
tion from each group." If the Governing Body 
may not discuss what resolutions it chooses with- 
out the permission of the Executive it is difficult 
to understand wherein government consists. 

The subjects dealt with by Resolutions at 
Hairogate will be " Hostels f .r Mothers and 
Babies," " Solicitation Laws and the Equal Moral 
Standard," " Trade Unions," " Equal Pay for 
Equal Work," " Women on Government Com- 
mittees," and " Laws of Naturalisation." 



BOOK OP THE WEEK. 



THE WEDDING GOWN OF "OLE MISS."* 

This charming romance of Virginia makes a 
very wide appeal to the lovers of fiction, and is 
quite one of the most popular books of the hour. 

* By Gertrude Griffiths. Skfeffington & Son, Ltd., 
Southampton Street, Strand, W.C. 2. Price 6s. 



September 21, 1918 xi\)e 1Bv\tiB\) Soumal of •Rureina. 



It is based upon the war between the North and 
South for the abolition of slavery, and relates how 
Anna Maria is torn between her love for the South 
and her lover Drummond, whose conscience obliges 
him to fight for the North. 

But the wedding gown is not directly connected 
with Anna Mar-ee-ah ; it belongs to " Ole Miss " 
Agatha Talcot, who is holding the plantation in 
trust for Anna Maria until she comes of age. Her 
wedding gown was made for her thirty years 
before, when she was engaged to be married to 
Judge Standish. The wedding was postponed from 
one oause and another, but the Judge still remained 
the devoted admirer of the eccentric woman. " Ole 
Miss " was adored by her slaves, which gives the 
key to the fierce opposition to the Northerners on 
her plantation, although she was very unpopular 
in Virginia generally. Pansy, the little " hand- 
maid ob Miss Agatha Talcot," is one of the pro- 
minent personages of the story. 

She was an ingratiating little person, generally 
found with her ear to the keyhole or curled up in 
a corner feigning sleep, in order to acquire informa- 
tion, with which she proceeded to play the part of 
Providence. 

Anna Maria threatened summary punishment 
when she found that Pansy had been spying on her 
and Drummond in the wood. " The soles of two 
little brown feet appeared as she fled in response to 
a furious glance from Anna Maria." 

On finding her later under her own bed she 
dragged her out by the wool. " Pansy," she 
whispered furiously to the whimpering child, " if 
you ever tell you saw me to-day speaking to Master 
Drummond Hastie do you know what I'll do? I'll 
bang you over the head with my hairbrush as hard 
as ever I can." 

" O lor ! No, missy ! " gasped Pansy, ashen with 
terror at this awful threat. *' I'll nebber, nebber 
tell a blessed soul, honest Injun." 

All the same, she promptly took herself to '' Unk 
Tate," the seer of visions, and having related 
graphically the love scenes down his ear trumpet, 
" He wuz a kissin' her lyk dis," she removed her 
mouth a second from the trumpet and smacked the 
air violently by way of demonstration. " And den 
I beared dem say dee engage, and yo' should have 
beared how dee laugh at Ole Miss dee laugh and 
laugh at her." 

" Dee laugh at Ole Miss," interrupted Tate 
angrily. " Dee dare laugh at Ole Miss. Lawk, 1 
lyk to hab beared them. What fo dee laugh at 
her? " 

" Coz she wear a yaller gown and green sun- 
bonnet." 

" Ain't green and yaller beautiful colours? " he 
cried indignantly. 

Ole Miss wore her wedding gown after all, for 
the Judge, like the proverbial worm, turned at last, 
and threatened to propose to her enemy, Sophia 
Hastie. So, amid the amused glances of the con- 
gregation, Miss Agatha walked up the aisle attired 
in it, even though it was made in the fashion of 
thirtv years before I 

H. H. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR. 

Whilst cordially inviting communications upon 
all subjects for these columns, we wish it to be 
distinctly understood that we do not in any way 
hold ourselves responsible for the opinions expressed 
by our correspondents. 

MANY THINGS MAY HAPPEN I 
To the Editor of The British Journal of Nursing. 

Dear Madam, — You will remember that a year 
ago I consulted you about my nursing career. I 
had worked for twelve months as a Y.A.D., and 
felt that nursing was my vocation — that I was 
only learning rough and ready methods, and not 
really being properly grounded in a Red Cross 
Hospital, where very little discipline pertained, and 
as I come of military people, I prefer order. 

You advised me to ent^r a good training school 
and prepare myself thoroughly for responsible 
work, and to be ready for service in Q.A.I.M.N.S. 
if found suitable. This I did, and now where do 
I come in under this new Instruction (No. 678), just 
arranged by the Army Council with the Red Cross? 
It seerns to me that I shall be ineligible at the end 
of four years' first-class training because I have 
not been a V.A.D. for two years, and that all my 
colleagues to be certificated three years hence are 
also excluded from service in Q.A.I.M.N.S., as the 
t\\x> years voluntary workers are to have their 
names on a roll, and so block us out for years to 
come. What right has an Army Council in war- 
time to make rules to interfere with free promotion 
for the best nursing candidates when war con- 
ditions have passed? I am told the social influence 
of the Red Cross Society has managed this job — 
and it will not be the last, as it is not' the first, 
which has injured the nursing profession through 
its social influence. 

Yours very truly, 

Done Brown. 

[We advise you to devote yourself to your daily 
work for the benefit of the sick. " After the war " 
is a large order. Many things will be changed 
before you are certificated, and once soldiers and 
nurses have votes, even the War Office will be 
required to move with the times, and mandarins 
who draft " Serf Clauses " and other obnoxious 
Instructions will be swept into Whitehall with other 
impedimenta. By the by, do you belong to the 
R.B.N. A., and have you thus proved you are pre- 
pared to help yourself and your colleagues -by 
strong united action? If not, join at once, and 
help to save the independence of the Nursing Pro- 
fession, in the coming fight for a just Registration 
Bill.— Ed.] 

OUR PRIZE COMPETITION. 

QUESTIONS. 

September 28th. — How would you recognise per- 
foration in a case of enteric fever ? What imme- 
diate action would you take, and how could you 
temporarily relieve the parent ? 

October =,th. — How do 33 puerperal septicemia 
arise ? Describe the couise and management of 
the disease. 



'«8 ttbc Brlttsb 3ournal of Hurflinc Supplement. s«c'«'"''" "> '9i8 



THe Mid"wife. 



USEFUL APPLIANCES AT 50, WIGMORE 

STREET. 

Maternity nurses and others interested in child 
welfare work will find innumerable useful appli- 
ances of every description at Messrs. Bell & 
Croyden's, "50, Wigmore Street. One of the 
most interesting is the apparatus for sterilising the 
baby's milk, by means of which ten 8 oz. bottles 
of milk can be sterilised at one time. The steri- 
liser is easy to manage and by an ingenious 
arrangement the sealing of the bottles is ensured 
during the process of cooling so that the milk can 
be kept in them for days before it is used. By the 
use of this apparatus, too, the dangers which result 
for the baby from the over-sterilisation of milk 
are avoided. The most up-to-date feeding 
bottles can be procured from this firm and there 
is a large selection of teats, including that'which 
is now so popular and is known as the Marylebone 
teat because it was first introduced at the Maryle- 
bone Dispensary. It is so designed that only 
those muscles are brought into play which would 
be used if the baby were breast-fed, and its form 
is such that there is little chance of even the most 
delicate baby becoming tired before it has had 
the food it requires. Those who contend that 
malformations in the teeth and gums may owe 
their origin to a badly-designed teat will admit 
that the risk is non-existent in the case of this 
carefully designed teat. The Marylebone Cream, 
now well known at all infant clinics throughout 
the country, can be procured from the firm, and 
this also was first used at the Marylebone Dispen- 
sary, having been introduced by Dr. Eric 
Pritchard. Owing to the ease with which it is 
digested and absorbed, it forms a valuable con- 
stituent in the food of even the youngest infant 
and should be much used in the nursery in these 
days when it is becoming increasingly difficult to 
procure the fats so important to the healthy 
development of children. 

A very ingenious contrivance is that designed by 
Messrs. Clarke for heating the baby's food in the 
night. It does away with the necessity for main- 
taining a fire for this purpose, or for procuring 
methylated spirit. 

It is almost unnecessary to refer to the accouche- 
ment outfits to be procured from Messrs. Bell & 
Croyden, except to emphasise the completeness of 
their equipment and the thoroughness of their 
sterilisation and sealing ; tins opened after a long 
period of years have been found to be absolutely 
sterile. Nurses who obtain their supplies from 
this firm will, we feel, sure, be thoroughly satisfied, 
particularly as the appliances and dressings easily 
bear comparison with articles procured from 
sometimes less reliable sources. 



PENS FOR THE LAMBS. 

One of the evils of institutional life for infants 
is, that owing to the lack of an adequate staff of 
nurses, healthy children often spend a large 
proportion of thei^- time in their cots. It has been 
suggested that the high moitality rate of babies 
in institutions is partly due to the fact that they 
a^e cheated out of their fair share of dandling, 
which is their equivalent to exercise, and thus 
their livers are not sufficiently stimulated. The 
Pen should find its place in aU institution nurseries 
when the babies can with safety be placed on 
mattresses and exercise their limbs to their hearts' 
content. 

Where this plan is in vogue a great improvement 
will be observed in the health and contentment of 
the children without any extra labour. 



CENTRAL MIDWIVES BOARD 
(IRELAND). 

The Central Mid wives Board for Ireland has 
now been constituted. The names of the 
appointed members are as follows : — 

Appointed by the Local Government Board for 
Ireland.— E. C. Bigger, M.D., M.S,, R.C., Irel. ; 
L.M., K.O.C.P., Irel. ; D.S.M., R.C.P.S., Irel. ; 
Medical Commissioner of the Local Government 
Board for Ireland. 

Appointed by the Local Government Board for 
Ireland after Consultation with the Cotmty Councils 
and County Borotigh Councils.' — H. T. Warnock, 
L., L.M., K.Q.C.P., Irel. ; F.R.C.S., Irel. ; Alder- 
man J. McCarron. 

Elected by- the Registered Medical Practitioners 
Resident in Ireland. — Sir A. J. Home, L.R.C.S., 
Irel. ; F., L.M., K.Q.C.P., Irel. Sir W. J. Sm>ly. 
M.D., U. Dub. ; L., L.M., K.Q.C P., Irel. ; L.R.C.S., 
Irel. Sir J. W. Byers, M.D., M.S., Q.U., Irel. ; 
M.R.C.S.,' Eng. ; L.M., K.Q.C.P., Irel. ; Hon. 
M.A.O., R.U., Irel. Professor H. Corby, M.D., 
M.S., Q.U., Irel. ; L.A.H., Dublin. 

Appointed by the Local Government Board for 
Ireland tinder Section 3 (i) (c). — Miss J. H. Kelly, 
Matron, Maternity Hospital, Belfast ; Mrs. M. 
Blunden, late Matron, Lying-in Hospital, Cork ; 
Miss A. Michie, Superintendent for Ireland, Queen 
Victoria's Jubilee Institute for Nurses ; Miss G. 
O'Carroll, Matron, Coombe Lying-in Hospital, 
Dublin. 

Section (3) (i) (c) of the Act provides for the 
appointment of four women (referred to in the Act 
as midwives' representatives), of whom three shall 
be appointed after consultation with recognised 
nursing associations in Ireland. 

After February, 1923, a midwives' representa- 
tive must be certified midwife under the Act, 
and previous to that date must hold an appro-sed 
certificate. 




4^1 THE vH^ \~~p 



WITH WHICH IS INCORPORATED 

^ MIHISXIKI WECO^ 

EDITED BY MRS BEDFORD FENWICK 



No. 1,591. 



SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 28, 1918. 



Vol. LXI. 



TWENTY^F IVE YE ARS' EDITOR. 

THE LONG, LONG TRAIL. 

There are milestones in the life of every 
profession, and soulful movement, where we 
like to call a halt, in order to take a survey 
of the past with the view of bracing our- 
selves to further efforts, and so go forward 
with increased courage and determination. 
We, therefore, invite our faithful supporters 
to look back with us, in imagination, to the 
year i8g^, for it marks the first milestone in 
the history of our own professional Journal. 
The British Journal of Nursing, the only 
one in the world which is published weekly, 
which is also owned, controlled and edited 
by trained Nurses, and has the right, there- 
fore, in this country, to claim to express 
professional opinion. Those of us who have 
created and sustained it may be proud of 
its status. 

There can be no organisation without 
articulation. Realizing this truth, we as- 
sumed the Editorship of The British Journal 
OF Nursing (then The Nursing Record) in 
1893, in order that trained Nurses might 
have a voice in the Press, without which 
no profession can be free and independent, 
or make any progress ; in fact, it is essential 
to its very life. In the year 1887 — as is 
well known to oiir readers — the minds and 
hearts of a small group of women were 
stirred to bring about much needed reforms. 
We aspired, we laboured, we fought, we 
founded the British Nurses Association — 
now a Royal Association Incorporated by 
Royal Charter, the objects of which are 
well known. 

The victory was gained only at the cost 
of tremendous and bitter opposition. This 
experience brought home to us forcibly the 
essential need of an organ owned and con- 
trolled by ourselves, if we were to succeed 
in the campaign of progress upon which we 



had entered. In this connection, we may 
perhaps, be pardoned for quoting the words 
of an eminent American Nurse and Author, 
who has made a study of nursing conditions 
in this country and others. Speaking of The 
British Journal of Nursing, she says : — 
" It rapidly came to be the foremost nursing 
journal in the world, and is the most 
complete record in existence of nursing 
affairs and progress in all countries. Fear- 
less, and of consistent unwavering policy, 
it has been the advance guard of nursing 
interests all along the line." 

In our survey of twenty-five years, we 
may reasonably claim that our journal has 
been a liberal educator ; it has imbued its 
supporters with professional enthusiasm and 
community of interests, which has carried 
the profession forward to a point of pro- 
gress which it could not have reached with- 
out it. While deploring the unfair boycott 
of our Registration programme by the Public 
Press (with very few^ exceptions), it has 
taught Nurses the full value of an organ of 
their own. . 

The British Journal of Nursing has ever 
been a consistent opponent to every form of 
Injustice. It has fought many battles suc- 
cessfully, alike for the individual and for the 
profession. Looking down a long vista of 
achievement, we see with gratification and 
pardonable pride something of what we 
owe to our journal, i. The establishment 
of our many organised, self-governing 
Nurses' Societies. 2. The founding of our 
National Council of Trained Nurses. 3. The 
founding of our International Council — that 
great Confraternity of Nurses of many 
countries. 4. The breaking down of stub- 
born prejudice, and the conversion of Par- 
liament and the Public to the principle of 
State Registration and all it stands for — 
higher and sounder education, the protection 
of the public and the profession from unfair 



i 



190 



Vibe »riti0b 3ournal of 'Ruraino. September 28, 1918 



exploitation, and the freedom of con- 
science. 5. The defeat of many plots for the 
destruction of our economic independence. 

In conclusion, we earnestly hope that our 
true and tried friends will lead others to 
understand and appreciate the benefits of a 
professional journal, which is free from com- 
mercial influence, because : — 

" I hold every man a debtor to his Profes- 
sion ; from the which as men of course do 
seek to receive countenance and profit, so 
ought they of duty to endeavour themselves 
by way of amends, to be a help and 
ornament thereunto." 



OUR PRIZE COMPETITION. 

HOW WOULD YOU RBCOQNI5B PERFORATION IN A 

CASE OF ENTERIC FEVERl? WHAT IMMEDIATE 

ACTION WOULD YOU TAKE AND HOW COULD YOU 

TEMPORARILY RELIEVE THE PATIENT? 

We have pleasure in awarding the prize this 
week to Miss M. Cullen, Queen Mary's Hos- 
pital, Stratford, E. 

PRIZE PAPER. 

Perforation of the intestine is the most dan- 
gerous of all the complications of enteric fever. 
It most frequently occurs during the third week 
or a httle later. 

The onset may be acute. First symptoms 
consist of sudden sharp pain in the abdomen, 
with tenderness, hiccough, shivering, and 
vomiting. 

The pain persists more or less continuously. 
The patient will lie with knees drawn up. The 
face becomes sunken, and is covered with cold, 
clammy perspiration. 

There may be a rise or fall in the tempera- 
ture, the pulse becoming rapid and feeble. 

The only treatment which affords any chance 
of recovery is immediate operation ; as soon as 
these symptoms are found to be present it 
must be reported at once to the doctor, who 
will decide whether the patient's condition will 
stand an operation. If so, then the abdomen 
is opened, and the hole in the intestine sewn up. 

What has really happened to cause the peri- 
tonitis is that a minute opening will be found 
in the floor of an ulcer, which has been left after 
the separation of a slough from a Peyer's 
patch, and through this opening the contents 
of the bowel escape into the abdominal cavity 
and set up this inflammation. 

If there Is any special reason that the surgeon 
will not operate, he will probably order opium 
to check the motions. 

The onset of perforation is not always so 
acute, and the symptoms rnay not be very 
marked, especially if the patient should be 



delirious or unconscious. It is therefore most 
necessary to observe the patient very closely, 
and to report immediately to the doctor any 
signs of abdominal pain and distension. 

Meantime, to allay the severe pain, hot 
fomentations may aftord some relief, with a 
few drops of laudanum sprinkled on. Or a 
piece of flannel wrung out of boiling water to 
which turpentine 3i is added. 

If there is much flatulence or distension, a 
long tube may be passed several inches up into 
the bowel, thus allowing the flatus to escape. 

Treat the patient as for shock if very col- 
lapsed ; raise the foot of the bed on blocks, 
apply hot bottles to the extremities. Give 
nothing by mouth. 

Some relief may be afi^orded by a firm pillow 
placed under the patient's knees, as he will lie 
with the knees drawn up. The nurse must try 
to make him as comfortable as possible, and 
keep perfectly quiet. 

He should not be moved more than absolutely 
necessary; if the bowels should act, a pad of 
absorbent wool placed on a mackintosh should 
be gently placed under him, and changed when 
needed. He must not be lifted on to a bedpan. 
Absolute rest must be given him. 



In a very good Paper, Miss JVI. D. Hunter 
makes several points. She says : Some 
abdominal alteration will be noticed. There 
may be distension, or occasionally there is 
retraction, but in either case there is rigidity 
and marked tenderness. On palpation the 
pain is nearly always found to be more notice- 
able over the right iliac region. There will be 
immobility of the abdominal muscles during 
respiration, so that the movements are entirely 
thoracic. . . . There is sometimes frequent 
vomiting; often there is resonance instead of 
liver dulness, owing to the free gas in the 
peritoneal cavity. 



Mrs. Gotlob writes : Diet must be carefully 
guarded during convalescence, as ulcers may 
still remain unhealed, and injudicious feeding 
may cause relapse. There are few conditions 
in which a patient's life depends so much upon 
the doctor and nurse. 

HONOURABLE MENTION. 

The following competitors receive honourable 
mention : — Miss M. D. Hunter, Mrs. J. Gotlob, 
Miss M. E. Thorpe, Miss C. L. Taplin, Miss 
R. E. S. Cox, Miss M. V. E. Davey, and Mrs. 
M. Farthing. 

QUESTION FOR NEXT WEEK. 

How does puerperal septicaemia arise? 
Describe the course and management of the 
disease. 



September 28, 191S ^|>e Brttt0b Soumal ot Tiurstna. 



191 



NURSING AND THE WAR. 



A friend writes : — " I have been staying in 



^Better late than never ! After four years of 
disorganisation, the Pall Mall Gazette inserts the 
following statement : — 

" There is, I hear, much need for inquiry into the 
management of many of the smaller auxiliary 
hospitals for discharged soldiers throughout the 
country. The increasing number of these places 
has necessaiily resulted in a serious shortage of 
really efiB.cient matrons, and women quite unfitted 
by experience or temperainent for such responsi- 
bility have been appointed. 

* * * 

" The very regrettable falling off in the number 
of voluntary workers in such institutions is also 
attributed to the treatment meted out to them by 
inefficient matrons. I have heard patients express 
the opinion that duly authorised inspectors could 
obtain much information if they sought for it in the 
proper quarters." 



To be fair, the Pall Mall Gazette should have 
made it quite clear that these " inefl&cient 
matrons " are usually untrained women, belonging 
to the " governing classes " or the wealthy- 
plutocracy. These women have been encouraged 
by the powers that be to dress themselves in fancy 
nursing dress, including pearls and pearl powder, 
and to assume charge of our sick and suffering 
men. Many of them of the " Dill-Binkie " class 
have never trained for an hour, and in their 
jealous self-suf&ciency, employ only semi-trained 
nurses or V.A.D.'s to trifle with the lives of our 
men. This Society nursing matter is one of the 
big scandals of the war, and if the Pall Mall Gazette 
can buck up the present Director-General of the 
Army Medical Department and get him to put his 
foot down and stop the abuse, it will have done 
the best bit of war work for our sick and wounded 
the Press could do. It must begin at the top and 
clear out the Society clique on the Joint War Com- 
mittee and its subservient ofi&cials " who will have 
it so." 

As a Tommie said to us the other day, " Any old 
Duchess is considered good enough to mess me 
about." 

Tommie knows the touch of a " Pucca Red 
Cape." Trust him. 



There is no doubt that, when working in a 
French Military Hospital, being a member of the 
Roman Catholic Church has its advantages, as the 
large majority of the patients, their friends, and 
the stafl are members of this Communion, and it is 
quite natural that such conditions make for 
harmony. Not that we have ever heard it 
reported that there has been any interference upon 
the part of the French authorities with the religion 
of British nurses. We do know, how*eve:, of some 
British nurses who have become Roman Catholics, 
and of more than one who has entered a religious 
community. 



with little B's godmother. Poor child ! I cried 
bitterly all the way to Paris leaving her there in 
a dirty, insanitary hole, without a breath of air, 
just by the Cathedrad. I turned up her dress and 
had a look at her ' undies.' My dear Editor ! 
that's enough to put anyone otT being the Bride of 
Christ. But she is so happy. She is praying hard 
for the souls of the prostitutes at Woclwich, among 
whom she worked. They have to be saved. She 
was permitted to spend a day with me, and to eat 
with us. It did her a world of good, poor child, 
to fill her lungs with pure air. What I regret is her 
wasted training. I told her Confessor so. He 
was of my opinion, but she chose her own 
Order. I wish I could believe she was doing 
good, dear, sweet little Saint, and I hope her 
prayers for me will make me a less discontented 
woman." 

THE SOB-SISTER. 

Mrs. Gertrude Atherton, the famous American 
authoress, has addressed a warning to her com- 
patriots of how the snivelling Hun \vi\\ appeal 
for pity when he no longer possesses power to 
outrage decenc}' and honour. 

Mrs. Atherton says the poor starving children 
of the Teutonic Empires will be used as a peace 
weapon, and American mothers will be appealed 
to in " Sweet reasonable voices " by German 
women in the States to listen to the wails of 
these darling ones — dying by inches — ^when peace 
■wdth a conquered country would save millions of 
them." 

Mrs. Atherton, who holds the Gerhicm people, 
their system of Government, their craft, greed and 
cruelty, in abhorrence, writes : " Beware of the 
sob-sister appeal to save at any cost the lives of 
German babies that they may grow to manhood 
and compel our male babies of to-day to shed 
their blood in the death struggle of the United 
States of America." 

There are many silly sob-sisters on this 
side, too. 



Also speaking with a woman of gentle birth and 
apparent personal refinement, we were shocked 
to hear her say : 

"It is a blessing in these days that we have 
got used to things. In the early days of the war 
bad news from the front and the sight of the 
wounded was almost more than one could endure. 
Nowadays we are all stoics." 

A sad day for England if that were true, but it 
is not. 



FRENCH FLAQ NURSING CORPS. 



Mrs. Bedford Fenwick will interview candidates 
for the F.F.N.C. on Wednesday, October 2nd, and 
on Saturday, October 5th, from 2.30 to 4 p.m., at 
431, Oxford Street (first floor), London, W. 



ig2 



Che IBrttieb 3ournaI of IRurstng. September 28, igis 



THE ODYSSEY OF FRANCESCA. 



Part II. 



{Co-ntinued from page 179.) 

The next stage of Francesca's journey was by 
car. She thought it sounded opulent to be 
touring through Greece in an automobile, even 
though not a Rolls-Royce but a very joggly " tin 
Lizzie." 

Their way led along the flat Crissian plain 
towards Amphissa. " Solid and heavy " had 
been the curses pronounced against whomsoever 
should till this soil by the Amphyctionic Council 
but now it looked fertile enough with vineyajrds, 
groves of cork oak and terraces of silver gnarled 
olives. 

Presently, they began to climb the hill where 
Delphi lay hidden from profane eyes in the fold 
of a steep terrace under the stark giey cliffs of 
Mount Parnassus. Francesca was hoping to 
wangle time enough to visit the temples but to her 
bitter disappointment they turned off to the left 
on a forked road just a few kilometres from 
Delphi. There were two or three things , about 
which she would have much liked to consult the 
Delphic Oracle. But the inexorable car went on 
panting up the steep hair-pin bends of the wonder- 
ful new road which in many places is blasted out 
of the solid rock with a sheer precipice below. 
Hundreds of peasant women and little girls of 
about seven years old and upwards were woiking 
away at the road. There ought to have been a 
glorious view from the top of the pass but clouds 
enveloped them with a clammy hand, on the 
summit an icy wind stung their faces, and as they 
went down the other side flakes of snow began to 
f^ll and Francesca began to freeze. 

Her destination this time was a raw mountain 
camp knee-deep in mud and slush. Francesca 
was conducted to an icy leaking tent where she 
found four other females all in bed. They 
explained that it was much too cold to do anything 
else, but it was only two o'clock, so Francesca 
decided to be superior to these minor discomforts 
and go for a walk to warm herself. The sleet and 
the rain and the closing-in of the short winter 
afternoon soon drove her in again. There were 
no seats in the tent so she cowered on her bed, 
covering herself with everything she possessed. 
But she maintained her self-respect by refusing to 
undress. Those other depraved females had 
undressed altogether and got into their pyjamas, 
plus everything else they had with them. 

The next day passed, and the next, and the 
next, and the mud and the snow were churned up 
ankle deep inside the tent. The cold grew colder, 
and the snow snew without stopping. Each 
morning they got up hurriedly, took it in turns to 
wash at the one tin basin, flew to breakfast and 
tore back to bed, got up reluctantly for lunch and 
returned triumphantly to bed. Got up to dinner 
and then retired finally for the night. 

Habits grew primitive. The lady with the pink 



nose couldn't powder it any more, having dropped 
the box of powder into the mud on the floor of the 
tent, and the other with the lovely bronze hair 
bundled it up anyhow into a sort of penny bun. 
Francesca had lost her pocket mirror and couldn't 
see to do her hair at all, but being short it didu't 
much matter. Such big emotions as love or war 
seemed quite unimportant beside the thing that 
really mattered, such as getting one's hot-water 
bottle filled, or losing one's turn at the basin. I j 
Francesca had lost all hope of ever going on, ' 
and had almost settled down to spend the winter 
tnere, when one morning, when they ware still 
ir> bed, the Matron came in waving her permission 
to proceed. Francesca got up hastily while the 
other females cursed their luck at her getting c£E 
before them, but they were west and she was 
eastward bound. She fastened up her boots 
oomehow with stiff, shivering fingers, threw her 
things into the kitbag, bid goodbye to the unhappy 
occupants of the tent, got into an ambularce, and 
was trundled away to a statior>. It was a glorious 
morning ; it had stopped snowdrg and the sun 
came out in greeting lor the first time in many 
days. Francesca's spirits won+ up with a bound. 
The train did not start for several houis, as 
General Sarrail had announced nis intention of 
travf Uing oy it ; but at last the great man appeared 
accompanied by his successor, Generai Guillemat. 
The train presently began to climb, and they 
crept slowly up the mountain in front of them 
till they reached the top of the Pass of Thermo- 
pylae, the plain laid out like a contour map far 
below their feet. Soon darkness came on and 
Francesca rolled herself in a rug and was about 
to compose herself to slumber when a.n officer 
from the next carriage — ^wi^-h whom she had made 
friends — marched in triumphantly, bearing a 
huge cnarcoal brazier. " Its getting frightfully 
cold," quoth he, " so I have wangled this for you 
for tne night." 

He deposited it on the floor and went away, 
and why Francesca wasn't burnt to death or 
sufiocated by charcoal fumes, she never knew. 
The train swayed from side to side, and every now 
and then some burning embers escaped from the 
brazier's perforated sides and she had to jump up 
and stamp them out. As the brazier burnt down, 
she got very cold and kept lifting up one foot and 
then the other to thaw it by sitting on it for a 
while. She dozed off towards morning ; and, 
just as the grey light was beginning to struggle in, 
the train stopped and she was wakened by her 
friend putting his head in at the window and 
saying : " Well, we have arrived in this heaverly 
spot." It was Sjilonika at last. 

Francesca's first impression of Salonika was a 
rain-blurred sky, a misty grey sea, ^an icy wind 
that nearly cut one in naif, noisy trams and 
streets, and, because it was Christmas Eve, 
everyone was rnshing about buying presents 
at the little temporary booths that have been set 
up in Salonika since " The Great Fire " burnt^out 
the centre of the beautiful eastern city. 
(To he continued.) 



September 28, 1918 ^foe Btttl^b Joumal of IRutettio. 



193 



UNITY OF EFFORT. 



ANOTHER LESSON FROM THE U.S.A. 

The extremely interesting and historic picture 
which we publish on this page, is that of the 
members of the Nursing Committee of the General 
Medical Board of the Council of National Defence 
in the United States of America, from which it 
will be seen that the foremost women in the 
nursing world in America have been commissioned 
to advise and act for the Council of National 
Defence in relation to nursing matters. We 
recently drew attention to the formation of this 
Committee, and this picture of its personnel 
emphasises its representative character most 
emphatically. 



Organization for Public Health^ Nursing ; T Miss 
Hannah J. Patterson, Resident Director Woman's 
Committee, Council of National Defence ; and 
Miss Pearl H. Braithwaite, Assistant Secretaxy 
of Committee. 

Third row, left to right. — Colonel John M. T. 
Finney, Chief Consultant in Surgery, American 
Expeditionary Forces in France ; Colonel William 
H. Welch, Surgeon General's Of&ce ; Colonel 
William J. Mayo, Chairman Surgical Advisory 
Board, Surgeon General's Office ; Brigadier- 
General Robert E. Noble, Chief of Hospital 
Division, Surgeon General's Office ; Lieutenant- 
Colonel Robert L. Dickinson, Medical Adviser, 
Operations Division, General Staff ; and Dr. 
Franklin Martin, Member of Advisory Com- 
mission, Council of National Defence, and Chair- 
man of Council General Medical| Board. 




NURSINQ COMMITTEE OF THE QENERAL MEDICAL BOARD OF THE COUNCIL OF NATIONAL DEFENCE 
(at recent Conference with CoL J. M. T. Finney in Washinsrton). 



An Interdependent Service for the Sick 
IN National Defence. 

Lower row, left to right. — Miss S. Lillian Clayton, 
Philadelphia, Pa., President National League for 
Nursing Education ; Miss Annie W. Goodrich, 
Inspector-General of Nursing Service in United 
States and France and Dean of the Army School 
of Nursing ; Miss Mary Beard, Boston, Mass., 
President National Organization for Pub.'ic Health 
Nursing ; Miss M. Adelaide Nutting, Chairman 
of Committee, Professor of Nursing and Health, 
Teachers' College, Columbia University, New York 
City • Mrs. John H. Higbee, Superintend